In this paper, I examine the degree of local participation in benefit-sharing mechanisms in the case of the Juma SustainableDevelopmentReserve in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, and assess how local participation – or lack of it – affects the outcomes, particularly with regard to equity. The analysis seeks to address the gap between theory and practice by considering the main concerns regarding equitable benefit sharing for REDD+, namely, the types of benefits to be distributed, eligible beneficiaries, the structure of benefits, and mechanisms for distributing them, and by identifying the possible negative and positive effects of benefit-sharing mechanisms. In doing so, my aim is to contribute to the more effective design and implementation of benefit-sharing mechanisms and to expand debate on the topic. The main research question of this paper is: How important is local participation for achieving equity in benefit-sharing mechanisms for REDD+?
environmental, spatial, cultural, social and economic dimensions and to validate a research methodology in the context of the SustainableDevelopment Reserves. The main reason to the development of this research is the necessity of establishing sustainable indicators to comprehend the reasons behind populational dislocation in communities located in SustainableDevelopment Reserves, considering the need of guided actions to a more sustainabledevelopment of these populations. The methodological research proposed is “qualitative, longitudinal and ecological study”, deploying techniques of straight observation, and applying semi-structured questionnaires between the years of 2009, 2010, 2013, 2014, and 2018. The indicators and the methodology were applied in two riverine communities in the SustainableDevelopmentReserve of Tupé, located in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. This particular methodology can be used to identify belonging sings, population dislocations reasons, critical point solution, and elaboration of public policies. Allows to partially analyze the sustainable indicators within a certain period or the evolving of the sustainable index throughout the time. The given methodology has showed that, during the study period, an emptying of housing units occurred in the order of 23,5% in São João Community, on the other hand, there was an increasing of 24% in Agrovila Community. The work and income conditions, and also the deterioration of staying conditions has an impact on the desire of populational dislocation. However, the sociocultural bonds, psychosocial connection, and historical biographies linked to the place (belonging sings), have an important role in the individual decision of leaving or staying.
Abstract: The delay of the establishment of a RDS do Tupé Management Plan, as well as other Protected Areas (PAs) of Sustainable Use, is an obstacle to legalization of economic activities involving the use of land in these territories. It causes the inability of resident populations to provide self-management of units and consequently it ends up engaging in irregular activities, which in some cases are predatory and go against the conservation principles of PAs of Sustainable Use. The hypothesis for an alternative land use to provide self-sufficiency of the societies residing in Sustainable Use PAs is an institution of a network of Solidary and Sustainable Economic Enterprises (SESS), using the mechanisms derived from the Solidarity Economy, the Environmental Economy and Environmental Education. A multi-method approach was used in which it was possible to characterize, in the first way, the enterprises and identify a possible needed of studies for a viability of the EESS network institute in the Livramento community.
PrОЯіously unsОttlОН proЛlОm МonstіtuОnt. Even if the sustainabilitв’s attainment is a research topic field for academia and urban planners and managers and, as well, an ambitious goal for any resource administrator, yet there is no precise way of defining and measuring it . Herewith, multicriteriality can be considered as one of the form of displaying the uncertainty of the development conditions and complex sвstems functioning (purposes’ uncertainty). Another feature is the diversity of ratings by the criteria. To solve the problem of ECS it is necessary to the most properly recognize a situation of management decision making . Herewith, information describing the knowledge about the system and the situation is formulated the most adequately by using fuzzy concepts, fuzzy definitions and fuzzy logic.
Os setores da Nicarágua que mais contribuem para as emissões de gases do efeito estufa são a agricultura, produção de energia e as mudanças nas terras de florestas. Conforme a United States Agency International Development (USAID, 2016) foi o setor de energia que contribuiu para a maior parte do crescimento das emissões de gases do efeito estufa entre os anos de 1990 a 2011. As emissões do setor de energia cresceram 11% durante esse período. Este setor contribuiu com 65% do aumento total, enquanto a maior parte do crescimento restante, cerca de 33%, veio do setor agrícola. Quase todas as emissões surgiram também da perda de cobertura de árvores. No ano de 2010, a Nicarágua lançou uma Estratégia Nacional e Plano de Ação sobre Meio Ambiente e Clima Mudança, e além disso, desenvolveu planos, programas e políticas setoriais, incluindo o Programa Nacional de Eletrificação Sustentável e Energia Renovável, que visa reduzir a pobreza por promover o acesso a serviços elétricos eficientes e sustentáveis, diversificar o mix de energia e mitigar a adaptação à mudanças climáticas.
These deficiencies in access to adequate water and sanitation involve problems of coverage, continuity, quantity, quality, and cost of the services, not to mention community time and effort spent in coping with these problems. Obviously, low-income families with the least access to these services) tend to use little water; they are also less likely to practice good hygiene and suffer from a higher incidence of diseases linked with deficient water and sanitation. For example, a PAHO study currently in progress in Nicaragua shows that cases of diarrhea in children aged 0 to 5 decline with access to household connections per inhabitant; cases in the intermediate quintiles of per capita consumption also present variations. Drinking water and sanitation services are major tools for health; and health, in turn, is one of the essential capabilities underlying sustainable human development. Hence the correlation observed in Figure 2, between the Human Development Index (HDI) and the levels of water and sanitation coverage in the countries of the Region. Such evidence should help spur efforts—by society, governments, and the international financial and technical cooperation agencies—to raise coverage levels while meeting the criteria for quality.
Some indicators prove to be more important than others, depending on the importance of the criterion verified, as well as the availability and quality of verification data. In the development of the methodology, however, the exact relative importance of each indicator is not taken into account. In subsequent research, the indicators should be compared and assigned a ‘weight’. Assigning such weights can be done based on policy objectives and scientific insights, but should also take into account stakeholders views. In addition, to improve the practical value of the methodology, at least one additional indicator should be considered, i.e., proximity to infrastructure. For oil palm cultivation, the access to infrastructure is crucial since the fresh fruit bunches should be processed in oil palm refineries within 24 hours post-harvesting to retain good quality. Although new infrastructure can be developed, this may not be economically feasible depending on the size of the plantation. In addition, the development of new infrastructure in a previously closed area also leads to increased encroachment .
Furthermore, in the 1990s a new phase of capitalist accumulation began in the Amazon. It arose “from a new type of relationship between agriculture and industry and the global economy, export-orientated, with transnational companies playing a significant role” (RIVERO; COONEY, 2011, p. 320). In addition to this, several government initia- tives related to the notion of sustainabledevelopment were marred by “dubious motives, objectives and applications; conflicts in the methodological guidelines and institutional and federal conflicts” (COSTA, 2008, p. 248). The Sustainable Amazon Plan (PAS) and the Legal Amazon Ecological-Economic Macrozoning (MacroZEE) are two examples of this, as can be seen in the following section.
The key of HeXie coupling is aiming to solve the problem that how to make the two legs congruously and orderly to walk with steadiness and sound speed. Manager should organically combine the two principles to achieve better performance. According to the previous discussion, it is clear that sustainabledevelopment is a complex system combining with series of closely connected and interdependent factors. Environmental protection, economic growth and society factors are main factors for the composure of the complex system. This article builds up “dual-principles” mechanism integrated government management with enterprises‟ subjective initiative for environmental and economic sustainabledevelopment.
Both economic growth and sustainabledevelopment are two of the goals that people pursue in the activities they carry out. As shown in the previous set, a sustained economic growth cannot be achieved without leading inevitably to environmental disturbances and problems for future generations that are created by our present actions. Therefore, it’s necessary to find that point of balance, so that economic growth doesn’t become harmful or doesn’t generate unwanted effects, nor for current or future generation.
Plants and animals disappear, the land turns into desert, people get sick of skin diseases, respiratory diseases, cancers. In developing countries pollution kill daily over 25,000 people, in the 90s. It's curious how society is becoming more developed, but at the same time, more sick, although it has a so vast stock of knowledge. In recent years this knowledge that we have mentioned above, combined with technology are increasingly directed more towards remedying environmental problems. However it seems that the efforts are not enough. So, when all these modern realities were still in their early stage, the scientific community has pulled the alarm bells which were their first expressed in terminology, and then through practical plans which we generic call today sustainabledevelopment.
Energy is the dominant factor that determines the countrв’s аelfare and influences all activity segments of society. To achieve continuous and sustainable economic development, energy sources must be adequate and safe, reasonably priced and ensure economic competitiveness of the country. This article will examine the essence of energy policy, stages of development and perspective directions for Moldova, oriented towards joining the European Union and cooperation with the CIS countries.
The Model was consolidated and expanded within another project ran by B.A.D. in conjunction with IFLA (2018b), under IAP - the Project Libraries for Development and the UN 2030 Agenda (April- July 2018). In order to accelerate library and information professionals’ involvement in the systematic process of evaluating and promoting libraries’ contribution to SGDs, a step-by-step Guide for Libraries (Pinto & Ochôa, 2018b) was built on this Model and made available through B.A.D.’s website.
Finally the article points out the limits of contribution of the program for developing forests in the light of a local and regional development effort. The assumption adopted is that the economic, social, environmental, cultural and governmental agents – regardless of the production arrangement in which they are involved – have a shared responsibility in the effort of local development, which, in the end, reverts in benefit for themselves and the community where they are located. The recognition of the shared role may create a strategic intent capable of making the partnership in the program become a true vector of development. Furthermore, the connection of the program with other initiatives in the region will probably generate potentially more positive returns and reduce the ceticism over the program’s potential to generate development.
The IGP - “Algarve’s citrus fruit” has been analyzed, since it is a differentiation tool for the citrus fruit in this region, hence with a lot of interest for the valuation of the same in an environment where there is an increasing competition. It is known that a differentiation of this type must be associated to the notoriousness and positive reputation of the region’s products with the production social-technical restrictions, as well as to the region’s soil and climate conditions. It is also worth to say that a product having an IGP (Protected Geographic Indication) should meet the conditions stated in the specifications and that any IGP should be considered as an important trump for development
Wirsenius et al. 2010; Machovina et al. 2015). In the Amazon forest 70% of previously forested land was converted to livestock use, in form of pastures, being the highest rate of deforestation (Steinfeld et al., 2006), further increasing nutrient runoff, soil erosion and biodiversity loss (Turner et al. 2007; Lambin and Meyfroidt 2011). Livestock threatens directly biodiversity by destroying previous habitats, contributing to the loss of species accounted for 50 to 500 times greater than prior rates found in fossil records (Steinfeld et al., 2006). Indirectly through climate change and global warming by affecting through numerous changes in the distribution and abundance of species, leading to potential declines and extinctions of many (Pimm et al., 2014). It is also known that a meat-intensive diet commonly observed in developed countries leads to a higher degree of inequality in terms of environmental services usage (White, 2000). Besides livestock, other issues such as climate change and infrastructural development have their own share on biodiversity loss (Alkemade et al. 2013).
The objective of this article is to assess environmen- tal and economic equilibrium of agricultural holdings with diﬀ erent direction of production in the Podlaskie voivodeship. These entities have been diversiﬁ ed in recent years. żoods holdings applying modern tech- nologies developed alongside with small holdings us- ing traditional farming methods. The natural conditions of this region were mainly utilized for the development of holdings specializing in livestock production, and the specialization process is intensifying (Kołoszko- Chomentowska, 2Ńń3). On the other hand, this voivode- ship is characterized by speciﬁ c qualities resulting from the dominance of light soils, in which ecological haz- ards are manifested particularly strongly. In this situa- tion, pro-ecological, environment-friendly management methods are preferred (Ku and Jo czyk, 2ŃńŃ). Żor this reason, the selection of specialized agricultural holdings in the Podlaskie voivodeship for assessment of sustain- able developed was deemed justiﬁ ed.
As seen in the table, while maintaining the greenness and increasing the per capita green space in today’s over-crowded and polluted cities, vertical parks provide new spaces by taking the principles of sustainabledevelopment into account. The advantages of theses parks include: preserving the environment, minimizing possible environmental harms, maintaining human-nature relationship, using clean and new energies, using natural and recyclable energy sources, minimizing energy waste, providing a relaxed and dynamic space for citizens, etc. The construction of the parks is an effective step for the realization of the aims of sustainabledevelopment. Today’s over- crowded cities sometimes face injustice in the division of urban
Third, landscape ecology and planning is arguably well positioned to adopt a key role in the emerging susta- inability sciences (cf. Wu 2006, Wu 2008). However, innovative approaches are needed to realign landsca- pe planning theory and practice with the foundational concepts of sustainability science. Key contributions from sustainability science to landscape planning inclu- de approaches for considering and dealing with the dif- ferent magnitudes of scales (time, space, and function), multiple balances (dynamics), multiple actors (interests) and multiple failures (systemic faults) around sustai- nable development issues (Reitan 2005). Vice-versa, landscape ecology and planning contributes integrative approaches to coupled human-environment systems, provides theory and methods for studying spatial he- terogeneity, tools for scaling and uncertainty analysis, as well as metrics for quantifying sustainability (cf. e.g. Blaschke 2006, Naveh 2007, Wu 2006, Wu et al. 2006). In particular, the planning focus on landscapes and their cultural, natural, and political dimensions serves as a robust transdisciplinary medium to develop and assess strategic policy alternatives in support of transi- tions towards sustainabledevelopment.