Discussions involving earlychildhoodeducation - the first stage of basic education - have become increasingly constant and intense in recent times. Among the various investments around this stage of education we find the new National Education Plan (PNE/2014-2024), with strategies that contemplate the continued formation of teachers who are working in the classrooms of earlychildhoodeducation. This study aims to present a reflection about the formation of teachers of earlychildhoodeducation and its relationship with the new National Plan of Education, aiming to demonstrate the importance of the formation process as an indispensable tool to reach the proposed goal for earlychildhoodeducation in the PNE.
This study was conducted within a broader research project, "Children's right to participate in earlychildhoodeducation: From rights to empirical evidence". The project was approved by the National Data Protection Commission and the Institutional Review Board at ISCTE-IUL. Recruitment and data collection were conducted during the 2015/2016 and 2016/2017 school years (i.e., approximately half during the ﬁrst year, and the other half during the second). All ECE settings were randomly selected from existing public databases. In total, 170 ECE settings (i.e., school boards) of the metropolitan area of Lisbon were contacted, trying to assure representativeness of the diﬀerent ECE types of settings in Portugal (Direção-Geral de Estatísticas da Educação e Ciência, 2019). A response rate of 19.4% was achieved, resulting in meetings with 33 ECE settings (i.e., 11 public, 13 private for-proﬁt, and 9 private non-pro ﬁt) to provide information about project aims and procedures. From these, we obtained a participation rate of 72.7%, resulting in data collection in 58 ECE classrooms from 24 ECE settings. In each classroom, ECE teachers and the parents of all child participants signed informed consent forms. All participating children provided verbal assent.
ever played and, when they did, they reproduced only standardized and impoverished aspects. This type of play concerned the teachers and the school as the children did not know how to organize themselves. They were reluctant to form lines or circles and listen to the explanations of the activities which, consequently, almost always turned the play into confu- sion. Their motor difficulties were another important observation point during this stage; the children had problems in relation to fundamental basic movements such as walking, running, skipping and jumping, among others. It was found that 70% of the children fell over at least once dur- ing classes, and the teachers, distressed and concerned about complaints from parents when the students hurt themselves in such “accidents”, therefore limited running and other movements during play. This frame- work was soon overcome, because as time passed with better manage- ment and activities more appropriate to the possibilities for realization by the children who, in this context, had greater conditions and freedom to be more creative, and organize and lead their play. Forming lines and circles, discussing the rules for playing and organizing themselves were no longer problems for them, and the number of falls ceased to exist to the extent that it had before.
We found four different profiles of Portuguese ECE teachers’ ideas about children’s right to participate. Generally, these profiles reflect distinct elements of participatory interactions: teachers (i.e., Teachers’ Motivation), children (i.e., Children’s Benefits), and context (i.e., Context Dependent). A fourth profile focused on a combination of teacher and children categories (i.e., Teachers’ Conditioned Responsibility). This range of elements is consistent with the complexity of enacting children right to participate in ECE (Vieira, 2017). Nearly a third of ECE teachers participating in this study focused on Teachers’ Motivation, emphasizing the role of teachers’ motivation and responsibility in promoting children’s right to participate. Personal enjoyment and interest, together with goal-orientation, persistence, and planned efforts (e.g., Han & Yin, 2016; Robbins & Judge, 2008) towards the promotion of child participation may strengthen positive attitudes regarding children’s self- initiated actions and the adoption of participatory approaches by teachers. Previous research suggests teachers’ motivation and commitment to address children’s perspectives are important requirements to enable children’s participation (Johansson & Sandberg, 2010). Nevertheless, we should consider a different lens to discuss this focus on teacher’s motivation: we must acknowledge that these teachers may not see children’s participation as a key component of their professional mandate and overall mission but as an optional feature within teacher practices and, thus, dependent on teacher interests and commitment.
The Portuguese team participated in all the phases of the project, according to the initial plan. At the beginning of the project, the four academic members translated the materials needed for the Portu- guese participation. They participated in the organization of the train- ing seminars (Training Phase I), and actively participated in teachers’ training in Finland, Denmark, Romania, and Portugal. For this training phase, a video previously filmed in a Portuguese preschool was used (subtitles were included for the Early-Change project). In Portugal, the training followed the general guidelines of the Early-C project, the Por- tuguese video was completely analyzed and all the indicators were scored and discussed. Furthermore, trained observers supported this discussion. The educators’ maternal language was used. Another top- ic of the Training Phase I sessions was the presentation and discussion of the manual and the inventory form of Good practices. One example of a Good Practice was organized and provided to the educators by the team in Portuguese. Twenty-one Portuguese earlychildhood educa- tors (14 from Agrupamento de Escolas do Pinheiro and 7 from Agrupa- mento de Escolas de Valadares) participated in the training seminars. All preschool teachers were female and had a bachelor degree in pre- school education.
student’s information. It was made available via two versions: mobile (for parents and accessible anywhere) and web (school officials) (LIMANTO et al., 2017). Upon completing the analysis and system design phases, tests were conducted to measure the features’ efficacy and performance. Three testing methods were used to analyze the system: unit testing (conducted individually for each feature/process), integration testing (verified the accuracy of each feature) and User Acceptance Testing — UAT (LIMANTO et al., 2017). The UAT testing method was executed by administering questionnaires to teachers, counselors and parents. Surveys were distributed to all teachers and counselors, and simple random sampling was used to select parents for participation in the questionnaire process. The surveys were administered to evaluate the system’s efficacy and identify potential improvements. Two surveys were distributed, the first inquired about general functionalities and problems encountered by school personnel (teachers and counselors), and the second investigated the same aspects as the first survey but from a parental point of view. In all, most parents, teachers and counselors agreed that the system (or any system of the same caliber) would be beneficial to the communication between school (teachers) and home (parents/guardians), which in turn, would benefit the students’ overall development. After analyzing all test results, the researchers intended to further implement the system in a wider range of school grade levels and evaluate functionality a year after its implementation. The collaboration and coordination between school and family is necessary to address and manage learning barriers, thus ensuring that student knowledge is achieved in a constructive manner (GALASSI; AKOS, 2004). The system created proposed to foster this partnership. Figure 2 shows a screenshot of a student’s counseling history available through the system.
The present work is focused on the presentation of some results of a project developed about the social representations of children on animal welfare and animal rights (e.g., cultural demonstrations with animals, exhibition of animals in captivity, production and consumption of products of animal origin, treatment of pets and farm animals). They are preliminary results within the scope of a broader project "ANIMALIS - Animal welfare in pre-service kindergarten and primary school teachers' education. Using the Sociology of Childhood, Childhood Pedagogy, Environmental Education and Human-animal Studies, the present work aims to analyse children´s discourses associated with factors which can limit animal welfare and their rights and also to identify possibilities of educational intervention compatible with the inclusion of animals and their rights in pedagogical practices. These discourses started from the analysis and discussion of situations involving different animal uses present in the book of Patrick George “Animal Rescue” published by 2015. The methodological approach is based on a qualitative matrix with the adoption of data collection and analysis methodologies congruent with the object under study and with the epistemological assumptions of the sociological research with children: ethnographic observation, image collection, analysis of drawings, documentary analysis and focused discussion groups (book as an inducer of the discussion). The selection obeyed the criteria of identification of specificity, interest and feasibility of the research. The participants were four groups of children, between 2 and 5 years old, from three Kindergarten rooms (25 children each room) and one nursery room (12 children) of a private socio-educational organization in the city of Lisbon. The situations designed around animals, promoted by four educators with extensive professional experience, allowed to identify certain practices developed with animals (i) as problematic for children (e.g. abandonment and neglect of animals, sale of animals in stores, use of animal fur to make clothing and footwear) and (ii) as necessary (e.g., the need to invest more in promoting animal and nature rights, to reflect on the role of pets in their lives, and to develop projects to learn more about particular animals or situations involving them). The conflict between individual and group visions is a theme to be highlighted from the analysis of data as well as the fact that children in the nursery room reveal more blurred boundaries between the human and non-human worlds.
opportunities to participate and their subjective well-being (Sandseter & Seland, 2016), suggesting, for instance, positive associations between children’s experience of being autonomous and being able to use the ECE classroom areas whenever they want, and liking the centre and being happier there. Three other studies analysed child outcomes in the context of case studies. One study investigated associations between teachers’ practices and children’s sense of belonging and autonomy (Freitas Luís et al., 2015), suggesting that children’s autonomy and sense of belonging increase when participation is promoted. Another study described multiple benefits of child participation, following the implementation of a professional development intervention, not only for children (e.g., increased autonomy, communication, persistence in problem solving, and self-care skills) but also for teachers (e.g., increased sensitivity and stimulation of learning
Educational practice in the early years has been greatly influenced by a Piagetian theory of development where development is seen as regulating learning. The child’s opportunities to act and explore within a rich environment in order to develop a personal understanding of the world is the central focus of such practices. Teachers do not primarily have a teaching role, but they follow and observe children’s activity and monitor their development. Some earlychildhoodeducation experts have been pointing out the insufficiency of this theoretical foundation for sound practice ( Kessler, 1991; Smith, 1993). Some ECE curricula are in a sense very limited as they do not identify a clear direction for learning and education.
The writing of this work derived from studies conducted in the group about ge- ometry, quantities and measures, and the discussions about how this subject could be approached with children. The teachers stressed that intentionally approaching mathematics did not occur very often in the earlychildhood institutions they had worked for, and, due to their participation in the study group, they were creating a few actions involving geometry. Another discussion that emerged in the group was the feeling that geometry is always and almost exclusively related to its approach with multi-base blocks and/or their naming. Teachers Karina and Gislaine said they were interested in using games and problem solving more effectively to pro- mote mathematics teaching and learning with their classes. Therefore, we decided to elaborate three different didactic propositions based on the Meli-Melo puzzle, which was originally created as a toy consisting of 5 pieces: 3 isosceles rectangle triangles; 1 square; and 1 rectangle trapezoid (SMOLE; DINIZ; CANDIDO, 2003).
The study was adequate to perform the assessment of risk family of children in earlychildhoodeducation, resulting in the classification of the familial risk. This result supported the construction of proposed educational workshops for families, teachers and school staff, as a space for the theming and content generation and collective actions aimed at integrating health school. The proposal for the creation of the Parent’s School comes precisely to pose as a support for families to obtain information about various topics and is closer to the school, thus allowing a more open dialogue and dynamic. In the workshops, several issues may be addressed in order to construct a concept of health promotion and disease prevention in the family and at school.
Abstract. This research presents the results of a study whose theme was the reading in earlychildhoodeducation, since the contact of children with some objects that may lead them to reading can bring contributions to the reader's formation. Thus, issue of the investigation was: to identify how the New School Magazine (RNE) in the period of 2010-2014 discussed the reading in earlychildhoodeducation? We aimed also: to reflect on reading in earlychildhoodeducation and collect in editions of RNE's the treatment that was given to the theme. The methodology was inspired by the state of the art, for we carried on the survey in the magazine just the way the subject was discussed with further analysis of data. Fifty copies were analyzed and, considering that this magazine is distributed throughout the national territory and is easily accessible by teachers, it was noticed that nine articles on the subject were published. The results showed that encouraging kids to read is really important, however, the magazine is neglectful on this theme.
Abstract: Several authors who have been reflecting on the environmental crisis understand that this would be the result of a civilization crisis, a consequence of a worldview that promotes current patterns of relationship between society and society, society and nature. Being part of the coping process of this crisis, the environmental education has been increasingly present in schools and other spaces, since the educational process is presented as one of the possibilities to reverse the current degradation framework installed. Considering the importance of including the construction of values in education in general and the difficulties to achieve that evaluative work by the teacher this question, in the case of environmental education, presents itself as an important theme for the continuing education of teachers and managers of EarlyChildhoodEducation, which will be presented and discussed in this paper.
The present article is a research clipping whose general objective was to understand how the organizational structure of a public school made possible the work with students with disabilities for the realization of the truly inclusive education proposal. In this work we discuss the collaboration/partnership in a perspective that articulates the different segments of professionals of the school in the interlocution with the family, perspective that seeks to potentiate the learning of a student’s with disabilities. We present an experience developed with a student of EarlyChildhoodeducation, in the context of a municipal school in the interior of the state of São Paulo, where the vice-director/researcher presents collaborative processes developed between teacher regent, a teacher of Specialized Educational Assistance (AEE) and an educational agent, subjects who were responsible for preparing and developing projects, activities and teaching materials for the referred student. The data produced for this work are: Teacher's Diary, student’s Individual Development Plan (PDI), evaluation record of the student’s mother, daily register of the vice-director and the reflective register of the teachers and educational agent about their experiences with the student with disabilities. The production of the data was analyzed from the indexing paradigm. Collaboration/partnership was made possible through the constitution of a group of individuals who support each other, experienced joint actions and had feelings of productive belonging, around the common goal of guaranteeing student’s learning. The participation of the family was paramount to the achievement of the objectives proposed with the student with disabilities.
In this example the teacher employs the magic of the pretend game in order to create together a reality that both teacher and child can share in freedom. Young children also love to play with the rules of their caregivers by transgressing them for fun (Corsaro, 2010; Singer & De Haan, 2007b). For example, children may clap loudly and scream, look to see whether the teacher has seen, and then laugh even louder if the teacher has not noticed; or children may secretly go outside, which is forbidden, and look to ind out whether the teacher has seen. hese studies suggest that 2- and 3-year-olds all playfully explore the boundaries of their world — the boundaries their parents have drawn. hrough humor, rituals, and a playful ap- proach caretakers or teachers and young children bridge the great diference in power that exists between them.
Parents and teachers can engage in a series of activities that help develop literacy. Development of literacy in the earliest phases begins at home, with the parents interacting with their children through conversation, songs, games, and rhymes. Play is also very important in the overall development of children. It is critical for young children to have fun and enjoy playing games, reading books, and singing songs.
To this end, we propose that, in addition to changes in the initial education of children’s pre-school teachers and health professionals working in the paediatric area, training be given to other people working in these areas. At the health centre/family unit level, there should be appointments that include, in addition to the child, parents/pre-school teachers. There should also be parents’ meetings that address the most important issues for children’s balanced development, where any doubts that parents/pre-school teachers have can be clarified. This kind of support should begin as soon as the mother knows she is pregnant.
In the last decade with the reforms required by the Bologna process the role of practicum in pre- service teacher education has been emphasized, making it a central component of European curricula. It has been observed over the years that this dimension has been mainly approached in terms of organization and supervision processes and cannot be found many studies that focus effectively on what it represents for the actors and its contributions for professional development. This study aims to understand the practicum at pre-service earlychildhood teacher education. The objectives of the study are: (i) to identify the role of the practicum for professional learning and development of earlychildhoodteachers; (ii) to know the difficulties and critical factors experienced by student teachers at practicum. The methodology used is the mix-method research and data was collected through questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The participants are earlychildhoodteachers that have graduated in the last three years from different Portuguese Higher Education Institutions. The qualitative data was analyzed through content analyze and descriptive statistic was used to analyze the quantitative data. To ensure confidentiality no information is disclosed without participant’s consent and the interviews were transcribed. The results confirm the centrality of practicum for earlychildhoodteachers’ professional development. The construction of professional knowledge emerges as one of the main contributions of practicum. Another contribution is the student teachers’ awareness of their own strengths and weaknesses in terms of theoretical and practical knowledge. The data also show that the relationships with the educational context and with the different practicum actors (supervisors, cooperating teachers) has a supportive role for student teachers’ success. The study points out several difficulties experienced by the student teachers, namely: lack of time to respond to all the academic tasks; the interconnection theory practice; the development of reflection and research skills.