The objective of this study was to investigate the negative and positive effect of cable television, importance of educated women, major purpose of viewing cable television and relationship between level of education of women and level of watching of cable television. Data was collected through a structured questioner from the educated women of district Swat. For presentation of data, frequency distribution was used and significance of the relationship was tested by Chai square test. The analysis showed that there is significant relationship between level of education of women and the level of watching cable television. Further major purpose of watching cable television was entertainment. The researcher suggested that, in making policy, PEMRA should keep in view the negative and positive impact of cable television, Also highly educated women were focus by PEMRA in their policies.
Voices within the Degenerating media frame speak out against television sex education. According to them, television is unfit to carry out sex education. Media are described as a folk devil that plays a harmful role in the sexual socialisation of children and young people. Sex education is the responsibility of parents and suitable authorities. This frame is characterised by key terms such as ‘moral decay’, ‘tasteless’ and ‘false pretences’. This frame contains personal expressions of fear for the consequences of television sex education. The most often mentioned actors are worried parents and members of the audience. This frame lacks interest in the shows’ producers, spokespersons or hosts, or in untroubled parents and experts. In the Open en Bloot debate, this frame occurs in letters-to-the-editor in which viewers describe the show as uncivilised filthiness while expressing a fear of moral decay. Fear for the demoralising consequences is frequently expressed. One audience member claims that “this educational content is venom” (Donners, 1974, Mar. 3), while another author complains about “the filth they use to make children unhappy”. He or she also asks “Do they really have to destroy youth?” (Janssen, 1974, Feb. 23). Not only do the Open en Bloot reactions articulate concerns, they also often express a degrading tone. For example, one reviewer describes that he “cannot escape the impression that the educators enjoy to play, under the guise of salvation of mankind, with dirty words and nakedness” (Van Herwen, 1974, Feb 22) and one letter-to-the- editor mentions: “For me it is incomprehensible how a person with brains and a normal emotional life, civilised with normal moral values, can appreciate Open en Bloot .” (Hoogstraten, 1974, Jan. 30). There are only seven Spuiten en Slikken reactions (8%) displaying the Degenerating media frame. These reactions address the show as a source of moral decay. For example, one letter-to-the-editor blames broadcasting organisation BNN for “exceeding all bounds of decency” (Zilvers, 2005, Nov. 22).
According to Mc Quail (1992: 144-5), mass media can contribute to diversity in three different ways. Firstly, reflecting the differences of a society; secondly, facilitating the access of different points of view; and, finally, offering a wide spectrum for the choice of content. In the third sense, diversity means heterogeneity of content and becomes a goal in itself for public service broadcasting, since it is a synonymous of pluralism. For public broadcasters, diversity is a normative criterion of quality, as it allows serving the audience, pursuing the goal of pluralism. Therefore they must offer a multi-faceted programming that combines different purposes (information, education and entertainment), as well as a wide range of topics, forms, dramatic modes and genres.
A young white Portuguese-speaking woman classified the sample elements blinded to the reliability check. To ensure reliability, 20% of the advertisements were classified by a trained male coder of similar background and education to the first coder, as is usual in these investigations . This coder classified commercials independently and blinded to the first classification. Reliability was assesed as the percentage of agreement between the two coders . There was complete agreement (100%) on the central character of each advertisement and on central character gender (for this test all advertisements were watched and classified independently by the two coders). The average percentage of agreement among coders was 98% for "mode of presentation", 92% for "credibility", 92% for "role", 94% for "location", 90% for "age", 96% for "argument", 90% for "reward type", 96% for "product type", 96% for “background", and 98% for "end comment", making a mean of 94%. Differences between coders in the coding of commercials were solved by further discussion. This method has been utilized by nearly other investigations in this field . Results
Thus the agenda setting by channel owners on program content to manoeuvre the political, economic or social situations only for their quick profits is highly questionable. Even the intentions of the product advertisers from mega business sectors in dictating terms about the program content is intolerable as it amounts to vested interests as against the national interest or mass support. The summary of the game is that Indian TV houses lack professionalism of running a television media which should be as per books and principles laid down by the forefathers about the primary purposes and objectives of media functioning. This non- professional approach could have also stemmed from lack of proper training and media education among the practitioners. Much of quacks entering the field have made television industry heavily losing on credibility steadily day by day. Just because the Indian land is vast and so to increase access and reach, mere proliferation of channels or boost in audio-visual content cannot guarantee any sort of healthy social engineering or contribution to the economic growth of the nation.
successful than average. It's almost a rule that izgorevaju those environments seen as competent and effective (Pšeničný, 2010). Those in the first place raise the expectations of others and constantly running race with itself. Also those who burn and burn, well suited to the description of those with strong internal motivation, which is actually enforced motivation. Such people are in relation to other more durable and more busy. This motivation is shaped primarily influenced by education. It is assumed that unstable self-image, which depends on the self-evaluation, which is caused by the realization, probably the essential cause of burnout. Demanding parents of a child determined by a rule that is good only when it meets the needs of others, not their own. So, parents love their condition. If the child is to rule built into their inner motivation, which leads to a split identity, the true self - Real self, true self, which is prezahtevan and false - false self, which in itself does not require anything but the food compliments of others whose needs required to meet. Thus formed less self-image, dependent on the self-evaluation which is dependent on accomplishments, why inner compulsion water much work. Man that picture of yourself positively evaluated only when sufficient external gain recognition for their results. If it does, it begins to over-try, and then performs phase workout, to win over enough praise and to maintain a positive image of self-evaluation. Looking at the reasons that led to burnout due to overwork, classified four forced internal motivation (Pšeničný, 2010):
However, it is important to highlight, as observed by Ericson (1996), that law and media also share common points: 1 – in both the question of morality is present; 2 – the two worlds are governed by rules, which define how and where something will happen; 3 – in both a hierarchy is respected that defines the status, quality and position of individuals and ideas. In summary, both the media and justice ensure a space of reproduction for the existing morality. In the two worlds there is also a commitment to objectivity. In the case of the media, especially when the printed press is involved, the credibility of the organization is directly related to its commitment to impartiality. Meanwhile, law is naturally associated with the idea of neutrality, (Ericson, 1996). However, while journalists build their objectivity on daily life, the operators of the legal system do so through codes and through technical instruments acquired through an academic education, in other words, through the socialization of a series of values typical of the function 2 .
Who are the faithful to flow? Before entering the specifics, it is useful to, first, take note of the daily time devoted to watch TV, and then to check the audience profile of the four national channels. The time devoted by the Portuguese to television, amounted to 4:21 in the week Feb 28 - Mar 06. Considering only the TV audience, in the same period each viewer dedicated in average 5:24 to television viewing. In Table 3, I put side by side the targets dimensions and their adhesion to each channel. The targets are those defined by the television industry and ratings companies. “Classes” refer to socio-demographic characteristics of the households, taking in account the ownership and type of the house, education level and income. Numbers in bold show percentages larger than the target profile in the universe; numbers highlighted in grey are 50 percent or more above the target in the universe. Of the four channels, only RTP2 has a balanced profile in relation with the targets in the audience. Commercial broadcast channels, either public or private (RTP1, SIC and TVI), have similar audiences by targets: Class D, women, people aged fifty-five or more. Audience with access to cable have a lower adhesion to the four channels than their weight in the universe.
It is therefore clear that although Pre-millennials, Millennials and Post-millennials adopt different consumption behaviors, they continue to crave for good narratives and still want audiovisual content to satisfy their different needs (information, entertainment, education or sharing, among others). The way they watch television can be different, but they all share great interest in quality products, whether they are consumed on linear television, via streaming or through binge watching. That way, television will continue to be appreciated depending on its ability to achieve a quality standard that will hook both the audience and the critics and, on its willingness, to invest in new projects or new formats that stand out for their creativity, innovation and for their authorial voice. On the other hand, there must be a balance between content and the users’ need for personalization and interactivity. Many TVs already have their own streaming platforms (BBC Player or HBO Go –anywhere, on today’s most popular devices). As Mendes (2017 online) points out, "digital, cable or broadcast, what really matters to the viewer (or to the platform subscriber) is the quality, especially for those who had money to subscribe PPV channels, i.e. older people".
Although terminals are constantly being improved, 3G-based mobile television has several technological limitations. First, the wide bandwidth required to receive audiovisual content can, on occasions, still cause difficulties in signal transmission (Feijóo-González & Gómez-Barroso, 2009). Second, image quality is low due to the high level of compression required (Bouteiller, 2005). Third, battery capacity in today's mobile devices does not give a great deal of autonomy when audiovisual content is consumed. And finally, the size of mobile terminal screens requires language, sound and programme duration to be adapted to make efficient communication possible (Baron, 2008). All these issues represent challenges to 3G mobile television, as they could raise barriers that hinder its consolidation.
Regardless of this subtext, the critical lens applied to the Portuguese empire could have gained a new poignancy with the outbreak of protracted wars against liberation movements in Angola, since 1961, and later in Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique. However, the Portuguese colonial territory seemingly vanished from TV fiction for the remainder of the Estado Novo. One factor which may have initially contributed to this was the reciprocal effect of the US role in international television. Having achieved global TV set penetration levels of eighty-six per cent by 1960, American distributors began to see television’s greatest potential in the foreign rerun market, aiming their product not only at a broad domestic audience but also at the audience of other consuming nations (Boddy 1995: 60). This discouraged critical engagement with controversial real world conflicts, with network censors and sponsors often imposing the use of euphemisms and fictitious locations or organizations, even during the mid- 1960s’ boom of spy shows (Britton 2004: 11). The apparent renitence to approach the Portuguese colonial wars in Africa – with their uncomfortable resonance of the escalating conflict in Vietnam – may have spilled into the rest of the empire. As the next section will illustrate, however, this did not prevent the continuation of narratives set in metropolitan Portugal.
This two-phase study deals with the phenomenon of “stealth advertising” in Canada. This concept refers to the encroachment of commercially tinted messages into broadcast news segments. Different theories of commercial speech were used as a theoretical framework. The study combined mixed methods, content analysis and in-depth interviews. The first phase concentrated on the frequency and actual time spent airing commercially influenced messages in television newscast segments. The sample consisted of eight randomly selected English-language markets across Canada including news stations affiliated with CBC, CTV and Global. Seventy-five newscasts were recorded and content-analyzed. The analysis demonstrated that private television stations used more explicit and aggressive stealth advertising than publicly owned ones. In subsequent interviews, the news directors and sales managers of some of these stations denied that they yield to outside commercial pressures but admitted they may include messages with commercial content if these have public interest value. In the second phase thirty- nine newscasts of a news station affiliated with Global were recorded and content- analyzed, showing high numbers of commercially influenced messages and corroborating previous research findings. Subsequent interviews showed some news decision-makers accept the inclusion of commercially tinted news segments, thus eroding the divide between editorial and commercial contents. This study is intended to contribute to the empirical basis for pursuing the question of corruption of news by surreptitious commercial content.
In 2012 the television is ready to go online increasing the video choice, combined with new interactive services, but unlike the other devices, with a stunning and huge screen quality (Nielsen, 2011). In 2010 the first Smart TVs 39 entered in the market by Samsung as a “normal” television set with several more features that come from the internet connectivity. Like a smartphone, a smart TV offers a number of "internet connected services" that normal televisions can't offer 40 . The evolution that smart TVs represent has its origin in two main factors: the device and the signal reception. About the first, this new TV sets have the equivalent of a computer built into it with a CPU (central processing unit), a hard drive and a modem, among others. About the second, it has internet connectivity which allows the device to receive the signal not only from the traditional sources, such as cable, satellite or broadcast, but also from the internet. The join of these two main changes represents the main evolution of this device and the booster to an improved user experience. Several times before there were new devices with new features – such as color TV or 3D TV – and / or new signal reception technologies – such as cable or IPTV – but never before both happen together and at
The Argentinean and Chilean experiences have been complicated. In the former a working group was created in June 2006 to advise the government on the standard that the nation should adopt, but no official announcement was made until September 2009 when the Sistema Argentino de Television Digital Terrestre , based in ISDB, was adopted. First broadcasts took place by mid-2010 and the whole transition period until the switch-off of the analogue signal will last for ten years. In Chile the Ministry of Transport and Telecommunications announced in May 2006 that before the end of the year the country would choose a standard. But after three years, many public hearings, lots of technical tests and some special official reports, Chile had yet to make a decision. In 2009, finally, falling in line with Brazil, Peru and Argentina, Chile officially adopted ISDB citing better reception capabilities as well as economic reasons. Before the 2010 earthquake it was announced that the migration would cover a period of eight years.
to the political government. In February of 2005, is announced the sale of Lusomundo Media, owned by the company Portugal Telecom, to Controlinveste Olivedesportos, a group grounded on the control of sports broadcast. The sale of Lusomundo Media is actually a consequence of the recommendations done by the Portuguese Republic President and the High Authority for the Media (AACS), by then the regulator instance of the Media, in order to reduce the influence of the State in this sector. In the same year, increases the participation of Spanish groups in the media, through the purchase by Prisa da Vertix, a company holding 28,8% of the capital of Media Capital. The purchase, by Prisa, of the operator of TVI, the market leader private station, whose profits increased 113% in the 1 st semester of 2005, brought on great controversy around the strategic role of the media in the affirmation of the identity and in defense of the national interests of the country. At the same time, this purchase ended up associated to the renewal of the television private operators' licenses — and to the principles that should obey to this renewal — and to the approval of a new Media Regulatory Body with broaden functions. In the field of regulations, also important to refer the initiative of TVI, announced in September, and followed by SIC, of classifying the programs according to age groups, as well as advertising directed to children.
concentration rules) can also influence the strategy of the market players. There is no clear regulatory policy concerning mobile television even some national regulatory authority started investigating this field. An attractive pricing model and price level is crucial concerning the success of mobile television. The basic pricing models are the same as in the media business in general (Trefzger, 2006):
The application of SNA to the commercial relationships that the producers of thematic television had established with pay television platforms allows us to go deeper into the subject of internationalisation through the sales of thematic channels and their distribution by the platforms analysed (Figure 7). Three large groups of protagonists can be observed: Spanish capital (yellow), Spanish subsidiaries of large TNMC’s (red) and foreign companies offering their stations on some other platforms (green). These latter were linked, above all, with Ono, the first pay-TV system to opt for content aimed specifically at the immigrant community. At the core of these relationships, those belonging to the first two groups were particularly noticeable. In addition, there were two companies with headquarters in Spain, but whose capital was shared 50% by Spanish and foreign companies (orange), as well as another where the origin of their capital is unknown (grey).
The digital switchover is a broader process than the analogue switch-off, but there are strong links between the two concepts as the latter is a prerequisite for the first. Why is this digital switchover so important? It is seen as a logic consequence of the technological evolution, generating several advantages for broadcast organizations as well as the viewers. As the public broadcaster is also using terrestrial television signals 1 , policy makers are involved in this migration process. The switchover entails lower distribution costs and the possibility of transmitting more channels or services at the same cost. This increased efficiency in spectrum use is the most evident implication for the broadcasting sector, urging them to explore new business opportunities and forcing policy makers to adjust the legislative framework of the ‘digitized’ television landscape. The latter is also connected with the policy purpose to realize a new digital landscape (with according benefits) for the citizens (d’Haenens & Bink, 2001: 125; Iosifidis, 2007: 7).
The search was done using keywords or group of words in the titles of the papers or of the projects. For the CE group the words adopted included at least one of continuing (education), lifelong learning or training. The DE set comprised distance, open, flexible, multimedia and technologies connected with education or learning. Of course some of the papers on DE could have connection with CE without the CE words in the title, as well as the reciprocal for DE words, but this is just an indicator that could be obtained through the index of the conferences and of the other events.