Theater and language

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Verbal-Visuality and its Effects in Brazilian Sign Language (Libras) Interpreting at the Theater Verbo-visualidade e seus efeitos na interpretação em Libras no teatro

Verbal-Visuality and its Effects in Brazilian Sign Language (Libras) Interpreting at the Theater Verbo-visualidade e seus efeitos na interpretação em Libras no teatro

In this article, we examine the activity of simultaneous interpreting from Portuguese to Brazilian Sign Language (Libras) in the theatrical sphere, based on a dialogue between interpreting and theater studies, and theoretical formulations by Bakhtin and the Circle. Our objective is to investigate verbal-visual discourse and its sense effects on Libras interpreting by means of a qualitative analytical-descriptive study of two theater performances in which Sign Language Translators and Interpreters (SLTI) interpreted them so as to guarantee communication accessibility to deaf people. We investigated elements that influenced SLTI enunciations while interpreting in sign language, taking into account the texts that circulate in the theatrical sphere. These texts constitute a verbal-visual totality which creates an indissoluble whole directly influencing their forms of production, circulation, and reception.
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O teatro de Gertrude Stein: ultrapassando os limites da linguagem e da tradução / Gertrude Stein’s Theater: Surpassing the Limits of Language and Translation

O teatro de Gertrude Stein: ultrapassando os limites da linguagem e da tradução / Gertrude Stein’s Theater: Surpassing the Limits of Language and Translation

Resumo: Este artigo foi realizado pensando na tradução do teatro da autora norte-americana Gertrude Stein (1874-1946), mais especificamente nas traduções de seus textos poéticos, com o objetivo de mostrar a importância de considerar, no processo de tradução, não somente o conteúdo, ou seja, o contexto, mas também a forma e, no caso dos textos steinianos, principalmente, a dicção. Serão apresentadas duas traduções, uma autoral e uma literal, de dois fragmentos: um deles foi extraído da peça A Circular Play, escrita em 1920, e o outro é parte da peça Four Saints in Three Acts, escrita em 1927, ambas publicadas na obra Last Operas and Plays (1949). A tradução autoral de cada fragmento teve como base a teoria da transcriação, de Haroldo de Campos, e também teorias referentes à tradução poética, de Paulo Henriques Britto.
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The Puppet and Visual Theater

The Puppet and Visual Theater

Visual theater is an inter-disciplinary art form at the seam-line between performance and visual art. What is the role of puppets, masks and objects in visual theater? Can puppet-theater be regarded as an independent medium that is but a reduced, singular expression of visual theater? Is not all theater visual? In this paper I shall follow the puppet’s journey in the metaphorical space and time of theater, from mimetic and narrative functions to the values of matter, shape and medium: in other words – from the theater to the visual. As a language, visual theater generates visual and acoustic images, and an integrative syntax comprised of shapes, materials, color, lighting and projections, voice and sound. A visual performance might represent an emotion or idea through movement, voice or installation – sculpture in space – and not necessarily through the use of words. Moreover, language is another material that can be taken out of its spoken verbal forms: for instance, breaking up a sentence and using its component words and syllables to create new meaning, different from the original content; using the tonal (vowels, consonants, guttural sounds) and visual (relations of printed or projected characters in space) values of language. Such multi-disciplinary use of various expressive means in one work requires the thorough study of language and its visual syntax. A circle dance, for example, may correspond syntactically to circular pools of light projected on the floor, to spherical objects designed in space, or even to the vocalise of the vowel ‘O’… One could say that, in a sense, visual syntax rejuvenates spoken language and prevents its erosion and atrophy, it seeks to expand its range. Animating the verbal image, or, as French poet and playwright Antonin Artaud suggested, assigning words the same the importance they have in dreams.
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Verbo-visualidade e seus efeitos na interpretação em Libras no teatro Verbal-Visuality and its Effects in Brazilian Sign Language (Libras) Interpreting at the Theater

Verbo-visualidade e seus efeitos na interpretação em Libras no teatro Verbal-Visuality and its Effects in Brazilian Sign Language (Libras) Interpreting at the Theater

In this article, we examine the activity of simultaneous interpreting from Portuguese to Brazilian Sign Language (Libras) in the theatrical sphere, based on a dialogue between interpreting and theater studies, and theoretical formulations by Bakhtin and the Circle. Our objective is to investigate verbal-visual discourse and its sense effects on Libras interpreting by means of a qualitative analytical-descriptive study of two theater performances in which Sign Language Translators and Interpreters (SLTI) interpreted them so as to guarantee communication accessibility to deaf people. We investigated elements that influenced SLTI enunciations while interpreting in sign language, taking into account the texts that circulate in the theatrical sphere. These texts constitute a verbal-visual totality which creates an indissoluble whole directly influencing their forms of production, circulation, and reception.
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Do teatro ao cordel: transposição de meios e culturasFrom theater to cordel: means and culture transposition

Do teatro ao cordel: transposição de meios e culturasFrom theater to cordel: means and culture transposition

This study discusses the intertextual path of the comedies The Taming of the Shrew and Much Ado About Nothing, by William Shakespeare, adapted to cordels by Marco Haurélio and José Santos, respectively. The research aims at showing how the source text gains new characteristics each time it is reinterpreted and recreated. The changes which occurred in this transculturation process occurred from the language plan to the insertion of Northeastern popular culture elements in the adapted text. This research’s main goal is to reflect upon this process, classified by Linda Hutcheon (2011) as indigenization, which occurred in the plays adaptation to cordel. Besides this, the drama recreation done by cordelists assume important social functions in culture context, such as the establishment of a relation between an erudite art and a popular Brazilian one, in other words, from the roots of popular artistic manifestations, the erudite art is recreated. This adaptation process also shows itself pertinent concerning the access to reading of literary texts and to readers’ formation. In order to achieve such goals, Linda Hutcheon’s and Robert Stam’s theories were used, besides the studies by Bakhtin and Julia Kristeva and the debate about culture lined by Raymond Williams, Terry Eag leton and Alfredo Bosi’s studies. Finally, about cordel, Márcia Abreu’s and Sylvia Nemer’s researches were aggregated to the research as well.
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Guia do Home Theater

Guia do Home Theater

Seja gesso ou drywall, a instalação do forro requer alguns cuidados. Como ele funcionará como uma caixa acústica, qualquer material mal fixado ou solto no forro poderá ser uma fonte de ruído indesejado. É preciso que os arames utilizados na amarração do forro sejam reforçados e muito bem fixados. Caso contrário, eles irão vibrar e podem acabar de vez com a alegria do seu home theater. Os arames de fixação também poderão ressoar em determinadas frequências, funcionando como a corda de um violão. Por isso, uma boa opção é

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Who Studies Which Language and Why? : A Cross-Language Survey of First-Year College-Level Language Learners

Who Studies Which Language and Why? : A Cross-Language Survey of First-Year College-Level Language Learners

fit within this image may legitimately be considered members of our national community, have led to a double standard regarding lan- guage study. While the study of so-called ‘foreign’ languages has been conceptualized (for the most part) as an enriching experience for “truly” American mainstream youth, the maintenance of minority or immigrant languages has been viewed, in some quarters, as a threat to national unity (Pavlenko, 2003; Valdés, 2006). This has affected lan- guage policies and practices regarding which languages are offered at which educational levels, who should teach the languages, how they should be taught, and who should be studying them for what purpose (Crawford, 1989; Pavlenko, 2003; Valdés, González, García, & Már- quez, 2008). For the most part, the languages and cultures of our in- digenous and immigrant communities have been painted as toxic to our imagined national identity and, since World War II; we have fo- cused our language educational resources on the languages of per- ceived national enemies or allies as foreign or additional languages. This of course continues into the present context in which national energy and resources are being poured into languages that are per- ceived as ‘critical’ to our national security (Kramsch, 2005).
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Differences and similarities in self-revision across portuguese as a native language and english as a foreign language /

Differences and similarities in self-revision across portuguese as a native language and english as a foreign language /

- Reviewing: Reviewing may occur at any time during the writing process, sometimes interrupting any other process. It may even happen before the translation process. In noticing that the ideas to be included in the texts are not relevant in relation to the goals settled for a given assignment, one may decide to go back to planning even before translating. Other times, it may happen that when one reads the text so far produced, s/he notices that the intended message did not go through. At this point, reviewing takes place. This process entails two sub-processes: evaluating and revising. Writers evaluate their texts against criteria which vary from mechanics to content. Intentions, as previously mentioned, are also taken into account. In case the writer sees, during evaluating, any dissonance in relation to intention versus execution, revision is likely to be carried out. Revision, is an activity which requires attention and dedication, since it is the process which “gives the product its final shape” (Haberlandt, 1994).
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Language policies and language education in Brazil and Canada: an interview with Professor Schmidt

Language policies and language education in Brazil and Canada: an interview with Professor Schmidt

CS: (…) with very low salaries. Absolutely, the salaries aren't there, the benefits aren't there, it's a very precarious professional existence, and that is quite different from the Canadian context where it can be difficult to enter the teaching profession in certain jurisdictions where there has historically been over supply of teachers (although the supply and demand have waxed and waned over the years). Recently, in Ontario's history for example, within a decade ago, there were 30,000 unemployed teachers in Ontario, and so getting into the profession was particularly difficult, especially if you were internationally educated teacher trying to get access to the system. But once you're in the system you enjoy it; you certainly have complex personal challenges to contend with; with diverse classrooms and challenges in terms of policies which are disadvantages to teachers, but at least you have study work, you're in one place, you earn a decent living, and you have the same benefits. That's a very different situation that Brazilian teachers are facing, and that also has an impact on whether public school teachers even want to engage with university-based researchers to try to explore some of the issues facing educators in facing the school systems at large.
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Second Language Aaquisition and Mobile-Assisted Language Learning: Educators' Perspectives on Identity and Practice.

Second Language Aaquisition and Mobile-Assisted Language Learning: Educators' Perspectives on Identity and Practice.

Smartphones and tablets play a particular role in m-learning and MALL, but one of the reasons mobile learning differs from e-learning and others previous digital language learning environments is the fact that learning is shifting from a personalized way of learning to a personal way of learning (Sharples, Taylor, & Vavoula, 2005). There is value in aligning the personal aspect of a mobile device, but not without bringing some concerns about its use, “there is a tendency in implementing mobile solutions, both broadly and locally, to sometimes uncritically focus on technology affordances” (Stockwell & Hubbard, 2013, p. 6). Among the issues features the aspects of “affordances for technology in language learning that are particularly relevant to mobile environments are access, authenticity, and situated learning (Reinders & White, 2010 cited in Stockwell & Hubbard, 2013, p. 6). Chinnery (2006) states that “as technologies continue to evolve, so does their propensity to shrink in size”, what might be convenient on one hand, might present one of the limitations that scholars identified concerning screen size together with “the often-distracting environments in which they are used” (Reinders & Hubbard, 2013, p. 366).
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Research Trends  in English Language Teacher Education and English Language Teaching

Research Trends in English Language Teacher Education and English Language Teaching

such a scenario, he complements, “‘sedentary’ or ‘territorialized’ patterns of language use are complemented by ‘translocal’ and ‘deterritorialized’ forms of language use, and […] the combination of both often accounts for unexpected sociolinguistic effects” (p. 5). In other words, culturally and linguistically speaking, there are immese and exciting avenues to be studied and explored. Back in the 1980s, B. B. Kachru, the founder of today’s well-known research field World Englishes, would call our attention to the fact that substantial data at that time already proved that speech communities – monolingual or multilingual – were never homogenos users of single codes. According to him, “a speech community tends to use a network of codes which are functionally allocated in terms of their social uses, [and] the type and range of such codes would vary from one community to another” (Kachru 1986: 78). For sure, when Kachru wrote those words, the world was beginning to experience the ‘explosion’ of “the most distinctive feature of the current phase of globalization,” that is, the global electronic communication along with its major engine, the Internet (Kumaravadivelu 2006: 131). This unique and powerful source that connects millions of people almost instantaneously has naturally given rise to a global community which, for reasons extensively studied and debated, assumed English as its main means of communication, but by no means the only one.
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Contemporary language: theories and practices

Contemporary language: theories and practices

Abstract The question that guides this article is based on the principle that art and design, as producers of contemporary languages, have an active and determin- ing role in the society where they operate, as one of the main edifiers of culture. This paper presents a brief reflection on theoretical questions about language in virtual spaces and some of the results already achieved with the realization of an interdisciplinary research project that presents questions about Design and its relations with Technology and other related areas. It is sub-divided into three research projects that complement each other. The first entitled “Design * Technology: Contemporary design in digital environments”, the second “Seminar Collection / Means of Expression” and the last “Interactive digital book for deaf and hearing children”. This study focuses on the intersection of art, design, tech- nology and the creative process of narrative
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Linguagem e dislexia   Language and dyslexia

Linguagem e dislexia Language and dyslexia

Vimos, de modo conciso, como as dificuldades de memória, de linguagem falada e de linguagem escrita podem ser explicadas assumindo a existência de um défice fonológico na dislexia. Essa [r]

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Postcolonial Language: Rejection and Subversion

Postcolonial Language: Rejection and Subversion

Inherent to one’s identity, language is probably one of the most powerful culture- bound phenomena that help defining one’s sense of belonging to a particular community. Languages mirror the power relations and the existing conflicts within society, and the idiosyncratic use each person makes of language reveals the tensions and strains of inter- personal relationships. For all these reasons language is the most evident manifestation of “highly asymmetrical relations of domination and subordination – like colonialism, slavery, or their aftermaths as they are lived out across the globe today” (Pratt 1992, 4). Language is then a highly influential instrument of power legitimation and enforcement. In the texts under analysis, Caliban and Friday maintain the same marginalised status as their original literary versions, but they no longer portray the prototypical submissive colonised. Both characters will be studied as embodying disparate strategies to criticise the coloniser’s imperialist attitude and as claiming their identity against the one the Eu- ropean coloniser imposed on them: on the one hand, there is the rebel who dares to chal- lenge the newly created ruling system to set himself free (Caliban); on the other, there is the Negro who has been forced into silence by that very same system (Friday). If in the first case the so-called civilisation has been imposed on “Caliban the animal, Caliban the slave”, in the second case Friday was hazardously driven to civilisation, which he encountered on a desert island that had been the home and kingdom of that who would soon become his master (Robinson Cruso).
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Prototyping, Domain Specific Language, and Testing

Prototyping, Domain Specific Language, and Testing

First, we introduce the concept of final prototype. A final prototype is a replica of the final product that will be delivered to the client. This terminology has been widely used in various engineering fields. The final prototype may use different materials and be made with different machines and follow different manufacturing processes. But it functions exactly like a final product, because it conforms to the same design that is used to manufacture the final product. A primary reason to create a final prototype is to insure that all of the parts fit together as planned prior to finalizing production tooling [12].
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System Attraction of Visual and Iconographic Material  as a Development Thrustof Modern Ballet Theater

System Attraction of Visual and Iconographic Material as a Development Thrustof Modern Ballet Theater

H aving considered all options of distinguished choreographic techniques when working with figurative m aterial as exem plified by m any cases, we should note that secondariness, a predeterm ined outcom e in im ages creation and sim ulation are typical to all of them . Figurative sources are unique and require a particular approach, where not only knowledge of them but elective acuteness is necessary. They aren’t ready-m ade m aterial to set a ballet. They are less than a source, and m ore than a source at the sam e tim e. Fine arts works used by m odern theater can be rightly called the art of im age interpretation that has its special place along with literary sources not for nothing. The new trend in choreodram a gravitating to stage depiction techniques, and som etim es directly borrowing im ages and plots from graphics, painting, sculpture, arts and crafts, and architecture, provides the breakthrough level of stage directing as com pared to what is considered typical. Such directing should have zest for m etaphoricalness, associations, hyperbolization, details pun, generally speaking, vision freshness. Given this, the said artistic m eans should support the harm ony and relax of choreographic narration, also basically conditional, which predeterm ines its rhythm and plastique fram ework. New polygenre structures appeal to new, deeper com prehension of the synthetism of ballet art. Success in the area of arts interaction requires careful reflection concerning the spare opportunities of choreography m eeting m odern staging solutions.
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Angra-db : indexing and query language

Angra-db : indexing and query language

The indexer worker was the main purpose of this architecture change, because it enables for the management of the inverted index using the functions provided by the inverted index module presented previously. It maintains the memory inverted index in the server state and updates it according to the requests received, also making updates to deleted documents list and latest versions list. If any operation increases the memory index to a size above a certain threshold configured in the adb_core settings, then this worker performs the merge of the file and memory indexes, flushing the memory index and the two list after the merging completes. Also this worker is responsible for starting the memory index in case it was stopped without saving its contents to the file index. To do so, it uses the latest versions list, as it contains all the documents added to the collection after the last merge, retrieving and indexing these documents.
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Sociocultural theory and Second Language  Acquisition

Sociocultural theory and Second Language Acquisition

The author argues that Vygotskian psycholinguistic theory is not only compatible with current SLA theory and theory building, but also ex- tremely useful as a productive research paradig[r]

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SIGN LANGUAGE AND SCHOOL: CONSIDERATIONS ON THE BRAZILIAN SIGN LANGUAGE REGULATORY DECREE

SIGN LANGUAGE AND SCHOOL: CONSIDERATIONS ON THE BRAZILIAN SIGN LANGUAGE REGULATORY DECREE

The present paper is the partial result of a set of reflections the author has made on the Brazilian Sign Language regulatory decree. By considering the responsibilities involved in the revision of teachers’ course curricula so that a bilingual environment can be created for teaching and learning at schools, the author discusses the need to propose a set of ethical principles that would lead to the formulation of linguistic policies to be adopted by those courses, when elaborating the guidelines to meet the requirements of Decree N.5626. In order to demonstrate that the decree will only actually bring changes if the historical assimilation strategies of “the other one” are brought down, the author re-visits the history of literacy in Brazil, drawing a parallel with the situation of deaf sign-language users. In accordance with Foucault, Rancière and Derrida, she concludes by stating that the decree may in fact open pathways to break away phagocytary strategies, as long as the other one is seen and respected in his radical difference with us and, at the same time, be invited to join us in the measures that shall be taken in his name.
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Analyse de English Language Learning and Technology

Analyse de English Language Learning and Technology

clairement plus importante que celle de la problématique théorique (construct). Voilà pourquoi les tests étudiés (dictée, test de vocabulaire, etc.) et le lien qui est fait entre la problématique théorique et la notation (scoring) ne correspondent pas aux choix habituels en Europe, comme le résume le tableau 6.4. (p. 168). On retrouve, sous forme scientifique, les débats professionnels que nous connaissons entre les tenants de tests tels que le Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) et le Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC) pour l’anglais, et ceux qui ont une vision différente. Il est néanmoins regrettable que les effets de la validité sociale, qui est souvent mise en avant en Europe, ne soient pas mesurés avec la même rigueur que ce qui est proposé dans cet ouvrage, et avec une problématique théorique aussi bien construite !
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