The greatest challenge of theology as a speech is to find a balance between what is said and the power that is attributed to what is said. And the reason for that is simple: theology as God speech or speech on God pronounced by human beings is subject, whether intentionally or not, to the tricks of power struggles among those who supposedly master the theological knowledge and assume leadership positions in religious institutions. The charge is serious. The crimes committed in the name of God throughout the history of humanity are serious as well. According to Rubem Alves, theology cannot be a divine science, because it is not allowed to tell the truth about God. Every time someone advocates an absolute truth about God, they become a potential inquisitor. And Rubem Alves asseverates the following provocation: “God doctrine is for theology in the same way adornments, the colonnade, murals and sculptures are for the cathedral. They are parts of the building without being what sustains it”. 2 And this
The title of Alister E. McGrath s book, Darwinism and the Divine: Evolutionary Thought and Natural Theology suggests a balance scale or two sides of a mirror: it does not contain a thesis but is rather a distillation of McGrath s premise, which is to do some rearranging of colossal, accepted ideas. His clear, well-paced argument demonstrates why Darwinian evolution and natural theology are not necessary antagonists—nor, in fact, historical ones. These are rareﬁed cate- gories of thought; their actual contents are more eclectic and more mutually permeable than usually supposed. Natural theology is a generic name for a variety of traditions, some of which have opposing ideological commitments. Darwinism , too, has stood for widely diﬀerent accounts of the nature of life, some of which have had the very character of dogma commonly associated with religious faith. McGrath s book, an expansion of the the Hulsean Lectures that he gave at the University of Cambridge in 2009, is a methodical repo- sitioning of these two bodies of thought with respect to each other, starting with properly historicized deﬁnitions of the terms. This is followed by a close look at the development of Darwin s ideas in the particular context of English natural theology. The book concludes with the author s vision for a contemporary natural theology that oﬀers answers that the science of evolution cannot.
The purpose of this study is to compare the differences in university students‟ self-esteem and psychosomatic symptoms in terms of some demographic variables. A total of 660 students- 334 female and 326 male-, who were randomly chosen from the students of Sport Sciences andTheology Faculties studying in Ondokuz Mayıs University during the academic year 2013-2014, participated in the study voluntarily. The data was collected through a “Demographic Information Form” developed by the researcher and “Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale” which was developed in 1963, checked for validity and reliability in 1965 in USA by Morris Rosenberg and checked for validity and reliability in Turkey by Çuhadaroğlu (1986). The data was statistically analyzed by Kolmogorov Smirnov, Mann Whitney U, Kruskal Vallis and Bonferronni correction test. The level of significance was taken as 0.05. The finding that there was no significant difference in the self-esteem levels of Sports Sciences Faculty students is in parallel with the findings o f Yüksekkaya (1995:48) who reported that the variable of gender did not cause a significant difference on self-esteem. In the other result, it was seen a significant difference in sport science faculty students‟ scores when students‟ self-esteem compared t o the level of the class variables but hasn‟t seen in the faculty of theology. However, as noted in studies similar to our study, students' grade level progresses, levels of self-esteem increased. These findings were discussed in the light of literature and suggestions were made for future studies.
The lamentation of the no-nonsense hard-core school of scientists about the “demon haunted world” of scientific darkness into which, they fear, humanity is fast plunging, has been forcibly articulated by many. But such moaning, however eloquently and reasonably expressed, does not seem to be very effective. One reason for this is that die-hard scientists and rationalist-empiricists on the one hand and the rest of the decent people in society on the other, adopt different criteria for truth-content. Even among scientists, cultural sensibilities and spiritual penchants are variously developed. We live in a world polluted by ugly spewing from the industrial age which, in the eyes of many, is a direct consequence of the scientific world view. Moreover, science offers a purposeless portrayal of a universe which, at least from the perspective of human consciousness, is replete with majesty and mystery, a universe where awe and beauty, love and laughter are more immediate than leptons, hadrons, and field bosons. Consider also the catastrophic pessimism into which thermodynamics and astrophysics dump us; and the fact that scientists keep changing their explanatory models like cars from Detroit or Osaka, making theories of past generations approximate, obsolete or downright wrong.
Traditionally, ultrashort pulses have been characterized by nonlinear autocorrelation diagnostics (see, e.g., ), which are still widely used in many laboratories. Although relatively simple to implement, these fail to provide complete information about the pulses. Still, several methods have been devised allowing for the reconstruction of the amplitude and phase of the pulses by combination of autocorrelation and spectral measurements (see, e.g [2– 4].). An important improvement over these techniques came in 1993 with the introduction of frequency resolved optical gating (FROG) [5, 6]: by spectrally resolving an autocorrelation (or cross-correlation) signal, a sonogram-like trace is created from which complete characterization of a given pulse can be performed using an iterative algorithm. The quality of the retrieval is reflected by the corresponding FROG error, and the time and frequency marginals of the trace also provide a means to cross-check the results. There are many variants of FROG today, which all rely on spectrally resolving some time-gated signal. Other methods widely used today are related to the technique of spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction (SPIDER), first introduced in 1998 . These methods do not rely on temporal gating, but instead on interferometry in the spectral domain: the spectrum of a given pulse is made to interfere with a frequency-shifted (sheared) replica of itself, and the resulting spectral interferogram is recorded. Although usually more complicated to set up, retrieving the spectral phase from a SPIDER trace is numerically much simpler than in FROG, but there is no straightforward means to determine the quality of the phase measurement, which strongly depends on the accuracy of the delay between the two replicas. Recent SPIDER-related methods have been devised that allow overcoming this calibration issue [8, 9].
Geographic information systems (GIS) were seen as a panacea for quite a long time. The misfortune is that they have become more like service-oriented architecture solutions. Indeed, we previously stored our files on either a PC or a server. However, currently files are no longer allocated; instead, we use several network services such as a Web Map Service (WMS) or Web Feature Service (WFS), which distribute network services. We have definitely moved from a web supported by documents to a web supported by databases, crowdsourced data (e.g., volunteered geographic information—VGI), and social networks, twisted by community behavior, giving access to both collaboration tools and environments, and allowing location analytics. We have reached a point where anybody may gather spatial-referenced data using, for instance, a mobile device, create some reasonable maps, and put them online. VGI is effectively replacing official data sources, letting us perform a more complex and dynamic analysis than the one allowed by traditional census data. This we can call neogeography, a new kind of geography accessible to everyone. Neogeography offers new life to maps, thriving in a society where each individual is a potential cartographer. Now maps are able to display individual perceptions because they are centered on the mapmaker, representing reality from a bottom-up perspective rather than from a bottom-down one. This new generation of maps can be created in real time and be tailor-made, representing detailed singularities never seen before, e.g., graffiti on a wall or birds in a tree.
Cancer inequality studies use paradigms based on two distinct values (35). The first paradigm, based on liberty and opportunity, includes studies assessing goods, services and social capital; these studies assess cohesion among individuals via social interactions with family, friends and colleagues via health-related measures. A recent systematic review study, however, has shown that cancer studies present limited evidence of a relationship between social capital and cancer (36). The second paradigm, based on equality and equity, involves social justice studies assessing health- care and may be used to measure socioeconomic status; these studies assess the impact of lower income or educa- tion levels on health-related outcomes. Socioeconomic status is considered a cause of causes since neither cancer incidence nor mortality in low socioeconomic groups are completely explained by known risk factors (37). Positive associations between income and education have been consistently shown at the individual level, and the incidence and mortality of several cancers, such as head and neck (38) and cervical cancer (39), demonstrate that cancer may not be a democratic disease.
The levels of cholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol were measured in raw Atlantic hake (Merluccius hubbsi) and smooth weakﬁsh (Cynoscion leiarchus) ﬁllets and in ﬁllets subjected to the following cooking methods: baking in an electric or microwave oven; baking, grilling or stewing in a steam-convection oven; simmering on a stove; electric grilling; and deep frying. The raw samples from both ﬁshes exhibited signiﬁcantly (p < 0.05) higher cholesterol levels (62.71 ± 6.06 mg/100 ge74.16 ± 3.96 mg/ 100 g) than the processed ﬁllets. In all of the samples, 7-ketocholesterol was detected at signiﬁcantly (p < 0.05) different levels depending on the cooking method and the type of ﬁsh. Steam cooking keeping the surface of the product moist produced small decrease in the cholesterol content (26.65%e29.96%) and a low level of 7-ketocholesterol in the samples (6.90 ± 0.21 m g/ge6.47 ± 0.28 m g/g). Baking in electric or steam-convection ovens at high temperatures and long times greatly reduced the cholesterol con- tent (52.77%e65.08%), which was associated with a large increase in 7-ketocholesterol levels (11.54 ± 0.45 m g/ge13.94 ± 1.17 m g/g). These results indicate the necessity of revising the baking pro- cedures for ﬁsh to increase the healthiness of food.
Abstract This article reflects on the action of making art as an activity that is, and should always be an instrument of opening the doors of perception, of showing new poetic and aesthetic assemblies, of unveiling sensibilities, of fighting against stereotypes, of expanding sensory aspects and of intensifying the cognition of the lived moment. In this way, by emerging at the level of consciousness, these aspects can cause transformations. Such transformations will be effective if they are based on the techniques that propitiate the action of making things. In this context it is important to reflect on the outcome of this production thinking of how to present it to the public, in space and time. In the article computer art, architecture, drawing, and sculpture are considered as different aspects of the poetic reality enmeshed in them, aiming to make visible the potential latent in the body, in the materials, in numbers and their relationships, in interfaces inter- weaving body and machines, among many related aspects.
For each word we examined, one of these 10 files provides the integer number of appearances, per calendar year, in 4% of all English-language books (the data also include the number of published pages the 1-gram appeared on and the number of different books it appeared in; we do not use these measures). The 1-grams are case-sensitive, and we used the lowercase version of all words. The word counts run from about the mid-17th century to 2008. This remarkable dataset has a minor constraint in that it includes only Ngrams that appear over 40 times in the whole corpus (ngrams.googlelabs.com/datasets); this bounds the observ- able Zipf’s Law at extremely low frequencies of occurrence, which has no effect on our observances of the top 1000 most-common words through time.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of gamma irradiation on cytotoxicity and phenolic compounds of Thymus vulgaris L. and Menta piperita L. (methanolic extracts), used in tradi- tional medicine. Thirteen and fourteen phenolic compounds, including caffeoyl derivatives and ﬂavonoid glycosides, were detected in T. vulgaris and Mentha piperita, respectively, none of which was affected by the irradiation dose used (10 kGy). Furthermore, the irradiation up to 10 kGy did not change the cytotoxic properties of peppermint samples on tumor cell lines (MCF-7, NCI-H460, HeLa and HepG2), whereas thyme samples irradiated at 10 kGy increased their cytotoxicity in the assayed tumor cell lines compared with samples submitted to 2 and 5 kGy. All in all, the dose of 10 kGy was considered as suitable to be applied for the purpose of disinfestation and microbial decontamination of these plants without modifying their phenolic composition and bioactive properties.
terest, self-concept and the student’s trust, stimu- lating them inside the context of their own experi- ences. Such educators are facilitators or “teachers learners”, learning with their students, respecting their own capacity of learning. They recognize that the students will learn what is significant for them. The coexistence space establishes marks in the field of education as a philosophy on the process of construction of the knowledge. They still pro- mote a re-exam of the role of the education in a given society. Considering education as an effort, to aid the learner to build a knowledge that will make him capable of participating constructively in the society, to obtain personal satisfaction and self-accomplishment, will depend on the nature of each society, its problems and organization, the direction of the educational task. Thus, curricula should be structured to assist a double demand: society and the individual’s desire of self-accom- plishment, which does not always coincide (Guattari 1990). Specifically in the biomedical area, the curriculum should be organized in order to make students capable of understanding the world; it should be significant for his life. Teaching should be guided by the “discovery”, the “insight”, stimu- lating the curiosity, the reflection and the exchang- ing knowledge, increasing student’s possibility of self-accomplishment and social commitment.
new approach to management. Continual improvement is defined as one of the eight QMS principles and QMS principle of factual approach to decision-making is related to it. Improvement carried out in the field of QMS is simultaneously an improvement for other management systems (EMS, OHSAS, HACCP and others) as well. It especially relates to improvements that are established by process approach, i.e. within the process model. Processes of improvement within four modules of the process approach are practically inexhaustible. It is an endless road. The higher the level of improvement gets, spaces for further improvements get more and more diverse and comprehensive. Process approach as the articulating factor of the integration of quality management system is joined by techniques and methods that provide systems to be improved and integrated in a founded way.
Extraction processes are signiﬁcantly affected by several factors (Albuquerque et al., 2017; Heleno et al., 2016; Pinela et al., 2016b; Wong et al., 2015). For its optimization, one-factor-at-a-time ap- proaches do not evaluate interactive effects among variables and de- mand an increased number of experimental trials. However, these problems can be overcome using the response surface methodology (RSM), a collection of statistical and mathematical techniques based on the ﬁt of a polynomial equation to the experimental data, which must describe the behaviour of a data set, with the aim of making statis- tical previsions (Bezerra, Santelli, Oliveira, Villar, & Escaleira, 2008). When planning MAE experiments, it is also necessary to choose an ap- propriate experimental design. The circumscribed central composite design (CCCD) is a common RSM used and consists of a design with cen- tre points and a group of axial points, also called star points, to estimate the process curvature (Box & Hunter, 1957). It is also important to carry out preliminary studies to select relevant variables and centre the ex- perimental domain.
revolutionary and irreconcilable. Where that balance no longer exists, democracy perishes. For unless all the citizens of a state are forced by circumstances to compromise, unless they feel that they can affect policy but that no one can wholly dominate it, unless by habit and necessity they have to give and take,
sacralized it. Nevertheless, other versions, in divergence with the scientiic perspec- tive, did not cease to exist and even co- existed along side with modern concepts, often afording new forms of seeing and considering the issue of health and dis- ease. hese views could not be dismissed as results of “superstitions” or “mythical” and “outdated” concepts, since many times they include curious and even surprising perspectives that indicate unusual ap- proaches to the health-disease process.
Innovation in this field of training new genera- tions of scientists may be expressed by an approach which assumes health as a dynamic equilibrium process and no longer as a state of well-being or as the absence of disease. Etiologically related to the biological and the social environments combined together, the multi-causal origin of diseases is an- other new perspective in which the post-gradua- tion courses could develop, as Leselbaum (1998) highlights, a philosophy in common. This philoso- phy would be centered on health education instead of on a sanitary focus with a hygienistic view. A more democratic orientation, which integrates sci- entists and community members in a cooperative construction of knowledge has proven to be more fertile as a way to face the health problems of the Brazilian population. Direct transfer of scientific technology, as expert lectures or explanations, are not effective for learning, even at the post-gradua- tion level, and favors a dependent attitude on the part of the communities.