With these composite structures the excessive flexibility of the wood is limited by the presence of the filling materials; on the other hand the elasticity of the timber frame manage to bring the wall to its original position, at least for moderate displacements. Furthermore, the system is suitable to dissipate seismic energy thanks to the presence of the timber structure nodes that are not rigid enough to result in brittle fractures. Moreover, ductility is enhanced by the friction generated between the elements of the walls, as well as at the interface between wood frame and masonry filling. The energy dissipation also takes place thought cracks in the mortar joints and stones expulsion.
For the development of this work, the historical method is essential because it allows of analyzing and bring to light the contents expressed in primary historical sources, permitting of the deduction of their influence in current management practices (Marconi and Lakatos, 2003). As a study that has its scope findings from primary historiography source, It can be thought of as archival research that, in the words of Smith (2007), refers to those studies based on historical documents, texts, newspaper articles, annual reports and disclosure statements by businesses, etc., which bring important discoveries to light in the area of science. Carnegie and Napier (2016) says that the accounting historian enlists archival research where the work is informed through the careful examination and analysis of primary source materials.
2004a). Kashmir as a nursery of learning and religion has to credit its multi- dimensional and multi-faceted contributions to the cultural heritage. There is no segment of human learning and abstract thought which intellectuals and thinkers of Kashmir have not nourished and enriched with loftiness of their thought and sublimate of their expression. The prolific faculties that they were endowed with have found remarkable expression in the annals of Philosophy, Aesthetics, Poetics, Sculpture and Architecture and more than most in Mathematics, Astronomy and Astrology (KOUL,2001).
Abstract. Natural proxies, documentary evidence and in- strumental data are the only sources used to reconstruct past climates. In this paper, we present the 18thcentury meteo- rologists (either Portuguese or foreigners) who made the first observations at several sites in Continental Portugal, Madeira Island and Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), from 1749 until 1802. In- formation is given concerning observation site, variables ob- served, measurement period, methods of measurements and sources (both manuscript and printed). Some examples from the data usefulness are given: rainfall variability in Madeira (1749–1753) and in continental Portugal (1781–1793) was reconstructed, allowing to extend towards the late 18th cen- tury the well known negative correlation between the NAO index and seasonal rainfall. Furthermore, previously unpub- lished data for 1783–1784 have allowed analysing the conse- quences of the Lakag´ıgar eruption in Portugal: foggy and haze days are referred to in summer 1783, but unlike the hot summer observed in northern and central Europe, tem- peratures in Portugal were lower than average. Addition- ally, observations from Rio de Janeiro in Brazil show that the Lakag´ıgar consequences may well have spread to sectors of the Southern Hemisphere. Although the series are short, the data have been used for climate reconstruction studies and may also be useful to improve the quality of large scale reconstruction datasets.
“Neomannerism”, a further alternative, came into being around 1750 and harked back to the great achievements of the Renais- sance and the 16th century, which had themselves been inspired by antiquity. Some artists belonging to this movement would rediscover Correggio and Giambologna, Giulio Romano or Jean Goujon to create works less motivated by an interest in de- clamatory expressiveness or rigorous exemplarity than by sinu- ous virtuosity (Batoni, Julien de Parme, Cades, Nollekens, Deare, Caffieri, Allegrain, and including the young David).
Hrdy’s long, cogent, and powerful argument is buttressed, as noted above, by broad scholarship. Among the many shoulders she stands on a few deserve special note. One clearly influential work is Peter Hobson’s fascinating volume, The Cradle of Thought: Exploring the Origins of Thinking (2004), which makes a wonderful companion volume to Hrdy’s. Hobson, a psychoanalytic psychotherapist and insightful researcher in the area of child cognitive development, provides an accessible review of the experimental literature on intersubjectivity, its development, and its relationship to the emergence of concepts of intention, not only in others but in the developing infant’s own sense of self. He draws on his work with autistic children to highlight the crucial processes of emotional mirroring between mother (usually) and child that lead to the ability to share perspective. He follows the logical trail to some very interesting observations, including the similarities in compromised capacity for intersubjectivity displayed by autistic children and those blind from birth. (He also provides some excellent descriptions of psychoanalytic concepts, such as “transference,” that I would recommend to colleagues who dismiss psychoanalytic theory without much knowledge or understanding.) Michael Tomasello’s The Cultural Origins of Human Cognition (1999) is another important antecedent to Mothers and Others. Tomasello’s work has been notable for the direct comparison of chimpanzee and human infants, and The Cultural Origins of Human Cognition makes a strong argument for intersubjectivity and theory of mind being the unique foundations of human cognition and for culture providing the conditions in which they mature. What sets Hrdy’s argument apart from Tomasello is her identification of “shared care” in our “conditions of rearing” as the ultimate crucible for this evolutionary alchemy.
In South Dakota, a parish nursing model was built on the eight beatitudes and the principles of humanbecoming to guide nursing practice in the health model at the First Presbyterian Church in Sioux Falls (Bunkers, 1998a, 1998b; Bunkers, Michaels, & Ethridge, 1997; Bunkers & Putnam, 1995). Bunkers and Putnam (1995) state, “The nurse, in practicing from the human becoming perspective and emphasizing the teachings of the Beatitudes, believes in the endless possibilities present for persons when there is openness, caring, and honoring of justice and human freedom” (p. 210). Also, the Board of Nursing of South Dakota has adopted a decisioning model based on the humanbecoming school of thought (Damgaard & Bunkers, 1998). Augustana College (in Sioux Falls) has humanbecoming as one theoretical focus of the curricula for the baccalaureate and master’s programs. The humanbecoming theory is the basis of Augustana’s Health Action Model for Partnership in Community (Bunkers, Nelson, Leuning, Crane, & Josephson, 1999). “The purpose of the model is to respond in a new way to nursing’s social mandate to care for the health of society by gaining an understanding of what is wanted from those living these health experiences” (Bunkers et aI., 1999, p. 94). The creation of the model was “for persons homeless and low income [persons] who are challenged with the lack of economic, social and interpersonal resources” (Bunkers et aI., 1999, p. 92; Williamson, 2000).
His other more monographic texts include the study that he made of Cardeal da Mota’s economic thought and the general guidelines of economic policy in the reign of Dom João V (Macedo 1960), as well as the text that he wrote summarizing the different types of mercantilism in Portugal, with special attention being paid to its belated repercussions throughout the eighteenth century (Macedo 1966a). Finally, mention should also be made of the pioneering attention that he paid to the statesmanlike figure of Dom Rodrigo de Sousa Coutinho and his plans for financial restructuring at the end of the eighteenth century, clearly demonstrated in his study of the origins of Portuguese banking (Macedo 1963b).
In Carnide, glazed and tin glazed objects, either imported or produced in Portugal, correspond approximately to two thousand recipients. In spite of this large number this does not correspond to more than 10% of the overall collection thus unglazed ceramics seem to correspond to around 90%. The conclusions related to these numbers must bear in mind social and economic background of that population and always aware that this is a dumpster site and reflects the use of ceramics for almost a century in an area in the outskirts of the city. These numbers although corresponding to what people consumed in their households does not mark a specific moment in time and can only be used to state a consumption tendency.
Rancière's ‘dissensus’ inevitably sends us back to the Deleuzian ‘ pure optical and sound image’, an image constructed through the ‘irrational cuts’ that resonate with Rancière’s idea of ‘relations without relation’, or art perceived beyond representation. In this way, he refers to art beyond the pure creation of form, where the invisible becomes visible, or the art that questions the self-evidence of the visible. Rancière sees art as a reframing of the ‘real’, or a way of changing the modes of our ‘sensory presentation, forms of enunciation, varying frames, scales and rhythms’ (Rancière, 2010, p. 141). The ‘pure optical and sound image’, can be considered as possessing this potential, within its compositional premises, which can be introduced to choreographic composition. Therefore, and for the compositional premises to be applied to movement composition, according to Lepecki and Sloterdijk’s aforementioned analysis on velocities, one has to understand exactly how this image relates differently to rhythm, flow, and duration. To start with, let us assume that one of the fundamental characteristics of this image is the indubitable need to, or idea of, ‘slowing down time’, in order to adjust itself to the processes of thought, in other words, to become immanent to thought. The expression ‘slowing down time’ should not be taken literally, in the sense that one should not associate ‘slowing down time’, with the execution of slow movements. What then does ‘slowing down time’ mean exactly?
The total absence of boundaries or any kind of differentiation between territories is also recognizable in the Dutch Frans Post’s (1612-1680) paintings of sugar production farms. Here, it is not possible to separate cultivated landscapes from nature, since the overview provided by the painter was of a unique type of landscape. The only identifying element is the building of the engenho (sugar mill). Everything else was “natural” landscape. The Brazilian landscape perception and its depictions raise several questions, especially after defining our interest in matching this painter’s work with the texts that were studied. However, these paintings do not provide much new information, since, again, they do not present any boundaries between natural landscapes and cultivated landscapes, as it would be expected from a sugar production farm. Frans Post’s interest in the Brazilian exotic flora is clear from the details in the depiction of the different vegetal species. These details had a privileged role in his work. The cultural construction of the Brazilian landscape through words and paintings immediately converges in Frans Post’s work. This was accomplished not only because of the clear link the Dutch landscape painter established between painting and location – Brazil – (which Frans Post visited and painted in the second half of the 17 th century); but also because of his particular understanding of nature and painting.
Abstract: Nowadays there is a substan al group of authors that favour the thought about the planet in unorthodox ways, since it is not formed in a Cartesian manner, not only quan fi ed. In the present study scien sts who work with the decolonial approach are studied, in other words, modifying the imposed view by groups and economic system in a mul cultural society, thinking about the transforma on of the planet favoring those who are invisible. All the theorists in this work converge to a fair society, where the respect to diﬀ erent cultures is synonym of a decolonial world being in mately related to the local development theory. This work has as goal to show the cri cism these researchers make to the current system, which is aggressive and dissolves many groups that does not accept the modus operandi stablished. Key words: decolonial thought; sustainability; local development.
It is clear up to this point that the effort of renewal of historicist standpoint in that paper of 1958 rests on the argument against the deterministic conception, established since the seventeenth century and at a later stage persistently reaffirmed as a precondition of any investigation that would claim the achievement of the scientific level. In case of Marxism, this conception rests on the wrong mechanical relationship between structure and superstructure that it heads by defending a position according to which “human agency is essentially ineffective”, because “[H]istory occurs […] independently of human will and desire” 37 . By the epistemological point of view, the macintyrean disapproval is turned against the perspective that admits in some way the universality of the causal or mechanistic principle as a means of explanation, against which the Scottish philosopher had expressed his negative opinion in Determinism (1957), which states that:
Despite our dissertation only focus 1990-2018, and, therefore, the data doesn’t reflect this new scenario, there is no doubt that Covid-19 is affecting the global economy and how global power is distributed. In this context, Summers (2020) considers the pandemics as the turning point to entering in an Asian Century. This new virus highlights the need for a rebalancing of global supply chains to more regional ones (Cox, Watkins &Yueh, 2020). Indeed, countries are searching for diversification of their supply chains away from China (Chellaney, 2020). On the other hand, China is taken advantage of this period, for making political moves such as taking Hong Kong autonomy, police the waters of Senkaku Islands and border disputes in India. According to Chellaney, these moves were created to divert the world attention from a possible China’s culpability in the Covid-19 spread. Besides that, Sino-American relations are getting worse, as US blames China for the Covid-19 novel, and there are also rising ten- sions in the South China Sea (Mastro, 2020).