It is known that variations in the chemicalcomposition of fishes are closely related to nutrition, live area, fish size, catching season, and seasonal and sexual variations as well as other environmental conditions (ERKAN; ÔZDEN, 2006). It is unclear how the dietary α-tocopheryl acetate supplementation affected filletcomposition of tilapia in our experiment because no differences were observed in similar papers that evaluated vitamin E supplementation in feeds with regard to the chemicalcomposition of tilapia (HUANG; HUANG, 2004), sea bream (PIRINI et al., 2000), and trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (CHAIYAPECHARA et al., 2003). Therefore, the variations in composition found in the present work between treatments were minimal and did not affect the nutritional value of tilapiafillet.
The analysis of glutathione peroxidase was performed using spectrophotometry according to Paglia and Valentine (1967). Vitamin C determination (method 967.21) was performed according to AOAC (ASSOCIATION..., 1990), while selenium (method 985.35), protein (method 988.10), and ether extract (method 920.39, C) were analyzed according to AOAC (ASSOCIATION..., 1995). The mineral material (method 900.02) and humidity (method 926.12) were determined according to AOAC (ASSOCIATION..., 1996), and vitamin E was determined by HPLC according to Matthey, Graf and Flachowsky (1991). The hematocrit was analyzed in a hematology analyzer (ABX Micros 60, Horiba®). Selenium concentration in the muscle followed the method described by Tinggi (1999) and was analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Prior to the chemicalcomposition analysis, the samples were lyophilized for 24 hours.
This study evaluated the effect of adding flaxseed flour to the diet of Nile tilapia on the fatty acid composition of fillets using chemometrics. A traditional and an experimental diet containing flaxseed flour were used to feed the fish for 60 days. An increase of 18:3 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 and a decrease of 18:2 n-6 were observed in the tilapia fillets fed the experimental diet. There was a reduction in the n-6:n-3 ratio. A period of 45 days of incorporation caused a significant change in tilapiachemicalcomposition. Principal Component Analysis showed that the time periods of 45 and 60 days positively contributed to the total content of n-3, LNA, and DHA, highlighting the effect of omega-3 incorporation in the treatment containing flaxseed flour.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this work is to quantify lipid classes founded in fillets of Tilapia do Nilo, Oreochomis niloticus. The total lipids (TL) were fractionated by open column chromatography in neutral lipids (NL), glyceroglycolipids (GL) and glycerophospholipid (PL). Five lots of samples, each one containing four specimens, were obtained from retail stores in Fortaleza (Ceará State - Brazil) in sep, oct, nov and dec of 2011. The TL was averaged in 3.8% of muscle, on wet mass basis. The dominant lipid class was NL averaging at 74.5% in relation to the TL or 2.9g/100g of fillet. The GL and PL contributed on average with 1.5% (61mg/100g of fillet) and 23.1% (885mg/100g of fillet), respectively. The approximate composition had average of 76.0% moisture, 19.3% total protein, and 2.0% ash.
Abstract: The purpose of this work is to quantify lipid classes founded in fillets of Tilapia do Nilo, Oreochomis niloticus. The total lipids (TL) were fractionated by open column chromatography in neutral lipids (NL), glyceroglycolipids (GL) and glycerophospholipid (PL). Five lots of samples, each one containing four specimens, were obtained from retail stores in Fortaleza (Ceará State - Brazil) in sep, oct, nov and dec of 2011. The TL was averaged in 3.8% of muscle, on wet mass basis. The dominant lipid class was NL averaging at 74.5% in relation to the TL or 2.9g/100g of fillet. The GL and PL contributed on average with 1.5% (61mg/100g of fillet) and 23.1% (885mg/100g of fillet), respectively. The approximate composition had average of 76.0% moisture, 19.3% total protein, and 2.0% ash.
The experiment was approved by the animal ethics committee of the Federal University of Piauí, registration no. 283/17. The research was developed in the Poultry Sector of the Bom Jesus Technical College in the State of Piauí (PI), associated with the Federal University of Piauí (UFPI). The chemical analysis the composition of the food and excreta was carried out at the Animal Nutrition Laboratory of UFPI and at LAVINESP, UNESP in Jaboticabal, São Paulo.
ABSTRACT – The insect Dysmicoccus brevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) has been reported as an important pest for several crops, especially coffee. The citrus essential oils can be obtained as by-products of the citrus-processing industry and have been tested as an alternative to control different insect groups. Therefore, the objective of this work was to determine the chemicalcomposition and evaluate the toxicity of commercial sweet orange (Citrus sinensis), bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) and Sicilian lemon (Citrus limon) essential oils and pure monoterpene D-limonene on D. brevipes. The essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography. Two bioassays were conducted; the first assessing the insect mortality in all oils and the second assessing the lethal concentrations (LC 50 and LC 95 ) of the most effective oils. The main components of
Brazil has a beef cattle population of about 200 million animals, and pasture is the main food production system (IBGE, 2006). The area under pastoral land use in Brazil is 172 million ha (Mha). The first model of agricultural land use was based on the replacement of natural vegetation by a perennial grass, mostly palisadegrass (Urocholoa brinzatha) used for extensive grazing (Costa & Rehman, 1999). However, the extensive system of beef production is unsustainable because of the widespread degradation of pastures, leading to a severe reduction in dry matter yield (DMY) of forage and negative impacts of the soil chemical and physical properties (Macedo, 2009). Soil compaction caused by animal trampling affects the soil physical quality and plant growth (Willatt & Pullar, 1983). Soil compaction caused by grazing and other land uses decreases macroporosity (Pietola et al., 2005), increases bulk density (BD) (Leão et al., 2006), and alters aggregate size distribution (Franzluebbers & Stuedemann, 2008) with subsequent changes in physical and hydrological properties and processes.
In previous research, typical non-climacteric behavior was described for other loquat cultivars with a gradual decrease in ethylene production and respiration during the post- harvest period [cultivar Mogí (DING et al., 1998) and Algerie (AMORÓS et al., 2003)]. In low temperature (1 to 10 °C), storage tests with the Mogí, loquat, the respiratory intensities, and ethylene production decreased. As a consequence, their chemical characteristics were preserved and their shelf-life was extended (DING et al., 1998). Similar results were obtained for Precoce de Itaquera, when stored in 6 °C compared to 18 °C (CAMPOS et al., 2007).
Grape seed oil (GSO) is an important by-product of the wine-making industry which has received attention as an alternative source of vegetable oils; its chemical compounds can be influenced by agricultural practices and industrial processing. Knowledge of the composition of Brazilian GSO is scarce; thus, this study aimed to analyze the chemical characteristics, as well as the antioxidant activity of these oils. GSO samples were obtained from Brazilian markets and showed significantly high amounts of phenolic, γ-tocotrienol and phytosterols as well as, the presence of several volatile compounds. Based on these results, is possible to show that oils exhibited good antioxidant activity. Therefore, it can be inferred that Brazilian GSO had a considerable content of phytochemical compounds with biological activity, which allows its association with other vegetable oils.
The caatinga, predominant vegetation type in the Brazilian semiarid, is a plant formation rich in diversities of species of both woody and annual herbaceous plants. Classifying the caatinga is a great challenge, requiring evaluation of the variations in its physiognomy resulting from the main interaction between soil and climate, in addition to the anthropogenic interference. The vegetation established in this environment reﬂects heterogeneity in its physiognomic types, in its ﬂoristic composition, in its relative abundance and in the population dynamics (Araujo et al., 2007).
Chemicalcomposition (crude protein, crude fat, starch, neutral detergent bre – NDF and free α-amino acids) of six hazelnut cultivars (Butler, Ennis, Fertile de Coutard, Grossal, Merveille de Bollwiller and Segorbe) was investigated. Genotype signi cantly affected fruit nutritive value. Crude protein ranged from 12-17 g 100 g –1 dry weight (dw) in cultivar Ennis and Merveille de Bollwiller, respectively; crude fat was 50-62 g 100 g –1 dw in cvs. Fertile de Coutard and Butler; starch varied from 1.0 to 2.4 g 100 g –1 dw in cvs. Segorbe and Butler; and NDF was 8-14 g 100 g –1 dw in cvs. Merveille de Bollwiller and Ennis. Total free α-amino acids content ranged from 144 mg 100 g –1 dw (cv. Segorbe) to 413 mg 100 g –1 dw (cv. Butler). The essential amino acids content varied between 23 mg 100 g –1 dw (cv. Butler) to 55 mg 100 g –1 dw (cv. Merveille de Bollwiller). Alanine was the main amino acid found (62% of total amino acids) and methionine was the lowest (0.3%). Based on the available data on the phytochemical content of hazelnuts, including the data presented in this study, there is a high likelihood that this fruit will provide positive health bene ts.
After harvest, three 50-g seed samples per plot were analyzed in a completely randomized design for the protein and mineral contents (P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe). For this purpose, the seeds were air-dried to a moisture content of approximately 13%. Each sample was ground in a micro-mill (particle size < 1 mm), stored in completely sealed plastic bags, labeled, and refrigerated until laboratory tests. The chemical analyses were performed in the leaf analysis laboratory of the UFLA Chemistry Department.
At the end of marination (7 days) a reduction of 29 ± 1% w/w in the fillet was determined and it can be explained by the elimination of water, lipids, aminoacids, and other components. In herring, Borgstrom (1968) reported that during this stage around 2% of aminoacids can be lost (from the rupture of pro- teins that are dissolved in the marination solution) in addition to losing 14% of water, lipids, and other compounds resulting in an average loss of 25% in weight.
Assessment of individual characters during so- cial interactions is well reported, including some stud- ies on cichlid fishes (e.g. Turner and Huntingford, 1986). Moreover, Tinbergen (1972) has already shown, in his classic study on the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculleatus), that the initial response of male in a social interaction is to fight with any individu- al, until sex perception, leading to continued fighting or changing to courtship. Thus, the Nile tilapia recognizes the opponent’s sex in a similar way to the stickleback, but more time is demanding for such recognition.
coffee pulp contains associated bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols with good antioxidant properties, which endow additional health benefits (Geremu; Bekele; Sualeh, 2016), and anthocyanins that have potential applications as natural food colorants (Murthy; Naidu, 2012). The polyphenols can prevent or decrease the peroxidation of fatty acids, reduce oxidative stress in animals at critical physiological stages (Salinas et al., 2014), and increase the shelf life of animal meat when it is included in their diets (Salinas-Ríos et al., 2014). Ensiling coffee pulp is a viable process, and some chemicalcomposition studies have showed that, compared with fresh coffee pulp, silage has higher crude protein content and lower values of nitrogen- free extracts and tannin; additionally, the antioxidant capacity of coffee pulp remains unchanged during the ensiling process (Salazar et al., 2009; Salinas et al., 2014).
CHEMICALCOMPOSITION OF AEROSOL COLLECTED IN THE AMAZON FOREST. It was identified and quantified several organic compounds in the atmosphere of a site into Amazon Basin with high impact of biomass burning emission. It was important to know the particulate matter composition with respect to n-alkanes and PAH associated with the particulate matter because they provided indication on the main sources contributing to airborne particles, the con- tribution of natural vs. man-made emission and the aging of the particles. The main classes of compounds observed were n-alkanes, PAH and nitro-PAH. It was observed the formation of nitro- PAH from photochemical reactions. The aerosol mass concentration is mainly associated with fluoranthene, pyrene and benzo(ghi)perylene. Environmental and direct emissions samples (flam- ing and smoldering) were collected and analysed.
composition of Brazilian propolis and sea- sonal variations of its main constituents gave useful information about the plant origin of the investigated propolis samples. Evidently, both subspecies use one and the same pool of plant sources but bees from different sub-
The solid residue remaining after suberin depolymerization was used for determination of lignin and carbohydrates by acid hydrolysis. Acid insoluble (Klason) and acid soluble lignin were determined according to TAPPI T 222 om88 and TAPPI UM 250 standards, respectively. The composition of polysaccharides was evaluated after hydrolysis by determining the content in neutral monossacharides (rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, galactose, mannose and glucose) in the hydrolysate from the lignin analysis using high pressure ion-exchange chromatography with a pulsed amperometric detector (HPIC-PAD). The compounds were separated in a Dio- nex ICS-3000 system, with an Aminotrap plus Carbopac PA10 column (250 x 4 mm) using a linear gradient of NaOH and CH 3 COONa solution (0–20 min 18 mM NaOH; 20–25 min 50
In addition, the use of CT on smaller animals like fish could have unfavourable effects due to the existing radiation (Wu et al., 2015). Through the years this technology has suffered multiple enhancements, including shorter scan times, improved resolution and image manipulation (Mackey et al., 2008). Nowadays, this procedure delivers more than 100 slices per rotation, whose minimal thickness has decreased from 5mm to < 0.5mm. Furthermore, the gantry size can reach up to 90cm allowing for bigger animals to be scanned (Scholz et al., 2015). The first application of CT in animal research was performed by Skjervold et al. (1981), for the prediction of body composition in pigs (Romvári et al., 2002).