In view of the high cost and difficulty of execution, the dissection of half a carcass or cut has been replaced with the use of indirect methods to predict the tissuecomposition of carcasses. Two measures are usually employed for this purpose: carcass compactness, an index that estimates muscularity by the ratio between the chilled carcass and its internal length (CCW/ICL), representing an objective evaluation of conformation, and the ribeye area (REA), which is used to estimate the amount of muscle present in the carcass.
ABSTRACT - The effects of replacing Tifton hay with castor bean hulls (0, 33, 66 and 100%) on the leg tissuecomposition, chemical composition, physicochemical parameters and sensorial traits of sheep meat were studied. A total of 28 non-castrated sheep averaging seven months in age with an average initial weight of 19.5±4.3 kg were assigned to a randomized block design with four treatments and seven replicates and were slaughtered after 70 days of conﬁnement. At slaughter, body weight and leg, muscle and bone weights decreased linearly, whereas the muscle-to-bone ratio increased linearly according to the treatments. There was a quadratic effect on yellow intensity (maximum of 8.05 with replacement of 54.5%) and the percentage of cooking losses (minimum of 33.8% with replacement of 45.17%). The treatment employed did not affect either the chemical composition or sensorial traits of the lamb meat. Although replacing Tifton hay with castor bean hulls alters the tissuecomposition of the leg as well as some physicochemical parameters of the meat, the sensory analysis indicated good acceptability of the meat, regardless of the inclusion of this byproduct.
Slaughter yield and carcass tissuecomposition were compared in three different broiler chicken production sets. The highest body weight (1892.5 g), eviscerated carcass weight with neck (1406.9 g) and slaughter yield (74.5%) were found in Ross 308 chickens, whilst the lowest values of these traits occurred in JV chickens (respectively: 1753.3; 1288.2 g; 73.3%). The highest muscle contents (45.4% breast muscles and leg muscles in carcass) and the lowest fattiness (7.9% skin with subcutaneous fat and 1.5% abdominal fat) were found in Hubbard Evolution chickens. KEY WORDS: broiler, Ross, Hubbard, JV, slaughter yield
weighed to obtain the hot carcass weight (HCW), followed by determination of carcass yield (HCY). After being divided into half-carcasses, they were taken to the cold room, where they remained for 24 hours at 4°C. After the cooling period, the cold carcass weight (CCW) and cold carcass yield (CCY) were obtained. Measurements of carcass length were taken from the right half-carcass and measured from the anterior edge of the pubic bone to the medial cranial edge of the first rib. On the same half- carcass, a perpendicular cut was made in the longissimus dorsi muscle level with the 12th rib, and the subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) measured with calipers. In order to calculate the loin-eye area (LEA), the exposed longissimus dorsi muscle was drawn onto tracing paper. Tissuecomposition, represented by estimates of the percentages of bone, muscle and fat on the carcasses, was calculated by physical separation of the relevant sections of the 9 th, 10 th and 11 th ribs on the right half-carcass, following the method recommended by Hankins and Howe (1946).
ABSTRACT - The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of using silk flower hay replacing corn and soybean meal on physical-chemical and sensorial traits of lamb meat. It was used 32 intact Morada Nova male lambs (12.7 ± 2 kg initial body weigth) on feedlot system, distributed in a completely randomized design with four levels (0, 15, 30 and 45% on dry matter basis). The use of silk flower hay in the diet influenced quality of meat and carcass, leg weight, tissuecomposition, moisture, juiciness and flavor. Replacing corn (26.67%) and soybean (3.33%) with silk flower hay does not affect the tissuecomposition, ratios and muscularity index of leg and physical-chemical parameters of semimembranosus muscle of Morada Nova lambs.
The most accurate method to determine the composition of the carcass is the dissection, which is the separation of muscles, bones, fat and other components. However, the dissection of the whole carcass or half carcass is justified only in special cases, to be slow, laborious and costly being the most common the dissection of the main commercial cuts. The most used are the palette and / or the leg, having a high correlation coefficient with the overall composition of the carcass, together constituting over 50% of the lamb carcass  - . Preferably the dissection is performed in the leg by finding in it the biggest accumulation of muscle mass , being their tissuecomposition of great importance for evaluating the carcass quality .
Research providing more information on the tissuecomposition of carcass cuts of goats finished in native pasture are of great importance, since there are scarce studies about the tissuecomposition of carcass cuts in cross-bred F1 (Boer with females of non defined racial standard - SPRD). These might contribute to the economic sustainability of the activity, because carcass of younger animals could be obtained without the high costs of confinement and a better quality product would increase the consumption of goat meat. For this reason, we aimed to assess the effect of levels of concentrate supplementation levels on the tissuecomposition of cuts (leg, loin, ribs, shoulder and neck) of cross-bred F1 (Boer × SPRD) goats finished in native pasture.
TDF combines scrap tires, which are continuously fed to the kiln, and whole tires, which are fed to the kiln in regular intervals of ca. 30 s each. For this particular study, the current fuel composition was changed, in order to assess the effect of the fuel on the chemical and mineralogical composition of the clinker. Fuel compositions during clinker sampling were: (A) pet coke + coal + scrap waste tires + whole waste tires, which is the current fuel used in the plant; (B) pet coke + coal + scrap waste tires; (C) pet coke + coal. Capital letters A, B and C are used throughout this paper to indicate fuel composition. For each fuel composition, ive samples of clinker (5 kg each) were collected in the lifter to the silo, one sample per hour; each clinker sample is composed by the ive sub-samples, that were checked for their compositional homogeneity and mechanically mixed. Clinker sampling started two hours after changing the fuel composition, for the system to reach equilibrium and avoid major oscillations
Moderate to vigorous physical activity plays a recognized osteogenic effect on bone. Moreover, sed- entary time, and fat accumulation are unfavorable to bone health. Our study aimed (1) to examine changes in body composition, bone tissue, physical activity, and sedentary time; and (2) to explore whether changes in physical activity intensities and in sedentary time are associated with changes in bone outcomes after a school-based interdisciplinary intervention program. A total of 53 over- weight/obese students (10.6 ± 3.5 year-olds; 26 girls) participated in physical activity classes. Bone area, bone mass, and bone mineral density z-score, body composition (fat mass, fat lean mass), phys- ical activity, sedentary time and potential confounders (vitamin D and maturational status) were assessed at baseline, and 8 months later. General Linear Models were carried out and significance level was set at 5%. Changes in moderate to vigorous physical activity were positively correlated with changes in all bone mass indicators. We observed a significant overall effect of the intervention on bone mineral density z-score changes, however after adjustments for changes in sedentary time and moderate to vigorous physical activity, no effect was observed. Finally, variations in sedentary time and in moderate to vigorous physical activity play an important role in bone mass density in those participants of the interdisciplinary program.
The coral, Montipora capitata, inhabiting the Wai‘ōpae tide pools along southeast Hawai‘i Island exhibits a higher prevalence of GAs than any other surveyed sites throughout the Hawaiian archipelago [γ9–41]. The GA lesions affecting M. capitata at this site display the following morphological characteristics; exophytic nodular protrusion, distinct and undulating margins, pale appearance, and fusion of tuberculae [γ4]. Two distinct morphological forms of this disease affect M. capitata corals, Type A and Type B (Figure 1), with Type B exhibiting more degenerative features of this disease [γ4,γ5]. This study utilized PAM fluorometry to characterize the impacts of Type A and B GAs on Symbiodinium photophysiology. Furthermore, the density and genotype of symbionts were analyzed from tissue used for PAM measurements. Investigating Symbiodinium characteristics within healthy and diseased M. capitata tissue enabled quantification of GA impacts to the endosymbiotic component of the M. capitata coral holobiont.
This study evaluated the effect of adding flaxseed flour to the diet of Nile tilapia on the fatty acid composition of fillets using chemometrics. A traditional and an experimental diet containing flaxseed flour were used to feed the fish for 60 days. An increase of 18:3 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 and a decrease of 18:2 n-6 were observed in the tilapia fillets fed the experimental diet. There was a reduction in the n-6:n-3 ratio. A period of 45 days of incorporation caused a significant change in tilapia chemical composition. Principal Component Analysis showed that the time periods of 45 and 60 days positively contributed to the total content of n-3, LNA, and DHA, highlighting the effect of omega-3 incorporation in the treatment containing flaxseed flour.
The Agilent CE based detection system relies on the use of conventional PCR followed by CE based separation of amplicons in a polyacrylamide matrix using a 12 well Labchip. This gives a high level of product separation and the potential for quantitative measurement by being able to measure the net fluorescent signal obtained for each PCR product and is a relatively low cost alternative to that of real time PCR. Reactions were carried out as a duplex utilising the ratio of the total GFAP amplicon signal obtained compared to that of the neuronal specific amplicon signal, to normalise and attempt to quantitate the level of non-muscle specific amplicon. This method has been proven to work in a similar fashion for the quantitative detection of Roundup Ready soya (Burns et al., 2003) using the ratio of the lectin gene signal (detecting GM plus non-GM soya) to that of the Roundup Ready soya specific amplicon (GM specific). It enables a cut off limit to be set, that is designated as the background signal resulting from any residual non-methylated GFAP sequence normally present in muscle tissue which will be linked to the possible presence of GFA P protein in peripheral nervous system tissue. Any signal designated as resulting from neuronal tissue would therefore have to be above this as compared to a 100% muscle control run on the chip.
The gene regulatory network (Figure 3, left side) was constructed using two attribute types. First, output from the promoter sequence analysis was used to create edges linking genes and transcription factors (TFs). Specifically, edges were construct- ed only where analysis revealed a given gene contained a transcription factor binding site (TFBS) corresponding to the linked TF. Second, differential gene expression observed between piebald and non-piebald tissue was used. To obtain a global understanding of gene expression across the seven tissue contrasts (DE1–7), we first calculated the correlation (R-value) for each pair- wise combination (all 21 combinations are plotted in Figure S5). This revealed the highest three correlations (R = 0.88, 0.82 and 0.79) were observed for combinations (DE3, DE5 and DE6) which in each case compared a piebald (only white or all piebald) versus a non-piebald sample (using the normal sample, all the white non- piebald or all the non-piebald, respectively). For each gene, we therefore used the average value (from DE3, DE5 and DE6) as input in the network to show genes as either over-expressed (red), under-expressed (green) or having unchanged expression (orange) in the piebald condition. Using the two attributes the network was joined, visualised and explored using the Cytoscape software . For the epistatic network (Figure 3, right side) SNP pairs were used as input which displayed evidence for epistasis. Contingency tables comprising 9 rows (combinations of two loci genotypes) and 2 columns (containing genotype counts within either the piebald or non-piebald populations) were constructed for each of the 25,425 pair-wise combinations of 226 SNP significantly associated with the piebald condition. The distribution of observations in each table were tested (P,0.001 from a chi-square test with 8 degrees of freedom) to identify 645 significant pairs. A subset of these significant pairs may result from linkage disequilibrium (as opposed to epistasis) where SNP pairs are in close physical proximity (,100 Kb). To generate the epistatic network using this data, we used the closest gene to each SNP in a significant pair. As for the regulatory network, DE was incorporated from the average of DE3, DE5 and DE6 and Cytoscape was used to built and explore the network .
The need for one-step room temperature preservation of phosphoproteins and histomorphology transcends diagnostic pa- thology to the broader research community. Preservation of phosphoproteins and tissue morphology within the same piece of tissue could have the potential to be adopted by clinical pathologists, biobanks, and open the way for parallel clinical diagnosis and molecular analysis. Based on this critical need, we asked the question if it is possible to stabilize phosphoproteins at room temperature in a paraffin block with diagnostic quality tissue morphology and preservation of protein antigenicity (Figure 1). To this end we designed a novel fixative chemistry based on the initially identified chemical principles required for an optimal phosphopro- tein preservative : (i) a combination of both kinase and phosphatase inhibitors to immediately arrest both sides of the kinase/phosphatase biochemical processes that occur continuously inside the cell and tissue, (ii) permeation enhancers to decrease penetration times into individual cells, (iii) a precipitating fixative with reversible cross-linkers to cross-link proteins beyond the active lifetime of the inhibitors, and (iv) an osmotically balanced buffer with a carboxylic acid to maintain tissue/cell morphology during fixation (Table 1). We previously demonstrated the successful application of this preservation strategy as a transport medium for downstream frozen tissue section applications . However, preservation of phosphoproteins in frozen tissue is only useful in a research setting and is not applicable to routine medical practice or field-based research. Consequently we further developed the initial prototype phosphoprotein preservation chemistry as a solution compatible with room temperature collection followed by subse- quent paraffin embedding. We evaluated the state of protein and post-translationally modified proteins from mouse, cat, and human tissues fixed in our biomarker and histology preservative (BHP) for (i) retention of phosphorylated levels over extended fixation time and in comparison to snap-frozen material, (iii) overall yield of extractable biomolecules, (iv) preservation of tissue morphology in multiple organs and tissues, and (v) preservation of key diagnostic immunohistochemistry antigens.
geometry. The collected spectra were processed by the Bruker Opus software package version 6.0. In samples submitted to micro- spectroscopy, the laser is focused on the tissue by an Olympus BX 40× microscope objective. Micro-spectroscopy Raman imaging was performed by consecutive Raman measurements that were spatially resolved point by point on different places in a sample selected after visual inspection through the microscope. A collec- tion of Raman spectra across a defined area of the coral tissue generated a map recorded on a RamanScope III Bruker microscope with an Olympus BX 40× objective and a motorized stage coupled to a MultiRAM FT-Raman spectrometer equipped with a 1064 nm laser line and a germanium detector. All spectra were collected in a 50–4000 cm −1 range with 4 cm −1 resolution, 300 scans per point
differentiate, and resist chemotherapy and thus maintain the cancer growth. To date, the origin of CSCs remains a mystery. At least three possible origins of CSCs have been proposed, including 1) tissue-specific stem cells ; 2) BMDCs [6,15]; and 3) fusion cells derived from BMDCs and tissue-specific progenitor or stem cells [18–20]. In this study, we utilized a bone marrow transplantation animal model to investigate the origin of CSCs in chemically induced (DEN) tumors. DEN is a carcinogen that can induce tumors in various organs including the liver and skin and in the gastrointestinal, respiratory and hematopoietic systems in mice. When metabolized, DEN in converted into an electrophilic ethyldiazonium ion that can react with DNA bases and form adducts and thus may cause DNA mutations and strand breaks that ultimately contribute to pathogenesis . In our model, we used a high dose of DEN (60 ppm) in drinking water for 12 weeks to increase the frequency and shorten the period of tumor formation. Using this strategy, tumors were successfully induced in the liver, lung, bladder and nasopharynx.
Table 2 summarizes the morphometric results. The proportion of alveolar septal cells immunostained for COX-1 and COX-2 was significantly higher in the UIP and NSIP tissues than in the control tissue. In other words, high proportions of alveolar septal cells staining for COX-1 and COX-2 were associated with the UIP and NSIP patterns. As can be seen in the bar plots in Figure 1 (S and T) the relationship of COX-1 and COX-2 with IPF (the UIP pattern) was stronger than was that of COX-1 and COX-2 with SSc (the NSIP pattern). Although the proportion of bronchiolar cells immunostained for COX-2 was lower in the NSIP and UIP tissues than in the control tissue (Figure 1W), the difference was not statistically significant. In addition, although the proportion of bronchiolar cells immunostained for COX-1 was higher in the UIP and NSIP tissues than in the control tissue (Figure 1W), the difference was not significant. No differences were found among the tissues in terms of the COX-1 or COX-2 immunostaining, for vessels or for the total parenchyma (Table 2). A preliminary analysis of the Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that survival was better in the patients with SSc (the fibrotic NSIP pattern) and COX-2 expression > 2.25% (median survival, 70.75 months) than in those with IPF (the UIP pattern) and COX-2 expression < 2.25% (median survival, 46.32 months; Figure 2). Therefore, we coded the fibrotic NSIP pattern as a single dummy variable with a value of 1 and the UIP pattern with a value of 2. The results of the multivariate analysis based on the Cox proportional hazards regression model are shown in Table 3. After controlling for age, pulmonary function test results, the UIP pattern, and the fibrotic NSIP pattern, we found that only two variables were significantly associated with survival time: the fibrotic NSIP pattern and alveolar septal COX-2 (p = 0.02). Once these two variables were accounted for, none of the others were related in ascending order and divided into two groups
Medical imaging plays an important role in patients’ care and is continuously being used in managing health and disease. To obtain the maximum benefit from this rapidly developing technology, further research is needed. Ideally, this research should be done in a patient-safe and environment-friendly manner; for example, on phantoms. The goal of this work was to develop a protocol and manufacture a multimodal liver phantom that is suitable for ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging modalities. The proposed phantom consists of three types of mimicked soft tissues: liver parenchyma, tumors, and portal veins, that are made of six ingredients: candle gel, sephadexH, agarose, glycerol, distilled water, and silicone string. The entire procedure is advantageous, since preparation of the phantom is simple, rather cost- effective, and reasonably quick – it takes around 2 days. Besides, most of the phantom’s parts can be reused to manufacture a new phantom. Comparison of ultrasound images of real patient’s liver and the developed phantom shows that the phantom’s liver tissue and its structures are well simulated.