The results obtained are shown in Table 1. The mean serum concentrations of vitaminC in all the three trimesters were lower than the control. Average totalvitaminC concentration in the first trimester was 20 % less than the control vitaminC concentra- tion of 3.15 ± 0.13 mg/dl, (p <0.05). TotalvitaminC concentration in the second trimester was 26 % less than the control concentration (p <0.05). The largest decrease was found in the third trimester, with a 75% drop relative to the control serum totalvitaminC concentration (p <0.05).
Taking into account the established DRI, orange juices can be considered a good source of vitaminC. Most of the vitaminC content in the analysed orange juices is due to the presence of L-ascorbic acid, which is the main biologically active form of this vitamin and it is an effective antioxidant. Since orange juice is an important and highly consumed source of vitaminC, and due to the wide range of different types of orange juices available in the market, it is essential to analyse totalvitaminC content (L-ascorbic and L-dehydroascorbic acids).
Abstract This study provides a versatile validated method to determine the totalvitaminC content, as the sum of the contents of L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) and dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA), in several fruits and vegetables and its degradability with storage time. Seven horticultural crops from two different origins were analyzed using an ultra- high-performance liquid chromatographic–photodiode array (UHPLC-PDA) system, equipped with a new trifunctional high strength silica (100% silica particle) analytical column (100 mm×2.1 mm, 1.7 μm particle size) using 0.1% (v/v) formic acid as mobile phase, in isocratic mode. This new stationary phase, specially designed for polar compounds, overcomes the problems normally encountered in HPLC and is suitable for the analysis of large batches of samples without L-AA degradation. In addition, it proves to be an excellent alternative to conventional C18 columns for the determination of L-AA in fruits and vegetables. The method was fully validated in terms of linearity, detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) limits, accuracy, and inter/intra- day precision. Validation experiments revealed very good recovery rate of 96.6±4.4% for L-AA and 103.1±4.8 % for totalvitaminC, good linearity with r 2 -values >0.999 within the established concentration range, excellent repeatability (0.5%), and reproducibility (1.6%) values. The LOD of the method was 22 ng/mL whereas the LOQ was 67 ng/mL. It was possible to demonstrate that L-AA and DHAA
Collard greens (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) “Manteiga” were harvested in commercial fields in Brasilia, Brazil, aiming to evaluate different oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen combinations to extend the shelf life of the fresh-cut product. After harvest, leaves were taken to the postharvest laboratory, selected for external blemishes and minimally processed (3 mm thick) inside a cold room (13±2°C). After processing, fresh-cut collard greens were stored under two controlled atmosphere (CA) conditions (3% O 2 , 4% CO 2 ; 5% O 2 , 5% CO 2 /balance N 2 ), and normal air (control), at 5°C (95±2% RH), for six days. Daily, minimally processed collard greens were evaluated for totalvitaminC, total chlorophyll, total soluble solids content, and titratable acidity. TotalvitaminC content decreased for all treatments during the storage period. Storage under CA conditions delayed totalvitaminC degradation for both atmospheres studied. At the end of the storage period, fresh-cut collard greens stored under 3% O 2 , 4% CO 2 showed around 25% and 56% more vitaminC than the material stored under 5% O 2 , 5% CO 2 and control, respectively. Total chlorophyll content decreased during the storage period. At the end of the experiment, fresh-cut collard greens stored under 3% O 2 , 4% CO 2 showed 24% and 45% more total chlorophyll than the product stored under 5% O 2 , 5% CO 2 and control, respectively. CA storage delayed organic acid degradation. On the sixth day, fresh- cut collard greens stored under 3% O 2 , 4% CO 2 presented around 44% more organic acids than control. Total soluble solids content were not significantly affected.
ABSTRACT – Information on antioxidant properties at different ontological stages may help producers and food technologists to identify which cultivar and/or maturity stage are most adequate for their need, therefore this work aimed to study the changes in the antioxidant metabolism during acerola development. Fruit from cv. Flor Branca, BRS366 and Florida Sweet were harvested at different stages: immature green colored (I), physiologically mature with green color and maximum size (II), breaker (III) and full red ripe (IV). After harvest, fruits were selected, divided into four replications with 500 g each and evaluated regarding their titratable acidity, pH, soluble solids, total soluble sugar, vitaminC, polyphenol, anthocyanin, yellow flavonoid, total antioxidant activity and antioxidant enzyme activity. Anthocyanin and flavonoid were determined through LC-DAD-ESI/MS and all analysis followed a completely randomized factorial 3 x 4 design. Fruits of ‘Florida Sweet’ presented significantly higher soluble solids (9.46°Brix). VitaminC content decreased during ripening, but ripe ‘BRS 366’ fruits showed the greatest values (1363 mg.100 g -1 ) and highest TAA
Amaç: C vitamini biyolojik sistemlerdeki mükemmel bir antioksidandır. An- cak, C vitaminin prooksidan madde olarak kullanımı da yaygındır. Bu çelişki- li olgu C vitamininin mükemmel bir indirgeyici madde olmasından kaynaklan- maktadır. Diğer yandan, Karbon tetraklorüre baktığımızda, karbon tetraklo- rür uygulamasına bağlı hepatotoksisite insidansnda artış olduğu bildirilmek- tedir. Bu çalışmada, tek doz karbon tetraklorür uygulanmış erkek Wistar türü sıçanlarda farklı dozlardaki C vitamininin lipid peroksidasyonu, alanin tran- saminaz, aspartat transaminaz, glutatyon ve protein oksidasyon düzeylerine pozitif bir etkisinin olup olmadığı araştırıldı. Gereç ve Yöntem: İki kontrol gru- bu ve dört tedavi grubu olmak üzere 6 grup ve toplamda altmış Wistar albi- no sıçan kullanıldı. Deney gruplarına sırasıyla 4 ml distile su içinde 100 mg / kg, 200 mg / kg, 400 mg / kg ve 800 mg / kg C vitamini verilirken kontrol gruplarına oral yoldan gastrik entübasyon ile 4 ml distile su verilmiştir. Bul- gular: 40 gün boyunca yapılan uygulama sonunda 100 ile 400 mg / kg arasın- daki artan C vitamini konsantrasyonları, karbon tetraklorür ile muamele edi- len erkek Wistar sıçanların farklı biyokimyasal parametreleri üzerinde önemli bir koruma ve azalma sağlamıştır. Ancak, aynı koruma C vitamininin 800 mg / kg konsantrasyonunda gözlenmemiştir, Üstelik bu konsantrasyondaki C vi- tamini karbon tetraklorür tarafından uyarılan toksik etki kadar zaralı bir etki göstermiştir. Tartışma: Bu sonuçlar, yüksek dozlardaki C vitamininin doku ko- ruyucu bir madde olarak kullanılmasının uygun olmadığını göstermiştir. Ayrı- ca, sonuçlar antioksidan olduğu bilinen bir maddenin, doza bağlı olarak pro- oksidan madde gibi hareket edebileceğini düşündürmektedir.
ABSTRACT - In the rural region of the municipality of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, forest patches are encountered and they present a great diversity of wild and edible fruit, where wild pineapple (Ananas bracteatus (Lindl.), var. albus) is one of those of greatest occurrence. Given that, little is known about the nutritional characteristics of this fruit, the present study aimed to investigate the physical and physic-chemical characteristics, chemical composition (titratable acidity, total soluble solids, pH, moisture content, ash, protein, lipids and dietary fiber), carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin and lycopene), vitaminC (AA and DHA) by HPLC-DAD, vitamin E (α-, β-, γ-, δ-, tocopherols and tocotrienols) by HPLC-fluorescence, and minerals (P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn, Na, Cr, Se and Mo) by ICP-AES. Fruits showed a moisture content average of 78.5 g 100g -1 , 16.3 ° Brix of soluble solids, titratable acidity equal to 1.71 g 100g -1 of citric acid, 1.66 g
Ascorbic acid (AA) is hexuronic acid lactone micronutrient being lipophobic in its nature. It cannot be synthesized by human being and hence should be supplied externally from food. AA performs different biochemical functions inside the body includ- ing synthesis and maintenance of collagen (Esteban-Pretel et al., 2013; Kishimoto et al., 2013; Findik et al., 2016), immunostim- ulant (Tewary and Patra, 2008), anti-aging (Xu et al., 2012), and skin rejuvenating agent (Zahouani et al., 2002; Crisan et al., 2015), skin whitening effects (Smith, 1999; Traikovich, 1999), neuro- modulator (Rebec and Pierce, 1994), anti-oxidant, free radical scavenger (Cathcart, 1985; Erb et al., 2004) and antiviral (Jariwalla and Harakeh, 1996). In the skin AA plays a vital role as a sub- strate for oxidative stressors and hence prevents damage to skin caused by ROS and other reactive oxidants produced as a result of UV exposure. Topical application of AA can provide objective and subjective improvements in photo-damaged facial skin as con- firmed by quantitation of skin surface texture changes (Traikovich, 1999). Amount of AA in persimmon fruit is ranged between 180 to 200 mg per 100 g of fresh weight (FW), which is subjected to variation during ripening stages (Del Bubba et al., 2009). Total AA contents in fruits have a mean value of 47 ± 39 mg/100 g FW with 3.5 mg/100 g FW in the astringent variety Costata to 146 mg/100 g FW in the non-astringent cultivar Hana Fuyu (Del Bubba et al., 2009). Persimmon leaves are also tested to be enriched with AA contents localized in cytosol of palisade parenchyma tissue cells (Kusunoki et al., 1998).
Based on these studies, the authors decided to investigate the effectiveness of vitaminC in combating the oxidative insult caused by progressive T. cruzi inflammation during the evolution of Chagas disease in its chronic phase, by administering two different daily dosages of vitaminC to mice experimentally infected with the T. cruzi QM1strain, since the common sense of its role in antioxidant defense makes its use indiscriminate among people, including chronic carriers of Chagas disease.
A close correlation between vitamin D receptor (VDR) abundance and cell proliferation rate has been shown in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts, MCF- 7 breast cancer and in HL-60 myeloblastic cells. We have now determined if this association occurs in other leukemic cell lines, U937 and K562, and if VDR content is related to c-myc expression, which is also linked to cell growth state. Upon phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) treatment, cells from the three lineages (HL-60, U937 and K562) differentiated and expressed specific surface antigens. All cell lines analyzed were growth inhibited by PMA and the doubling time was increased, mainly due to an increased fraction of cells in the G0/G1 phase, as determined by flow cytometry measurements of incorporated bromodeoxyuridine and cell DNA content. C-myc mRNA expression was down-regulated and closely correlated to cell growth arrest. However, VDR expression in leukemic cell lines, as deter- mined by immunofluorescence and Northern blot assays, was not consistently changed upon inhibition of cell proliferation since VDR levels were down-regulated only in HL-60 cells. Our data suggest that VDR expression cannot be explained simply as a reflection of the leukemic cell growth state.
Mass loss in fruits is mainly due to perspiration. As the PVC film is a barrier to water vapor, it reduces the loss rate of strawberry mass because an atmosphere with high relative humidity was created inside the package, decreasing the water vapor pressure deficit and consequently the transpiration rate (YAMASHITA et al., 2006). The results obtained in this work are similar to those found by Valenzuela et al. (2015), which obtained 0.50% strawberry mass variation (Fragaria ananassa), on the fifth day of storage at 5 °C. Ávila et al. (2012) studied strawberry (cv. ‘Camino Real’) storage at 1 °C and observed reduction of 8,93% on the eighth day of storage when compared with the initial mass and Ventura-Aguilar et al. (2018) found approximately 4% of mass loss at 5 °C on fifth day storage (cv. ‘Camino Real’), this value is well below the results found in this study.
Grape juices were produced experimentally in the Enology Laboratory of the Federal University of Lavras (Lavras, MG, Brazil), using grapes from the 2012/2013 harvest, grown in the same region of southwestern of Minas Gerais in the institutional orchard. Four varieties of red grapes were used in the production of juice: ‘Bordô’ (Vitis labrusca), ‘Isabel Precoce’ (Vitis labrusca), ‘BRS Violeta’ (hybrid) and ‘BRS Rúbea’ (hybrid). After harvesting, grapes were kept in cold storage at 10°C ± 2°C for 12 hours. Then, fruits were sanitized with sodium hypochlorite at 200 mg.L -1 and the seeds were removed manually. Preparation of the grape juice was performed at 75°C ± 5°C for 1 hour, using an artisan equipment by drag steam according to Rizzon, Manfroi and Meneguzzo (1998). For each liter of grape juice, it was added 0.8g of potassium metabisulphite (Synth®, Diadema, Brazil). The potassium metabisulphite was used in order to preserve the product, to contain SO 2 (sulfur dioxide), which has antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. Then, the juice was immediately bottled in glass bottles of 100 ml and maintained under refrigeration (18°C ± 2°C) until analysis.
process signiicantly afected the total phenolic content when compared to that of fresh red pepper. here was no signiicant diference between the values obtained at 55 and 65 °C, but the total phenolic content of products dried at 75 °C were higher (p < 0.05) than those veriied at 55 and 65 °C. Probably, the high retention of phenolic compounds at 75 °C was due to the considerable reduction of drying time at this temperature, as described in 3.1 (Figure 1). It is well known that deterioration rates usually result from the time-temperature relationship. The formation of phenolic compounds at 75 °C might be due to the availability of precursors of phenolic molecules by interconversion mechanism between phenolic molecules (QUE et al., 2008; VEGA-GALVEZ et al., 2009).
The licuri fruits analyzed in this study exhibited high pulp yield. Their nutritional value was considered excellent due to the presence of vitaminC and E, carotenoids and minerals, and it was an excellent source of vitamin A, Cu, Fe, Mn, Cr and Mo. The caloric density was higher than that of many fruits consumed in Brazil, and it also presented high concentrations of total dietary fiber and lipids. The nutritional value and wide availability of this fruit make it an important tool for reducing food insecurity and improving nutrition of individuals residing near the Atlantic Forest, especially in rural households, since its consumption is part of the eating habit of these families.
A greater vitaminC content in citrus from organic compared with conventional farming systems was reported by Tarozzi et al. (2006) for the red orange cultivar ‘Tarocco’, by Lester et al. (2007) for the grapefruit cultivar ‘Rio Red’ and by Raigón (2007) for the mandarin cultivars ‘Nules’ and ‘Okitsu’ and orange cultivars ‘Newhall’ and ‘Navelina’. In the present work, we compared 18 different citrus types grown either in organic or conventional (integrated) farming, under similar environmental conditions, to investigate the influence of species or cultivar on the response to these two management systems.
Os parâmetros de especificidade, sensibilidade, linearidade, pre- cisão e exatidão obtidos permitem a utilização do método analítico desenvolvido para quantificação de vitamina C em amostras de soro, o qual não incluiu o uso de solventes orgânicos como fase móvel, sendo esta composta apenas por NaH 2 PO 4 e NaN 3 , tornando o método mais barato. O emprego de água e metanol na solução de limpeza previne danos no sistema cromatográfico após o trabalho. Além disso, de acordo com os resultados encontrados, apenas a desproteinização com ácido perclórico 10% é suficiente como tratamento pré-analítico, não sendo necessário o uso de solventes orgânicos ou outras etapas de extração, o que poderia aumentar o custo da análise e/ou prejudicar a quantificação de vitamina C.
Due to the decreased number of analyzed samples, it cannot be accurately concluded on the specific floral contribution in the vitamins content but it is kwon that a species can contribute with more than one vitamin. A study with mono-floral analysis could be more accurate. In addition, the differences of blooming, meteorological factors and soil quality may interfere in the percentage of vitamins found in the bee pollen. Further studies on such relationship are necessary, manly in the same season and place to confirm these results.
The species T. majus (leaf) and A. hybridus stood out mainly because they presented the highest rates of antioxidant activity and were also, among the highest values for the constitution in total phenols and vitaminC. The species S. byzantina presented the highest observed levels of total phenols as well as low levels of vitaminC, which has characterized it in presenting average capacity of free radical scavenging. The species B. alba, A. viridis, X. sagittifolium and T. majus (flower) presented high levels of vitaminC and average levels of phenols and antioxidant activity with the exception of T. majus flower that presented a high level of antioxidant activity (68.32%) when compared to other observed results. Among the other species evaluated, L. canadensis, R. acetosa 1 , R. acetosa 2 , E. campestre and H. sabdariffa were
Treatment of Prussian carp fertilized eggs with ascorbic acid increased larval tolerance against high temperature stress at 30°C. Cavalli et al (2003) evaluated the effect of dietary supplementation of vitamins C and E on maternal performance and larval quality of the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. They tested the tolerance of newly hatched and 8-day-old larvae of M. rosenbergii to ammonia exposure. Their results shown newly hatched and 8-day-old larvae tolerance tended to increase with increasing levels of AA and higher dietary levels of α-tocopherol acetate did not affect the tolerance to ammonia of newly hatched larvae, but it positively augmented the ammonia tolerance of 8-day-old larvae.
The NDF range of contents (21.60 to 29.62 g/100 g DM) found in the present study is similar to those obtained by CORRÊA et al. . Furthermore RAVINDRAN & RAVINDRAN , when evaluating the nutrient contents in CLM from leaves at different maturity stages, found that the contents of crude fibers were higher in the ripe leaves (27.4 g/100 g DM). Thus, the CLM is a source of fiber, because the levels it pres- ents are comparable with those in other leaves, such as total dietary fiber in the sweet potato leaves - 22.6 to 37.6 g/100 g DM  and in peanut leaves - 30.9 to 41.7 g/100 g DM .