The results of this study provide a picture of urban tourismproducts in KL, the most urbanized tourist destination in Malaysia. The result indicates that KL has enduring tourism potential, which should be developed to shape the basis of its distinctive nature as a tourist destination. Exceptional opportunities are also present to classify challenges that need to be tackled and conquered to guarantee the powerful development of urban tourism areas in the country. KL has a growing reputation as an international destination. However, the city should implement an innovative market, infrastructure, product, people, and information technology development vision and approach to compete effectively against other destinations. This result provides several implications for the urban tourism areas in Malaysia. The results offer a basis for improving the understanding and strength of urban tourism development to provide some justification for tourism development policy. The results also help in understanding the ability of the country to be a tourism generator and to exert effort in attracting tourists to urban areas within the country.
As well as the rest of the tourismproducts pro- posed, the historical re-enactments can oer dif- ferent typologies with diverse objectives. A dis- tinction is made between purely promotional re- enactments and those that are more rigorous and of higher quality (Ray et al., 2006; Rojas, 2018). Living history is a particular type of re-enactment based on military events. This typology is charac- terized by a real history that involves local popula- tion and look for rigour and authenticity in a desti- nation (Ray et al., 2006). These tourismproducts are made up of various elements such as accommo- dation in addition to the re-enactment experience itself. This is why we can speak of a complete product that attracts highly specialized tourists, which in turn requires a detailed planning, histori- cal rigour and tailor-made services (Agnew, 2007; Del Barco, 2009; Rojas, 2018). The design of this product could make the destinations more dyna- mics and improve the destination image (Carneiro et al., 2016).
A bstrAct : Benchmarking could be defined as the systematic process of identifying, com- paring and learning from the best practices or successful experiences of a particular sector in diverse geographical areas by disaggregating and analysing in an orderly manner the set of factors that condition their success. The outcome of this process helps improve key proc- esses of a sector or adapt those practices that after a long search have been proven successful, to other areas. This study has gathered, in an orderly and synthetic manner, diverse successful experiences that guarantee a sustainable model for tourism from a social, environmental and economic point of view. These experiences fall under four types of tourism: cultural or herit- age tourism, urban tourism, language learning tourism and rural tourism. In total, over forty success stories were analysed, ten per type, in twelve different European countries: Italy, France, Spain, The Netherlands, denmark, the United Kingdom, Poland, Germany, Greece, Norway, Austria and Ireland. on the other hand, this benchmarking of tourist products has allowed us to develop applicability models for other geographic realities, but above all, for the tour- ism reality of Galicia. Keywords: benchmarking, sustainable tourism, success stories, Galicia
In an increasingly global world, which tends to predominate competitiveness and change, the difference is, often, the ability to create discontinuities in the external environment. Many times the success is the ultimate goal, which focuses on searching for new products, new markets, new organizational forms and new sources of customer value. The purpose of this article was to identify contributes on special interest tourism innovation, in particular from the perspective of wine tourism, and products and services in wine management. In order to structure the sometimes unclear use of the innovation process (in tourism research), the article presented to primary classical innovation and entrepreneurship issues. For instance, the creation process associated with for nature and sustainable reservation systems, mechanisms and information sharing as a form of competitive advantage over other tourist destinations (social networks), the marketing of nature and sustainable, nature and wine tourism (products and services) as well as other related activities that can leverage the increased business synergies.
The managerial involvement establishes the organizational policy and incorporates employees in planning and organizing activities in order to achieve its objectives through analysis and forecasts, to motivate and ensure a favorable climate. Taking decisions with respect to the diversity of tourismproducts is up to the manager in the tourist facilities who seek and evaluate the service quality to attract a more diverse consumer segment. The consumers of tourismproducts are seeking various opportunities in the tourism market, characterized by the marketing environment, particularities and structure, market research stages, the main factors of influencing the demand being the supply and the tourist image. The management policy on the promotion of Şuior Tourist Complex is made through travel portals, its own website, participation in fairs and exhibitions, brochures from which tourists can find full information on facilities, rates, location and possibility to make reservations. Complex management is planning on two years period by involving staff at different levels, an appropriate information system being implemented in which messages are transmitter on both directions and a system of quality management and food safety. The continuous improvement processes to ensure customer-tourist satisfaction determined the leadership to improve the managerial activity, to better communicate the mission and promotional strategy, to practice more intensely the participative management and modern management techniques, to use a more consistent loyalty policy and to diversify the number of tourists and have a good knowledge of the competition.
The refusal to identify with the travel agency may have its origin in a limited understanding of the socio- economic phenomenon that represents the tourism. With some exceptions, tourism includes all travel outside of the village of residence and which do not imply a remuneration corresponding to the destination. So, tourism is translated by visits to relatives and friends, stay in the secondary housing, travel on business (delegates) or shopping, departures in holidays on their own, etc. In such cases, transport tickets may be purchased from a CFR agency. The difference between these statements and those related to tourismproducts "prefabricated" is not one of substance, but it regards the way to satisfy specific needs (housing, food, etc.) under non-commercial formulas (which does not guarantee a direct relation commodity - money) or by direct order and payment of the services in specialized units or as part of a package purchased in advance. In any case a formula is not more “tourist” than the related transport, but it involves a different degree of design and organization.
More attention should be paid to the accommodation capacities, which need to cover the tourists demand, but also to be integrated in the environment, without affecting the natural environment, the original topography and the beauty of landscape. Tourism should not generate pollution and disrupt the existence of flora and fauna.
In today’s world, companies must compete on a global scale, but they must also adjust to their environment, to become more efficient and effective locally. Networks can play a significant role, since they facilitate access to knowledge, resources, markets and technologies (COSTA et al, 2007). The tourism industry is in a transition phase and is subject to increasingly sophisticated demands. In response, tourist destinations are networking, on a wider scale, to offer a more satisfactory experience to the consumers of tourism (GRAY, 1996). However, Erkus-Öztürk and Eraydin (2010) state that, despite the increasing amount of discussion on the role of networking in tourism; this is not supported by empirical studies and fails to explain how these networks may contribute to the sustainable development of territories. To dispute this idea and, given the importance of partnerships for regional development and the increasing competitiveness in the tourism sector, this study aims to propose a conceptual model of tourism public-private partnerships, as a contribution to successful regional development.
In response to questions about how the research site could be improved both in terms of providing customer satisfaction to tourists and in terms of explaining the historical context of the site, respondents spoke about the need to improve the understanding of the context of the research site, since this is not clear even to people familiar with the Zhuang culture. The type of context involved emerged from additional internet resources up to the provision of a museum, with practical workshops and short-term training courses. More respondents favoured a middle course in which tourists would be provided with additional information prior to and during their tourism experience with effort expended o provide a physical trace of the visit (i.e. a take-home object) as well as to match the cultural background with the actual experience of travelling to and participating in the cruise. In general, it was considered that the destination management should focus on appropriate thematic content. Use of the popular online social media such as Weibo and Wechat was also commonly recommended.
From the input side, regarding the factors influencing competitiveness, there is a wide range of possibilities considered in the literature. Kozak (1999) points out some distinctions between the concepts of competitiveness applied to organizations or tourism destinations, considering that the competitive performance of organizations is usually measured, from the input side, taking in consideration physical and human capital endowment and research and development expenses (while the output measures are normally related with profitability, market share, productivity or growth). Regarding destination competitiveness, the input side could be measured considering physical sources (tourist facilities, infrastructure and environment), human capital endowment (services), and marketing and promotion expenses (while the output should be related to market share or productivity). Following this idea, Kozak suggests a large group of factors affecting destination competitiveness (Socio-economic Profile of Tourism Demand and Changes in Markets; Access to Tourist Markets; Mature Tourist Destinations and Consumer Psychology; Influences of Tourist Satisfaction; Marketing by Tour Operators and their Perceptions of Destinations; Prices and Costs; Exchange rates; Use of Information Technologies; Safety, Security and Risk; Product Differentiation; Adequacy and Quality of Tourist Facilities and Services; Quality of Environmental Resources; Government Policies and Entry barriers) and provides a very exhaustive list of indicators of destination competitiveness.
Many rural areas want to develop tourism considering the alleged benefits for the local community. Tourism is considered to boost the local economic development increasing the possibilities of employment, improve the provision of goods and services, contribute to local heritage protection and finally maintain or attract population in remote areas. Currently numerous rural administrative units believe they could become a successful tourist destination because of their authenticity, their local heritage, the welcome of their inhabitants, the richness of their landscape or their food and beverage specialities. They dream of solving several social and economic issues through the development of tourist activities. However, many projects fail due especially to the lack of market analysis and marketing approach. On the other hand, we observe a worldwide trend of segmentation of the tourism market. Tourist products aim to attract a target population, preferably tourists who will spend a lot of money and reinforce the self-esteem of the destination, excluding for instance backpackers or campers. However, is this possible everywhere? Experiences show that this strategy could be very costly for a low reward. Most of the destinations claim uniqueness even if they accommodate for a broader public with very standard services. Indeed, what is the difference between a tropical beach in the Philippines, in the Dominican Republic or even in the subtropical complex of a European or North American city? New tourist products are created and copy pasted at different places. For instance, when looking at the attractions offered in the Languedoc (France) or in Wallonia (Belgium), we found several products (dressine on old railways, rafting, mini-zoo, butterfly garden etc.) which exist in both regions and also in several
A decrease in demand for Eaton’s products has been seen in all segments of activity in the last couple of years. In the EP segment, the decrease in demand was primarily due to the decline in Asia Pacific. In the ESS segment the main cause of decrease was the weakening in oil and gas markets and large industrial products. The Hydraulics segment was affected by the continued weakness in the mobile and industrial markets. In the Aerospace segment, the decrease in military OEM markets was the main cause for lower demand. Finally, the Vehicle segment demand decrease mainly due to the lower North American Class 8 truck market.
In this study, 60 dairy products from Inner Mongolia scenic area were selected as the research samples; quantitative PCR technology was applied based on the theory of specific primers binding with fluorescent dye; amplification products which were formed during PCR reaction were given real-time measurement so that the microorganisms in samples were detected and quantified (Liu et al., 2014). Currently, Lb. plantarum, L. lactis ssp. lactis, Leuc. mesenteroides have been widely applied in the production of a variety of fermented dairy products, providing solid guarantee for the rapid development of dairy industry.
literature suggests that this is a relatively small percentage of the traveling population; most independent tourists and the majority of package tours focus instead on visiting public monuments, cultural centers, and repre- sentative landscapes. Viewed solely in terms of itinerary, then, these journeys may be indistinguishable from more ordinary heritage tourism. Here a second typology may be useful. Like Cohen’s phenomenological typology of tourist experiences (1979), the distinctions I propose here are made on the basis of individual tourist subjectivity, rather than external features of the journey. Broadly defined, “heritage tourism” may be taken to refer to any leisure travel concerned with the past. 3 Under this general umbrella, several types of international tourism can be distinguished, depending on the tourist’s felt relationship to the destination and its history. On the one hand, the destination may include historical sites that the tourist perceives as belonging to humanity as a whole, as in the case of monuments or even entire localities that have been classified as “world heritage,” but to which the tourist does not feel a direct personal connection; this most generic form may be referred to simply as heritage tourism. Alternatively, the destination may be experienced as a site of “personal heritage,” i.e., as having particular emotional resonance given the tourist’s own national, ethnic, religious, or cultural origins (cf. Timothy 1997, Poria et al. 2003). 4 When, as in the
Theoretically, there is no rural settlement that can not provide at least one brand, to raise the interest from tourists. The precondition is that the mark is genuine, original, and the efforts to make the mark known, have to make possible the recognition and afterwards the recognition and searching after it. Extrapolating this to the romanian village, it is obvious that at the level of the majority of rural settlements, their defining hallmark is multiple: landscape quality and warmth of the inhabitants, technical art and folk, traditional occupations, costumes, customs, cuisine and resources place. The key is to perpetuate this diversity, but also to highlight the elements that give a touch of local specificity and can therefore become branded products, which can provide recognition in the tourist circuit.
International tourism is, so to speak, the in situ export of certain natural resources—including human resources—in which an essential element of what the importer seeks to acquire is the experience of familiarizing himself with the exporter. By crossing geographical borders, however, travelers can unleash a process in which both they and the people they visit cross epidemiological, economic, cultural, and social boundaries. Although investments in infrastructure, health services, safety, and recreational activities for tourist centers are important for ensuring a continuous flow of tourists, serious ethical conflicts can arise if the surrounding population lacks such facilities. Furthermore, ethical and health concerns will coincide markedly if that same population is harmed by the introduction or exacerbation of health and social problems such as environmental pollution or negative changes in individual and group behavior. From a purely practical standpoint, if the purpose of such projects is limited only to “protecting” the tourist from the new environment, these activities would constitute a vain attempt to contain the uncontainable: the contact and interchange that are both the purpose and the vehicle of tourism.
varied from 30 ± 10 in the ham to 250 ± 30 in the Italian salami. There was no significant difference between the meatball and hamburger, between the jerked beef and spam or between the Tuscany sausage, mortadella and Italian salami. It can be observed, from the standard deviations, that the greatest variation of the cholesterol content between batches and between brands was for the frankfurter, and the smallest for the ham. In the total lipids content the highest variation between brands and their respective batches was for the ham, jerked beef and Tuscany sausage. The variation in cholesterol and total lipid contents found between brands and between the three batches of the same brand, could be related to breed, sex, age and diet of the slaughtered animals, and also to the ingredients used in product processing as well as to the quality and composition (meat and sub-products) of the raw material.
“What makes a tourism destination truly competitive is its ability to increase tourism expenditure, to increasingly attract visitors while providing them satisfying, memorable experiences, and to do so in a profitable way, while enhancing the well-being of destination residents and preserving the natural capital of the destination for future generations.” (Ritchie & Crouch, 2003) According to Terry Sio, the President of the Macao International Brand Enterprise Commercial Association, Macao should improve its economic structure to change the traditional image as only a gaming city, and turning into a world tourism and leisure hub 1 . Anholt (2008: 266) supports this underlining that “image goes hand-in-hand with economic development” of the place.