Active microstrip antennas are potentially attractive for realizing large aperture phased array antennas suitable for satellite and space based communication . They also offer an effective alternative to conventional phase and adaptive arrays for a few commercial application , short range microwave communication, LAN’s, microwave identification systems . The reasons are quite obvious: they offer savings in size, weight, cost and improved efficiency over conventional designs. Active microstrip antennas function as RF oscillator as well as efficient radiator. A large number of such active antenna elements are integrated to perform the function of both transmissionandreception. A huge number of experiments/studies [5, 6] have been made about the radiation performance of an antenna (slot and patch both) though studies on its reception performance are really a few. Some of them are operated in self-
ers and repertory in Spanish manuscript sources are Emilio Ros-Fábregas, ‘Flemish Polyphony in Sixteenth-Century Iberian Manuscripts’, in Yearbook of the Alamire Foundation 7 (2008), 99-119, and idem, ‘Script and Print: The Transmission of Non-Iberian Polyphony in Renaissance Barcelona’, in Early Music Printing and Publishing in the Iberian World, ed. Iain Fenlon and Tess Knighton (Kassel, 2006), 299-328; see also Bernadette Nelson, ‘The Court of Don Fernando de Aragón, Duke of Calabria in Valencia, c. 1526-c. 1550: Music, Letters, and the Meeting of Cultures’, in Early Music 32 (May 2004), 195-222. For a list of the Franco-Flemish composers in the Toledo manuscripts, see Robert Stevenson, ‘The Toledo Manuscript Choirbooks and Some Other Lost or Little Known Flemish Sources’, in Fontes Artis Musicae 20 (1974), 87-107; for more recent and comprehensive work on these sources, see Michael Noone and Graeme Skinner, ‘Toledo Cathedral’s Manuscript Polyphonic Choirbooks ToleBC 18, ToleBC 25, and ToleBC 34 and their Origins’, in ‘New Music’ 1400-1600: Papers from an International Colloquium on the Theory, Authorship andTransmission of Music in the Age of the Renaissance, ed. João Pedro d’Alvarenga and Manuel Pedro Ferreira (Lisbon- Évora, 2009), 129-70; see also Michael Noone, ‘Printed Polyphony Acquired by Toledo Cathedral, 1532-1669’, in Early Music Printing and Publishing, ed. Fenlon and Knighton 241-74.
In recent years, due to the continuous technology development, operators saw a rapid growth of mobile broadband subscribers as well as of their traffic volume demanded, spe- cially due to the introduction of more advanced mobile devices and real time services . As a consequence of this, there is also an increasing demand for high speed data rate services. Under the partnership of the 3GPP, LTE was developed and proposed to sub- scribers to fulfill this ambitious task. LTE evolution, known as LTE-A, was the first to meet the International Mobile Telecommunications-Advanced (IMT-A) requirements for 4G systems, promising among others , peak data rates up to 1 Gbit/s. To achieve the desired hight data rates, LTE-A proposed a set of features such as spectrum flexibil- ity, multi-antenna transmission, scheduling and link adaptation, carrier aggregation, relay nodes, Heterogeneous Network (HNet)s and Coordinated Multipoint (CoMP), among oth- ers . LTE radio access exploit rapid variations in channel quality in order to make more efficient use of available radio resources. This is done in both time and frequency do- mains using Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM) and SC-FDE multiple access versions, known as Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) and Single Carrier Frequency-Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA), in the Downlink (DL) and Uplink (UL) respectively. One of the major concerns is the probable lack of capacity due to the rapid and continuous growth of traffic data demands. The concept of HNet was introduced to face this problem, which briefly consists on adding a second layer to the existing network (macro BSs), dedicated to low power BSs . Seen as the most
As illustrated on the figure 3.4, only using the server time is not enough. The time taken for the packet to reach the SDR application should be considered as well. Analysing the example of the figure, the 20 seconds it takes for the packet with the timestamp to reach the target will result in a wrong time synchronization with 20 seconds of delay. To solve it, it is required to know what is the latency of the packets. As the clock time should not be taken into consideration for the latency calculation (the purpose of calculating the latency is to know the correct time after all), sending the timestamp of one side to another will not add any relevance to the result. But, if the time sent by the data gathered is sent back from the SDR application, as it is, then the sum of the latency of both directions can be measured. In this case, the timestamp can be used as it will be calculated by the same source. So, to calculate the latency of both directions, the difference between the reception time and the packet’s timestamp is calculated. An estimate of how much latency exists on one direction can be calculated by dividing this time difference by two.
response bias wherein some individuals are simply more prone to relatively high profundity ratings. Although this mechanism is not specific to bullshit, it may at least partly explain why our pseudo-profound bullshit measure was so consistently positively correlated with epistemically suspect beliefs. Some people may have an uncritically open mind. As the idiom goes: “It pays to keep an open mind, but not so open your brains fall out”. In Study 3, some people even rated entirely mundane statements (e.g., “Most people en- joy at least some sort of music”) as at least somewhat pro- found. Our results suggest that this tendency – which resem- bles a general gullibility factor – is a component of pseudo- profound bullshit receptivity. There is, of course, a great deal of research on this sort of mechanism. As a promi- nent example, consider the “Barnum effect”. In his classic demonstration of gullibility, Forer (1949) had introductory psychology students complete a personality measure (the “Diagnostic Interest Blank”, DIB). One week later, he gave each of the students an ostensibly personalized personality sketch that consisted of 13 statements and asked them to rate both the accuracy of the statements and the overall efficacy of the DIB. Unbeknownst to the students, Forer had actually given every student the same personality sketch that con- sisted entirely of vague, generalized statements taken from a newsstand astrology book (e.g., “You have a great need for other people to like and admire you.”). Although some peo- ple were more skeptical than others, the lowest number of specific statements accepted was 8 (out of 13). Moreover, the students were quite convinced of the personality tests’ efficacy – “All of the students accepted the DIB as a good or perfect instrument for personality measurement” (Forer, 1949, p. 121). Meehl (1956) first referred to this as the Barnum effect, after the notorious hoaxer (bullshitter) P. T. Barnum. 2
There are conflicting reports regarding the roles of lipid modification and ligand signaling. The signaling potency of Shh ligand devoid of cholesteryl and palmitoyl adducts in C3H10T1/2 cells can be enhanced by the introduction of a wide variety of hydrophobic modifications . Conversely, several studies have reported that removal of either the cholesteryl or palmitoyl adduct abolishes ligand multimeriza- tion and signal response in NIH3T3 fibroblasts [19,21,22]. We analyzed NIH3T3 cells, which have been used most commonly for Hh signaling assays [19,21,22,35,39], and found that signal response was greatly reduced in cloned and high-passage lines (Figure S5). In order to determine whether levels of cell- associated ligand correlate with signal response, parallel wells of low-passage and highly responsive NIH3T3 fibroblasts co- transfected with expression vectors for recombinant Shh, GLI- reporter, and EGFP were assayed. In one set of wells, relative GLI-reporter activity was measured and in the other set the Table 1. Relative signaling potencies of recombinant forms of Shh ligand.
From top to bottom: The epithelial lining of the vagina forms an efﬁ cient barrier to viral penetration when intact. Cervical mucus may serve to strengthen this barrier by physically trapping virions . HIV crosses the epithelial barrier either because of epithelial damage (e.g., microabrasions and traumatic breaches or lesions caused by STDs), or capture by intra- epithelial DCs that convey the virus to target cells deeper in the mucosa . In the lumen of the vagina, continuous with the cervical canal, virions with two kinds of tropism are illustrated: (i) X4 virus (orange) uses the co-receptor CXCR4 (rarely found early after transmission) and (ii) R5 virus (green) utilizing the co-receptor CCR5 (preferentially found early after transmission). Why R5 virus comes to dominate in the newly infected host is not known; it may reﬂ ect preferential ampliﬁ cation at a stage after transmission (not shown) . To the left, an R5 virion is shown bound to an embedded DC, which has CD4, CCR5, and C- type lectin receptors on its surface, all of which can interact with the surface glycoprotein of the virus. The DC may merely capture X4 or R5 virus and carry it across the epithelial barrier or get infected by R5 virus and produce progeny virus (virus budding from the cell surface is shown as half-circular sections studded with grey Env spikes) . To the right, an R5 virion binds to and infects a T helper lymphocyte, which has both CD4 and CCR5 on its surface. Virus that has penetrated into the epithelium is also shown to infect a macrophage. Arrows indicate how virus infects the ﬁ rst target cells and how progeny virus or DCs then migrate via the afferent lymphatics to reach the lymph nodes. Here, further ampliﬁ cation occurs in an environment rich in CD4 + target cells.
The literature concerning the role of confidence in the economic activity is relatively limited and is dominated by two main ideas, which Barsky and Sims (2008) refer to as the “animal spirits” view and the “information” view. The first view suggests that exogenous shifts in sentiment exert an independent causal effect in the economy and are, thus, key to understand economic fluctuations. Following this idea, an improvement in overall sentiment would stimulate aggregate demand and promote temporary movements in economic activity. According to the second view, shocks in consumer and business confidence have merely predictive power of future consumption and investment patterns of expenditure, meaning that they reflect important information about the current state of the economy and future economic fundamentals, namely productivity.
These antigens have strong potential for boosting the immune responses elicited naturally during the infection or through vaccination (Carter et al. 2000, Sattabongkot et al. 2004). Unfortunately, due to host immunological pressure these targets have the disadvantage of antigenic polymorphism (Mendis et al. 1991). In contrast, some proteins critical for parasite development and survival may only be expressed during the sporogonic cycle in the mosquito midgut (Aly et al. 2009) and will never be in contact with the human immune system. However, the vaccination of humans and animal models has indi- cated that these two models are able to elicit antibodies and possibly cytokines with capacity to block parasite development inside the mosquito vector (Kaslow 1990, Tsuboi et al. 2003). Likewise, molecules within the mos- quito may play critical functions for parasite invasion or sporogonic development. These molecules could also be used to induce antibody production upon the vaccina- tion of a vertebrate host and ultimately induce blockage of parasite development (Carter 2001). These vaccines would also require good formulations because none of these vaccines would either protect from the infection or reduce the disease intensity and would be considered altruistic vaccines (Wykes & Good 2007). The vaccines would instead diminish the risk of infecting others in their immediate surrounding. This type of vaccine would have several beneficial effects. The first is prevention of the spread of the disease within the community. The second is prevention of the spread of parasites that might have evaded the effect of vaccines directed against other parasite stages, such as sporozoites and merozoites. Fi- TABLE I
instills of nDNA-PCR positive semen aliquots into the vagina. Notice the clumps of the T. cruzi amastigotes (arrows) in the heart (top left), skeletal muscle (top right), into the lumen of the vas deferens (bottom left) and in the epithelial cells of the uterine tube (bottom right). The circle shows a dividing amastigote. Bars, 10 μm. Reprinted with the permissions from the Author and the publisher (Araujo et al. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, 2017).
Broadcast technologies are changing fundamentally. Technology will get better, smaller, and cheaper by the day. This will spike off a new wave of innovation in content and build new business models with multiple platforms on offer. New distribution platforms will evolve the relationship between content and carriage. The lowering of costs and multiple platforms like digital cable, DTH, IPTV, and mobile TV will keep fueling more and more broadcast TV channels and niche content . It can be said that we are moving towards a more natural use of network services in different branches of life. This view incorporates the advancements in technologies encouraging users to collaborate and share content, and use personalized and increasingly intelligent services. As the amount of available services and content increases, there will be functions for helping the user to manage services and content automatically based on his context or profiles.
The Federal District of Brazil (DF) lies within the Cerrado biome, where open shrubland (savannas) is interspersed with riverside gallery forests and permanent swamps (veredas). Trypanosoma cruzi-infected native triatomines occur in the area, but the enzootic transmission of trypanosomatids remains poorly characterized. A parasitological survey involving sylvatic triatomines (166 Rhodnius neglectus collected from Mauritia flexuosa palms) and small mammals (98 marsupials and 70 rodents, totaling 18 species) was conducted in 18 sites (mainly gallery forests and veredas) of the DF. Parasites were isolated, morphologically identified, and characterized by PCR of nuclear (mini-exon gene) and kinetoplast DNA (kDNA). Six R. neglectus, seven Didelphis albiventris and one Akodon cursor were infected by trypanosomes; wild reservoir infection is documented for the first time in the DF. kDNA PCR detected T. cruzi in five R. neglectus and mini-exon gene PCR revealed T. cruzi I in isolates from D. albiventris. Parasites infecting one bug yielded T. rangeli KP1+ kDNA amplicons. In spite of the occurrence of T. cruzi-infected D. albiventris (an important wild and peridomestic reservoir) and R. neglectus (a secondary vector displaying synanthropic behavior), a low-risk of human Chagas disease transmission could be expected in the DF, considering the low prevalence infection recorded in this work. The detection of T. rangeli KP1+ associated with R. neglectus in the DF widens the known range of this parasite in Brazil and reinforces the hypothesis of adaptation of T. rangeli populations (KP1+ and KP1-) to distinct evolutionary Rhodnius lineages.
Although the majority of the speech in- dicates benefits for the teams, the speech brought by one of the interviewees, re- porting that “for the doctor it may not be so cool, who attends more people in a day than before the reception”, reveals the hypoth- esis that perhaps the reception process has not yet been well understood by the teams, that should be decentralizing the care of the doctor to other professionals, which generates work overload for this professional, insofar as more people could have access to the unit, necessitating that the demand is directed to other profes- sionals. Otherwise, medico-centered logic continues to persevere and overload the medical professional. Another hypoth- esis is that, due to the restriction of the number of consultations before the trans- formation of the reception process, this professional may be dissatisfied with the increased demand and feel overwhelmed. It is also observed, and seems quite reveal- ing, that this result was not mentioned for the other members of the team, because it is still trying to break with the medical- centered model.
2006b ). The heterogeneity at this scale may be due to limited transport and mixing of microbes in sand such that once the sand is inoculated under conditions suitable for growth, microbial distribution becomes very patchy. Extreme patchiness can be due to discrete inputs from dog droppings, seabirds and onshore drift, followed by growth. Different zones of the beach may be more or less conducive to microbe growth. Research suggests that the swash zone, and in particular the area just above the maximum up-rush, may also be conducive for regrowth of FIOs through distinct wetting and drying actions and unique characteristics afforded by wrack, which is deﬁned to include seaweed, algae, Sargassum, kelp, Cladophora, macrophytes and other vegetation-like accumulations (Alm et al., 2003 ; Whitman et al., 2003 ; Olapade et al., 2006 ; Ishii et al., 2007 ; Yamahara et al., 2009 ). Although sand moisture content of approximate- ly 8% is sufﬁcient to permit the survival of bacteria, yeasts and nematodes (Whitman et al., 2014 ), there is a lack of consist- ency in the literature over the distribution of organisms in sand and their relation to moisture content. Generally, a greater density of FIOs in wet foreshore sand has been observed compared with either submerged, backshore, sand at depth, or dry sand (Whitman et al., 2014 ). Conversely, studies at a Florida marine beach found higher concentrations of E. coli and enterococci in supratidal sand (above the high water mark) than in intertidal sand (Abdelzaher et al., 2010 ). The accumulation of wrack in the swash zone also serves to maintain FIO populations by serving as a source of nutrients (Byappanahalli et al., 2003 ; Imamura et al., 2011 ), providing protection from UV light (Feng et al., 2013 ), and regulating the temperature and moisture conditions in sands located immediately below them. Studies have shown that E. coli and enterococci can survive for over 6 months in sun-dried algal mats (Cladophora) stored at 48C, and the residual bac- teria in the dried alga readily grew upon rehydration (Whitman et al., 2003 ). Experimental work in the UK found that FIOs are liable to persist, and possibly proliferate, in supra-littoral wrack piles on a beach (Ward, 2009 ; Dunhill et al., 2013 ). In addition to the unique hydrodynamics of this area, which is conducive to the accumulation of wrack, the swash zone also attracts shorebirds that feed and roost in this area and may contribute to the microbial load through their faeces (Le´vesque et al., 1993 ; Fogarty et al.,
After prior personal contact with the management of the institution in which it was delivered the letter requesting permission to conduct the survey and developed an explanation about the objectives, was signed statement of consent authorizing the development of the study. Inclusion criteria for subjects participating in the research were adopted as follows: nurses who worked predominantly in the Emergency Room Adult (PSA) for over six months; nurses who were, during the study period, the working range of the PSA. Were excluded from the
Our observatory at the site of Kalyani is ideal due to reduced interference level. The coaxial cables we used from the combiner to the short wave Jove receiver provides additional supports for Jovian signal reception as the site is relatively free from metal and electric devices. We used a software program called SkyPipe which is available from the Radio Jove . The software was used successfully to graph the radio signals and to depict the radio data. The program is so made that it can conveniently plot the output of the radio signals as a function of time. Jupiter emits the cyclotron radiation from electrons transmitted in its strong magnetic field below 1 MHz . However, the intensity of emissions below 15MHz is unable to penetrate the Earth’s ionosphere and above 21MHz the intensity rapidly drops off. This recommends the radio telescope at 20.1 MHz, used in the present investigation, as an optical frequency for receiving Jovian signals on the Earth’s surface. Even when the man made interference coming from variety of sources are minimized or eliminated, the galactic background still provides a major noise source. Electrons accelerated by the galactic magnetic field emit continuum radiation  with an intensity of ~ 40,000K. This galactic background noise is detectable in a radio-quiet location. The radio emissions from Jupiter are highly variable but can be in the millions of K., which makes the possibility of detection above the galactic background. Solar radiation ionize portions of Earth’s atmosphere that can last from sunrise until several hours making the sunlit half of the upper atmosphere mostly opaque. Consequently we have taken into account the observations of Jovian emissions after sunset and before sunrise. The Radio-Sky Pipe II software used for recording is easily available from Radio-Sky Publishing (Radio SkyPipewele). This software served the purpose of calibration, recording and display of multiple channels of audio. It allows recording of calibrated power simultaneously with the recording of light- fidelity audio for future analysis and interpretation. It should be mentioned that the beaming pattern of the dipole antennas we have used is sufficiently broad. This means that even if the antenna is not at exactly the optimum height it will still work but reception of Jovian signals will be weak. For this reason it is important to maintain the proper antenna configuration for any particular observing latitude and the year of observations.
The feeling of fear was referred by nurses to perform the hosting, as they recognize that the clinical signs of the patients treated are unstable and in many cases may worsen. Thus, the professional fears classify the patient wrongly, as any inconsistent action may affect the user´s health, and may cause irreversible damage: At first I was afraid, I did not know, maybe it was not fear, but insecurity to classify someone wrong or pre-judge the patient (E09). My biggest fear is for the patient to arrive and I did not see, and he die in front of me (E03). The host with risk assessment and classification generates much fear (E06) .