The theme developed in this paper, falls within the area of Travel distribution (Td) in Portugal, focusing on TravelAgencies (TA) busi- ness, seen as part of an accelerated referentials change. In the geopo- litical domain, the world is no longer bipolar, as a result of an informa- tional revolution. The Internet, global television channels and mobile telecommunication networks, contributed to a flatter world. The eco- nomic area living inside globalization faces an accelerated capital mo- bility and production factors. The migration field highlights the spatial mobility of populations, often targeted for new investment opportuni- ties or moments of joy. In the tourism field, trends point up to social fragmentation and individualism - the development of virtual commu- nities, the exchange of experiences between Web traveler tribes, and the search for information on the Internet - are generating accelerated geographical mobility and virtual communities, creating new demand profiles. Some authors highlight the demographics and psychograph- ics of the new consumer:
preferences, earning their confidence (customers becomes company apostles) engaging them to co- creating experiences of travel. Consumers must be convinced that online travelagencies’ channel is theirs and that they are in full control of the con- tent they receive and consume. When using travel provider sites, a customer has the ability to search for a product or service; to compare suppliers on important attributes such as price, quality, delivery and service; to read product reviews and consider the opinions of other buyers; and to do all of this quickly, cheaply, and with relatively little effort.
In the competitive world of the tourism in- dustry, travelagencies often deal with the custo- mers face to face. Travelagencies' responsibilities towards customers and the expectations for high customer satisfaction are the reasons why em- ployees can face overtime work and complain more. Karatepe and Baddar (2005), stated that In addi- tion to conicts in the workfamily interface, there are a number of various antecedents of JSTRESS (Job stress) such as role conict, role ambiguity, self-ecacy, job demands, supervisor support, or- ganizational politics and long work hours. The relationship between FWC, JSTRESS and turnover intention, which was briey explained in the above studies, has shown higher FWC and JSTRESS caused higher turnover intention (Bhuian et al., 2005; Netemeyer et al., 1996). Previous rese- arch underlined the results of the FWC, which are positively related to employees' quitting the jobs (Netemeyer et al., 1996; Karatepe and Baddar, 2005). A study carried out by Wang and ChangFu (2012), has revealed that FWC are positively cor- related with emotional exhaustion (Muhammad & Hamdy, 2005). Considering previous studies, this study conducted qualitative method interviews with travel agency managers to measure the re- lationship between FWC, nepotism and customer aggression if any of these antecedents inuenced the burnout and turnover intention among em- ployees. Hypothesis 1 is proposed in line with the aforementioned literature:
Thus, this new way of organizing travelagencies influenced by the use of technologies as practice by the customers and the travel agents imply in a dynamic knowing-in-practice travel activity that change the notion of the boundaries in this kind of organization. We must try to understand how people learn from each other in everyday life, from social interactions that transcend the formal processes used by organizations. This effort requires looking at the organizations as symbolic and aesthetic fields in which people live in constant interaction mediated by language building meaning (Hatch, & Yanow, 2003) and sensible knowledge (Strati, 2007, 2009) to their everyday activities. According to this perspective it is possible to understand the organization, specially travelagencies, as a place of learning and knowing permeated by negotiation and continued exchange, nowadays highly influenced by the impacts of the technologies, principally when we focus their use. In this perspective, this paper adopted Practice-based studies (Gherardi, 2006; Nicolini, Gherardi, & Yanow, 2003) and ethnomethodology (Coulon, 2005; Garfinkel, 2006) as principal theoretical and methodological approach. Practice-based studies is seen as an option to debate, discuss and understand the collective and non-formal learning processes in organizations (Gherardi, 2001, 2006; Nicolini, Gherardi, & Yanow, 2003) .
Abstract: Justification of the topic: The study of entrepreneurial social networks has been recognized as crucial in the entrepreneurial process, as well as in the success of the businesses. Since the 1990s, there has been a special interest in researching social networks focused on gender, and considering its relevance, this topic is still very current. Objectives: The aim of this study is to analyze how social networks are used by female entrepre- neurs in the of new business creation process. It specifically aims to identify the types of bonds that are used by female entrepreneurs in their social networks in the stages of conception, start-up and business consolidation and verify how these social networks influence in obtaining resources. Methodology/Design: The research strat- egy adopted is the multiple case study and evidences were collected through semi-structured personal inter- views with seven entrepreneurs of micro and small travelagencies. The cases were described individually and followed by a comparative analysis to examine their similarities and differences. Results and Originality of the Document: The study shows that the strong bonds were the most used by entrepreneurs mainly in the concep- tion stage. Furthermore, it also shows that that previous experience was very important in the identification of the opportunity and ability to build diverse networks.
Through the characterization of relational marketing, this study intends to understand how it can be influential in the purchase decision of the consumer in the context of travelagencies. The study analyzes how relational interaction occurs between clients and companies in the industry, perceiving how companies use relational marketing as a market strategy, and whether this is an influencing factor in consumer decision making. Exploratory interviews with directors of travel and tourism agencies were carried, with the objective of understanding the relevance of using relational marketing in the creation and maintenance of the clients of the companies they manage. The results point out that the use of relations as a source of value in the business of travelagencies is common and is seen by companies as a way to fight the increasing virtual competition in the market, being the relationship with the client seen as a differentiating and a positive influencing factor. From the point of view of the consumer, the relationship with the travel agent is seen as an element that increases confidence in the product acquired, being considered also by the consumers as a positive influencing factor. This research focused on the analysis of a very modern and pertinent problem, namely the threat of the new business model of the tour operators with their increasing investment in direct sales to the consumer. It was very interesting to observe the way that the market of the travelagencies survives and how it wages on relationships with customers, becoming more competitive and consequently creating superior value for the customer. This study intended to be a contribution to the marketing of travelagencies, encouraging the debate about relational marketing and its importance in increasing the competitiveness of the sector. The aim of the study was to analyze the points of view of consumers and companies in order to foster this debate and to understand the points of convergence between the two parts.
firms as well as there is a lack of related academic research. Thus, this paper seeks to analyze the performance regarding the degree of innovation of travelagencies located in Recife (PE - Brazil) focu- sing on the supply dimension, as defined by a tool called Innovation Radar, applied in the context of Local Innovation Agents Program (LIA). Data were collected from August 2012 to March 2014. The research is characterized as exploratory and descriptive. Data processing and analysis is conducted under quantitative and qualitative approaches. Considering Bachmann and Destefani (2008)’s classification, it was found that the majority of the analysed firms demonstrate an increase in the scores, moving from a ’little or not innovative” to "occasional or systemic innovative", both based either on the results of the Global Innovation Degree, as well as on the scores of the supply dimension of Innovation Radar. Despite the registered progress, there are still barriers that limit the innovative capacity of these firms.
O setor de viagens e turismo foi um dos primeiros a serem afetados pela Internet, com companhias aéreas oferecendo bilhetes diretamente para consumidores através da web e novos intermediários de viagem surgindo e tornando-se importantes forças na indústria (Standing, Taye & Boyer, 2014). Antes do desenvolvimento da Internet e das Tecnologias de Informação e Comunicação (TIC), os consumidores turísticos não tinham escolha a não ser os intermediários de turismo tradicionais, como as agências de viagens e as operadoras turísticas (Del Chiappa, 2013). Uma compra que antes era realizada normalmente em uma agência tradicional/física, com a ajuda de um agente de viagens, hoje está sendo cada vez mais fácil ter acesso a um produto turístico por conta própria através da internet, mais especificamente através das Agências de Viagens Online, do inglês: Online TravelAgencies (OTA).
very current. Objectives: The aim of this study is to analyse how social networks are used by female entrepre- neurs in the of new business creation process. Specifically aims to identify the types of bonds that are used by female entrepreneurs in their social networks in the stages of conception, start-up and business consolidation and verify how these social networks influence in obtaining resources. Methodology/Design: The research strat- egy adopted is the multiple case study and evidences were collected through semi-structured personal inter- views with seven entrepreneurs of micro and small travelagencies. The cases were described individually and followed by a comparative analysis to examine their similarities and differences. Results and Originality of the Document: The study shows that the strong bonds were the most used by entrepreneurs mainly in the concep- tion stage. Furthermore, it also shows that that previous experience was very important in the identification of the opportunity and ability to build diverse networks.
Google Travel Spain sponsored a Phocuswright report Information and Purchasing Habits of Spanish Travellers, for the years 2009 and 2010 editions. There were collected more than 88.000 surveys by over 40 travel companies in Spain. The sample was formed by young travelers aged from 18 – 24 and from 25 – 34 as separate groups and they wanted to look whether their travel behaviours is different. The study concluded that for specific services, the Internet plays the most important role in finding accommodation, in this matter search engines are very used. Traditional agencies currently play a marginal role as a source of information for planning a trip. The younger the traveler is, it was considered that they have the less value perceived for travelagencies „brick and mortar” type. For both analysed groups Internet plays the main role when they gather information, search engines being most used (27%). Also opinions offered by friends and relatives are considered a very reliable information (27%). Brochures were considered totally irrelevant when planning a trip, exception being made when young travelers start planning a cruise.
Travelagencies human resources in Montenegro represent their greatest compeiive advan- tage, and if not the main one, then one of the key compeiive advantages. Such conclusion is derived rom the above-average qualiy of personnel sructure of employees and diversiy of their professions, which directly leads towards creaion of services and products of superior values to consumers. We observed prevalence of micro ravel agencies in which competenc- es are ransferred among employees on daily basis and in which agency directors are conin- uously raising the level of employees’ competencies. Especially in the ield of abiliy to create new services and products in various forms of selecive tourism, by posiioning themselves well in the market niches of such ypes of selecive tourism. If we add to that the permanent innovaive aciviy of the employees in the domain of service and product difereniaion, and thereby reducion in elasiciy of demand for agency services and products, it is clear that human resources represent a very important factor in creaing of compeiive advantage of ravel agencies in Montenegro.
This paper presents an application that draws up transport plans using public transports and shows the best plans, according to preference criteria provided by the user. The application combines different means of transport and can be used at transport terminals (airports, bus and railway stations), at travelagencies or at information posts.
Information and communication technology improvements have challenged the organized and stable network of airlines, global distribution systems (GDS) and travelagencies. In Brazil, traditional travelagencies have faced significant challenges in maintaining their businesses because airlines have forced disintermediation by cutting commissions and reduced distribution costs by selling their product directly through airline websites. This study explores the existence of strategic groups in the Brazilian travel agency market to elucidate how they interact with GDS and other travelagencies to maintain and improve their market position. A latent class analysis model was applied to a sample of 4,288 travel agency points of sale located in Brazil. The study results identified groups with members that exhibited similar behaviors in their relationships with GDS and other travelagencies. The study findings do not support claims regarding the demise of the travel agency business model.
The Internet is one of the most influential technologies that have changed travelers’ behavior. Previous research showed that tourists who searched on the Internet tended to spend more time at their destinations as compared to those who consult other information sources (Bonn, Furr, & Susskind, 1998; Luo, Feng, & Cai, 2004). The Internet enabled consumers to engage directly with suppliers and challenging the role of intermediaries. It also allowed consumers to interact dynamically with suppliers and destinations and often make requests that will enable them to customize their products. Buhalis (1998) stated that potential tourists have become more independent and sophisticated on using a wide range of tools to arrange for their trips. These include reservation systems and online travelagencies (such as Expedia), search engines and meta-search engines (such as Google and Kayak, respectively), destination management systems (such as visitbritain.com), social networking and web 2.0 portals (such as wayn and tripadvisor), price comparison sites (such as kelkoo) as well as individual suppliers and intermediaries sites.
According to Kaynama and Black (2000), online travelagencies function as traditional travel agents as that they provide travel-related products\services and travel-related information to costumers. Whereas the traditional travel agent is able to customize travel information to match their costumer’s needs acting as an expert travel consultant, online travelers are expected to collect and organize themselves information to build their own trip. Online travelagencies in order to successfully establish their solid position must strive to provide customers with enhanced websites more humanized, uncomplicated, secure and offer more customized services. To provide effective online service, online travelagencies should be equipped with air, hotel and car reservation systems (Kaynama and Black, 2000).
Given that Crisana region has a significant rural tourism potential, we believe that by advancing proposals for thematic tours, both by travelagencies and the pension owners or residents who have taken in tourist circuit one or more room, would lead to a diversification of tourism and, consequently, an increase of leverage of exploitation of tourism potential. Sure these circuits must not require excessive travel distance from place of accommodation, but the complexity of the tourism potential of the region and a large number of attractions offers fulfillment of this condition.
Agritourism, as a form of tourism, brings tourists a valuable contact with nature. To assess such a value, several methods can be used. One of these methods is the travel cost method, which is used in conducted research. Especially, a single site model is applied to recreation in a farm specialised in horse riding activities. It is not only tourists staying in the farms that take part in horse riding activities, these are also visitors staying in other places and coming to farms for horse riding as an accompanying activity to their recreation. Therefore, two separate travel cost models are estimated, for tourists and for visitors. Results show that the parameter of travel costs has a negative influence on the number of visits, which confirms the economic theory. The parameters involved in the estimated models for visitors and tourists show similar tendencies, except for the parameter of education.
3 O terceiro, e último capítulo principal, é aquele onde estão descritos todos os projetos que se foram realizando ao longo do estágio. Os projetos foram surgindo de acordo com as principais necessidades da empresa e foram realizados para que existisse um melhoramento relativamente ao ano anterior. Neste capítulo encontra-se inicialmente uma análise à empresa onde é também referido quais os projetos a realizar e os seus principais objetivos. Depois dessa definição os projetos foram separados por três diferentes subcapítulos, sendo que em primeiro lugar está o mais importante que foi o desenvolvimento do Plano de Marketing para aumentar a vendas das excursões em 2016. De seguida está o desenvolvimento das redes sociais, através de todas as alterações que se foram realizando ao longo dos nove meses para aumentar a visibilidade tanto da GlobalSea Travel, como da Shore2Shore Portugal e, por fim, todas as atualizações e mudanças realizadas no website da agência