Ultraviolet - general

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Effectiveness of Nivea Sunscreen under Ultraviolet Light

Effectiveness of Nivea Sunscreen under Ultraviolet Light

clear that there is a pattern in the relationship between the wavelength and the average absorbance. All three SPF’s showed two peaks in absorbance. The wavelengths at which the sunscreens work most effectively are 240 nm in the UVA range and 300 nm in the UVC range. It was noted that the greater the SPF of the sunscreen, the greater the relative increase in effectiveness for these wavelengths. It was also noted that there is a general trend of

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UVAUVB sunscreen determination by second-order derivative ultraviolet spectrophotometry

UVAUVB sunscreen determination by second-order derivative ultraviolet spectrophotometry

errors through Ringbom curves [12,13]. The BZP zero- order UV absorption maxima are shown in Fig. 2(a) spectrum, curve 1. The maximum absorption at wave- length 286.0 nm was chosen for BZP evaluation instead of that highest band at 205.0 nm. This selection was envisioned due to its location in the upper region of UV spectrum thus resulting in less general background in- terferences. The maximum absorption selected for PBS at 303.0 nm did correspond to its summit in the zero- order UV absorption.

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Adaptation of an empirical model for erythemal ultraviolet irradiance

Adaptation of an empirical model for erythemal ultraviolet irradiance

To model the influence of clouds and aerosols on UV solar radiation is difficult, since there is a general lack of observa- tions for aerosols and the effects of the clouds are complex to quantify. Different methodologies have been used to anal- yse the effects of clouds on this radiometric flux, including radiative transfer models and empirical approaches. The first method implies the application of Mie theory and requires in- put information, such as cloud optical thickness and droplet size distributions with high temporal and spatial resolution, information that is limited to specific sites and campaigns. The second method attempts to estimate the UV radiation from parameters usually measured at most radiometric sta- tions. Calb´o et al. (2005) have carried out a detailed revi- sion of empirical studies of cloud effects on UV radiation. These empirical models are based on visual observations of cloud amount alone or in combination with other cloud fea- tures (Ilyas, 1987; Frederick et al., 1990, 1993; Blumthaler et al., 1994, 1996; Thiel et al., 1997; Kuchinke and Nunez, 1999; Lubin and Frederick, 1991; Bais et al., 1993; Nemeth et al., 1996), on information obtained with sky cameras and satellite cloud retrieval techniques (Borkowski et al., 1977; Shafer et al., 1996; Sabburg and Wong, 2000; Josefsson and Landelius, 2000), on information retrieved by radiative mea- surements, or on combined information from radiative mea- surements and observations of clouds (Frederick and Steele, 1995; Bordewijk et al., 1995; Bodeker and McKenzie, 1996; Foyo-Moreno et al., 1998; Estupi˜n´an et al., 1996; Grant and Heisler, 2000; den Outer et al., 2005).
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Large-scale validation of SCIAMACHY reflectance in the ultraviolet

Large-scale validation of SCIAMACHY reflectance in the ultraviolet

The sensitivity of the simulation to input parameters, as well as an end-to-end error estimate of the use of RTM sim- ulations as a validation method, are the subjects of another paper (Tilstra et al., 2005). For a full discussion we refer to that work. Its main conclusion is that the standard devia- tion of the error in the simulation due to input parameters is approximately 3% over the wavelength range 250–400 nm, and up to 8% around 305 nm where the sensitivity to the ozone profile and column is largest. The sensitivity study of Tilstra et al. (2005) does not include clouds. Our cloud fil- tering procedure adds an offset between 0% and 2% to their error estimate for λ>310 nm, which is largest for the longer wavelengths in the study. In general, the error in the sim- ulation is caused almost exclusively by errors in ozone for λ<300 nm, while for λ>330 nm, only errors in surface and lower-atmosphere parameters, such as clouds, aerosol, and ground albedo, contribute. In the intermediate wavelength range, all input parameters add significantly to the simula- tion error.
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Chapter One: General Overview

Chapter One: General Overview

Eight musicians were surveyed 4 from among fifty-five acts in the year 2014, via e-mail in the current year. The reason behind this delay was simply to acquire a better long-term perspective on the benefits they derived from the event after their performances. From the musicians surveyed, 7 were male and 1 female, presenting an average career length of twelve years. All of them had played in the festival in past editions, and 50% were invited to play in other related events after their performance on FML. 66.7% had already a recording contract but one musician has revealed that he obtained one after its performance in the event. Still, 66.7% of respondents perform regularly, with an average of 7 performances per year. In general, all the respondents believe that FML brings benefits for them and for the city as well, though they argue that the organization is able to expand them, especially for the performers. Examples of these perceived benefits by the musicians are the delivering of new musical projects and promotion of artists, providing moments of musical exchange between musicians, offering music at a zero cost to the population, informing about new public spaces from social interaction, exhibition of culture, which they believe is always a beneficial way to educate society, and presenting the opportunity to the festivalgoers of enjoying the stages and the bands which more please them.
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Combined effects of chemicals and ultraviolet radiation on Daphnia magna

Combined effects of chemicals and ultraviolet radiation on Daphnia magna

Chemical compounds reach the aquatic ecosystems usually by leaching of adjacent agricultural lands or by accidental discharges. They are usually characterised by their mode of action, chemistry and toxicity to non-target organisms (Jury et al. 1987; Lee et al. 2000; Hanazato 2001). The toxicity characterization of these substances takes into account effects at short and long-term exposures of organisms in controlled conditions, like temperature, photoperiod, pH and water dissolved oxygen and by these means, effects concentrations are set. (Sheehan et al. 1986; DeLorenzo et al. 2002). But, in addition to chemical exposures, real scenarios are now showing changes on their natural conditions (Hader et al. 2007) for instance, the decrease of dissolved oxygen concentration in water (Justic et al. 1996), pH alterations, increase of temperature and higher ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) input which are directly or indirectly caused by climate change phenomenon (Houghton et al. 1992; Parmesan and Yohe 2003; MacFadyen et al. 2004; H¨ader et al. 2007). Because of those combinations of factors occurrence in natural environments, risk evaluation of chemicals is now including more realistic situations, starting with evaluating/predicting the toxicity of more than um chemical (binary or complex mixtures) and/or with other environment variables as interaction factors that can cause different effects rather than single compounds do (Schiedek et al. 2007).
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The influence of ultraviolet radiation in the prevalence of psoriasis

The influence of ultraviolet radiation in the prevalence of psoriasis

common disease, with at least 100 million individuals affected worldwide and with higher prevalence rates in countries at higher latitudes. Although its etiology is not fully understood, it is considered a multifactorial disease, with great contribution of genetic factors and also epigenetic and environmental factors. Among the latter ones, ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is of special interest, as its effects are exploited in the treatment of this disease. The amount of UVR exposure could be influencing the typical geographical distribution of psoriasis.
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"Do General", de Onassandro: tradução e estudo

"Do General", de Onassandro: tradução e estudo

Ainda que se aceite que já em Homero existia uma espécie de proto-falange – e esse é um ponto muito discutível –, é preciso assumir que foi só com o surgimento da falange clássica que a organização tática dos exércitos passou a consistir numa das primeiras preocupações do general. Além disso, enquanto em Homero víamos liderança militar e política confundidas na figura do “pastor de povos”, a aparição das po/leij (“cidades”) e o desenvolvimento de Estados favoreceu a emancipação do chefe militar, deslocando o elemento original das funções sociais, e sublinhando uma tendência à especialização. Na Atenas arcaica, o exército estava sob o comando do arconte polemarco, mas com o fim do séc. VI a.C., o arconte foi cedendo lugar ao estratego, um chefe com uma especialização funcional, até que o arconte ficou restrito a funções essencialmente religiosas (ARISTÓTELES, Const. Atenienses, 58). Mas a idéia de que o general devesse ser um exemplo de bravura não acabou simplesmente. Na batalha de infantaria dos séculos VI e V a.C., que consistia no embate de falanges hoplíticas, os generais continuaram lutando à frente dos exércitos, prática essa que durante o período helenístico recobrou força, de forma que os chefes de exércitos – que o mais das vezes eram os próprios reis – tomavam a frente nas batalhas, arriscando suas vidas. Enquanto a batalha eliminava um planejamento tático mais elaborado, restringindo-se ao embate de falanges, o general tinha umas poucas opções táticas até que os dois lados se confrontassem. E era comum que os generais tivessem esse desejo genuíno de lutar e arriscar suas vidas junto de seus soldados. Como se vê no exemplo do rei Leônidas na batalha das Termópilas, 78 morrer em combate continuava sendo tido como algo bastante honrado.
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More General Credibility Models

More General Credibility Models

Keywords : contracts, unbiased estimators, structure parameters, several approximating func- tions, semi-linear credibility theory, unique optimal function, parameter estimation, hierar-[r]

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O GENERAL. Miragem, os cientistas de Napoleão.

O GENERAL. Miragem, os cientistas de Napoleão.

"Eu nem posso imaginar o que seria capaz de fazer um punhado de guerreiros como esses." Ele não conseguiu arre- gimentar um punhado deles imediatamente, mas antes de os francese[r]

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Are General anesthetics neurotoxic?

Are General anesthetics neurotoxic?

Thus, as the mode of action of general anaesthe- tics is poorly understood, further investigations are required to assess the adverse effects of these drugs. Several studies on animal models suggest that a permanent learning deficit and memory disorders may occur in the offspring of laboratory animals receiving propofol or isoflurane during pregnancy [10].

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Photophysics and photochemistry of horseradish peroxidase A2 upon ultraviolet illumination

Photophysics and photochemistry of horseradish peroxidase A2 upon ultraviolet illumination

The results presented in this study do show that prolonged UV illumination of horseradish peroxidase affects its cata- lytic activity, structural thermal stability, R z , heme absorption[r]

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La Contraloría General de la República

La Contraloría General de la República

Así las cosas, por ser el derecho unitario, a partir de las demás ramas que lo integran y lo componen desde las Ciencias Jurídicas, esta función de control parte desde la Constitución. Para ello, se realiza el análisis de la labor que ejecuta la Contraloría General como órgano de control, este órgano efectuará auditorías con el objeto de velar por el cumplimiento de las normas jurídicas, el resguardo del patrimonio público y la probidad administrativa de los sujetos auditados. Procederá a hacer evaluaciones de los sistemas de control interno; fiscalizará la aplicación de las disposiciones relativas a la administración financiera del Estado, particularmente, las que se refieren a la ejecución presupuestaria de los recursos públicos; examinará las operaciones efectuadas y la exactitud de los estados financieros; verificará el
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Working paper 10: general conclusions

Working paper 10: general conclusions

2.2. The initial approach applied via focus group showed that professional reasons were the motive that mostly contributed to the subjects’ departure from Portugal. Additionally, it revealed a strong trend in those who left the country to be professionally integrated abroad in their area of study. Upskilling and highly significant perspectives of career advancement are part of that trend, in a clear contrast with the dominant general trend in the professional integration of European young people.

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Towards general cooperative game playing

Towards general cooperative game playing

One of the most important and influential negotiating agents is the Israeli Diplomat. The architecture of the Israeli Diplomat was designed to be a general negotiation architecture to be applied in a variety of situations. This architec- ture was used to create a Diplomacy playing agent [13]. The Israeli Diplomat tries to mimic the structure of a war-time nation. It consists of several compo- nents working together to choose the best course of action. These components are the Prime Minister, the Ministry of Defense, the Foreign Office, the Mili- tary Headquarters, Intelligence and the Strategies Finder. The diplomat keeps a knowledge-base of the relations it believes each nation has with each other as well as any agreements it has, its intention to keep them and its trust that others will keep them. This knowledge-base is updated by the different modules as the game progresses, and affects every decision that the diplomat takes.
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General Line planning na ColepCCL Portugal

General Line planning na ColepCCL Portugal

processamento considerando a restrição – Plano E Aplicar a regra do tempo mínimo de processamento ao conjunto de novas ordens que resultam de ordens planeadas pelo MRP pertencentes à f[r]

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General equilibrium in markets for lemons

General equilibrium in markets for lemons

To capture the usual context in which the seller has superior information about the quality of the goods that he/she brings to the market, it is useful to consider a generalized notion of a good, incorporating in its description the name of the agent that is endowed with the good. This allows us to study markets in which agents may not have the ability to distinguish good cars from bad cars in general, but are able to observe the quality of their own cars. We refer to good l that is in the initial endowment of agent i as the generalized good ( l , i ) ∈ L × I . The initial endowments of agent i, defined in terms of these generalized commodities, f i ∈ R LI + ,
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Coinstruction of ultraviolet-light chamber for monolithic stationary phases photo-polymerization.

Coinstruction of ultraviolet-light chamber for monolithic stationary phases photo-polymerization.

COINSTRUCTION OF ULTRAVIOLET-LIGHT CHAMBER FOR MONOLITHIC STATIONARY PHASES PHOTO- POLYMERIZATION. The assembly of a photochemical reactor with six fluorescent lamps, used for photopolymerizations is described. This chamber presents a mobile support, allowing the placement of samples at different heights and a safety lock that interrupts the radiation, if it is opened during operation. The mirrored internal walls avoid the dispersion and non-uniform distribution of light. There is no high heating because the own character of the used lamps. All parts could be purchased in commerce with less than U$ 150,00. This reactor was successfully used for monolithic stationary phase photopolymerization.
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Paranoia in the General Population : a revised version of the General Paranoia Scale for adolescents

Paranoia in the General Population : a revised version of the General Paranoia Scale for adolescents

Freeman & Associates, 1990, van Os, Hanssen, Bijl & Raveli, 2000; Freeman, et al., 2002; Verdoux & vanOs, 2002; Ellet, Lopes & Chadwick, 2003; Freeman, et al., 2005; Esterberg & Compton, 2009; Yung, Nelson, Baker, Buckby, Baksheev & Cosgrave, 2009; Freeman, Pugh, Vorontsova, Antley & Slater, 2010; Binbay, et al., 2011; Barreto Carvalho, et al., 2014a, 2014b). For this reason, paranoia is a phenomena that should also be explored in non-clinical populations (Freeman et al., 2005; Barreto Carvalho et al., 2014a, 2014b), and not be exclusively abridged by severe psychopathological entities. Freeman et al., (2005), referred that about 15% to 20% of the general population present paranoid thoughts regularly.
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Ultraviolet index: a light in atopic dermatitis and vitamin D research?

Ultraviolet index: a light in atopic dermatitis and vitamin D research?

sure to UV radiation from the sun and artificial UV radiation sources is a public health concern. UV radi- ation predisposes to skin cancer development and eye damage. In 1995, in order to raise public awareness about the excessive exposure to UV and the need to adopt protective measures, the World Health Organi- zation (WHO), together with several partner organi- zations, developed the Global Solar Ultraviolet Index (UVI). The UVI is a measurement of UV radiation lev- els reaching the Earth’s surface. The WHO defines five UVI exposure categories: low, moderate, high, very high, and extreme. 22,23 UVI is easily obtained from me-
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