TEM images of Mg-MMT, O-MMT and T-MMT are shown in Figures 6d, 6e and 6f, respectively. As observed from the figures, O-MMT and T-MMT displayed the typical and well-ordered layer structure like that of Mg-MMT, and the basal distance also expanded further, which was much larger and more obvious than that of Mg-MMT. Thus, the cationic surfactant of CTAB was intercalated successfully into the clay, which gives an indication for the easier adsorption of unsaturatedfattyacids.
Diets rich in saturated fattyacids are one of the most important causes of atherosclerosis in men, and have been replaced with diets rich in unsaturatedfattyacids (UFA) for the prevention of this disorder. However, the effect of UFA on myocardial performance, metabolism and morphology has not been completely characterized. The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the effects of a UFA-rich diet on cardiac muscle function, oxidative stress, and morphology. Sixty-day-old male Wistar rats were fed a control (N = 8) or a UFA- rich diet (N = 8) for 60 days. Myocardial performance was studied in isolated papillary muscle by isometric and isotonic contractions under basal conditions after calcium chloride (5.2 mM) and ß-adrenergic stimulation with 1.0 µM isoproterenol. Fragments of the left ventricle free wall were used to study oxidative stress and were analyzed by light microscopy, and the myocardial ultrastructure was examined in left ventricle papillary muscle. After 60 days the UFA-rich diet did not change myocardial function. However, it caused high lipid hydroper- oxide (176 ± 5 vs 158 ± 5, P < 0.0005) and low catalase (7 ± 1 vs 9 ± 1, P < 0.005) and superoxide-dismutase (18 ± 2 vs 27 ± 5, P < 0.005) levels, and discrete morphological changes in UFA-rich diet hearts such as lipid deposits and mitochondrial membrane alterations com- pared to control rats. These data show that a UFA-rich diet caused myocardial oxidative stress and mild structural alterations, but did not change mechanical function.
Surprisingly, the functional network built from unsaturatedfattyacids includes 24 genes that showed very intense biological functions related to various diseases, including those involving endocrine system diseases, respiratory diseases, neoplasms, car- diovascular diseases, and lipid metabolism disorders. Intracellular EPA activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) , which are implicated in the pathology of numerous diseases including obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and cancer (RefSeq, Jul 2008). EPA also inhibits COX-1/COX-2 , which encode proteins that may promote cell proliferation during tumor progression (RefSeq, Sep 2012). DPA activates RXRG , a member of the retinoid X receptor family that is involved in mediating the anti-proliferative effects of retinoic acid and is down-regulated in several types of human cancers, including lung cancer ; DPA also activates cysteine-aspartic acid protease (Caspase) family members, which are involved in cancer cell apoptosis . The functional network analysis strengthens the hypothesis that the decline of unsaturatedfattyacids is a potential mediator of multiple health disorders in boilermakers.
ABSTRACT - The objective of this study was to evaluate the utilization of different sources of unsaturated long-chain fattyacids in diets for dairy cows during the transition period and early lactation on the milk fatty acid proﬁle and composition of the protein fraction. Thirty-six Holstein cows were divided into three groups, fed the following diets: control (C); soybean oil (SO); and calcium salts of long-chain unsaturatedfattyacids (CS). The milk samples utilized for analysis were obtained weekly from parturition to twelve weeks of lactation; each one of the samples originated from two daily milkings. Milk composition and total nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen and non-casein nitrogen levels were analyzed. The cows receiving the diet with calcium salts had lower concentrations of non-protein nitrogen (%CP) in milk compared with the animals fed the diet with soybean oil. There was a decrease in concentration of medium-chain fattyacids C12-C16, and a concomitant increase in concentrations of long-chain fattyacids >C18 in milk fat for the animals fed the diets CS and SO when compared with diet C. Soybean oil and CS diets increased milk-fat concentrations of the acids C18: 1 trans-11, C18: 2 cis-9, trans-11 and C18: 2 trans-10 cis-12 in relation to diet C. The utilization of sources of long-chain fattyacids in the diet of dairy cows increases the biological value of milk in early lactation due to higher concentrations of speciﬁc fattyacids such as CLA C18: 2 cis-9, trans-11.
Another important dietary component are the highly unsaturatedfattyacids (HUFAs). Marine fish generally lack, or have low activity of the desaturase necessary to synthesize n-3 HUFAs from C18 fattyacids. Therefore, n-3 HUFAs are considered essential fattyacids (EFA) in the diets of marine fish as they are required for normal growth and survival. High dietary levels of HUFA, however, can negatively affect fish growth as HUFAs are readily oxidized by reactive oxygen species to lipid peroxides (Porter et al 1995) and HUFA tend to be less available for energy (Murata 1983).
Median ± semi-range of values in %; n: number of animals; C: control group; UF: group treated with a diet rich in unsaturatedfattyacids; SF: group treated with a diet rich in saturated fattyacids; AT: peak developed tension; RT: resting tension; TPT: time to peak tension; +dT/dt: maximum tension development rate; -dT/dt: maximum tension decline rate; RT50: time from peak tension to 50% relaxation; km: stiffness constant; -dL/dT: maximum shortening velocity; +dL/dT: maximum relaxation velocity. Data with statistical differences are indicated with different lowercase letters (P<0.05).
Maize germ was obtained by wet-milling laboratory processing of domestic high-oil maize hybrids. After separation, the germ was subjected to extraction of maize oil. Fatty acid composition of maize germ oil was determined by gas chromatography. The results showed very high levels of unsaturatedfattyacids and a constant sum of oleic and linoleic acids in oils of different maize hybrids.
The fattyacids composition of the seed kernel oil is listed in Table 3. Fattyacids from 6 to 24 carbon atoms containing up to three double bonds were detected. Saturated fattyacids with even number of carbon atoms C 6:0 , C 8:0 , C 12:0 and, a unsaturatedfatty acid C 22:2 were present in trace quantities. One odd carbon number of fatty acid (C 17:0 ) also was identified in trace quantity. The saturated fattyacids represented 20.6% of the total fattyacids, with C 16:0 (10.3%) and C 18:0 (5.4%) being predominant. Other saturated fattyacids such as C 20:0 (3.4%), C 22:0 (0.9%) and C 24:0 (0.6%) also were identified. Vieira Junior et al. (2007) reported saturaded fattyacids content of 22.4 %, constituted by 14.34 % of C 16:0 , 4.55% of C 18:0 and 3.51% of C 24:0 . Unsaturatedfattyacids represented 79.4%, of the total fattyacids. Oleic (64.1%) and linoleic acids (14.1%) together contributed to about 99.7% of the total unsaturatedfattyacids. The monounsaturated fatty acid concentration is higher than that reported for canola (61.5%) and olive (61.9%) (Bruzzetti, 1999). Its polyunsaturated fatty acid level (14.4%), however, was lower compared a this species. Linolenic acid (C 18:3 ) also was present at a concentration of 0.3%. Vieira Junior et al. (2007) reported 77.58 % unsaturatedfattyacids. The unsaturatedfattyacids C 18:1 (75.82 %) and C 18:2 (1.76 %) were at higher and lower concentrations, respectively when compared to the results of our study.
aqueous phase before the latter can initiate lipid peroxidation . Carbohydrates gave a small positive contribution possibly due to the presence of mannitol (reducing sugar), a very abundant sugar in mushrooms which functions to provide support and expansion of the fruit body [13–17]. Unsaturatedfattyacids (MUFA and PUFA) also show a small positive contribution to RSA but a negative contribution to RP; the presence of double bonds make them susceptible to oxidation – they can react with free radicals and become radicals themselves. Therefore, they act mostly as free radical scavengers. Particularly, oleic (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2), abundant in mushrooms [13–17], proved to have more than 80% of RSA . Nevertheless, it should be noted that fattyacids exist in mushrooms at very low concentrations.
body of evidence from higher plants that NO and other reactive species mediate nitro-oxidative reactions that regulate plant stress perception, signal transduction and senescence responses. Integral to these events is the redox-mediated formation of heme and protein thiol nitrosyl adducts and protein 3-nitrotyrosine adducts . Considering that plants in general, and fresh olives in particular, are abundant in readily-nitrated unsaturatedfattyacids, the present study evaluated whether electrophilic fatty acid nitroalkene derivatives (NO 2 -FA) are a) endogenously present in
Energy metabolism-related pathways. The biosynthesis of unsaturatedfattyacids (S7 Fig), ovarian steroidogenesis, fatty acid elongation, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis (S8 Fig) and pyruvate metabolism (S9 Fig) are significantly up-regulated in this study. The genes of acyl- coenzyme A thioesterase in the synthesis of unsaturatedfattyacids are up-regulated at the tran- scriptional level to promote the synthesis of unsaturatedfattyacids. This may be because O. niloticus needs to upregulate some fattyacids synthesis pathways to meet the demands for these fattyacids. Similarly, the high level of dietary n-3 highly unsaturatedfattyacids improves the tolerance of Chinese mitten crab larvae to salinity stress . It is well known that fish are liable to congenital diabetes due to a low ability of carbohydrate utilization . During seawa- ter acclimation in Oreochromis mossambicus, the glycogen content in the hepatopancreas is decreased significantly after transfer to seawater, suggesting that salt acclimation promotes car- bohydrate utilization , which supports the findings in the current study. Thus, it is sug- gested that lipids are the main source of energy supply under salinity domestication in O. niloticus.
Obtained data of fatty-acid composition in microfungus Blakeslea trispora lipoid fraction indicate about significant predominance unsaturatedfattyacids and, as a result of this, we have advance of use microfungus Blakeslea trispora biomass as a source of biologically active substances for establishing a new kind of prophylactic action goods.
Results regarding fatty acid composition, total saturated fattyacids (SFA), monounsaturated fattyacids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fattyacids (PUFA) are shown in Table 2. Twenty-two fattyacids were quantified in Ganoderma strain LS6 while 21 were quantified in strain HS1. Generally, a higher occurrence of SFA over PUFA was observed, except for strains LS1, LS2, LS7 and AM1 where PUFA were dominant. It is worth noting that the LS1, LS2, LS3, LS5, LS6, LS7 and LS9 samples, which have been reported  to be in the same clade within the Ganoderma lucidum complex, generally showed significant differences in their total SFA, MUFA and PUFA. Unfortunately the sequence of the ITS region of the ribosomal RNA of LS4 was not included in the phylogenetic tree because the sequence obtained was incomplete . However, the authors Obodai et al.  noted that the macromorphology of the LS4 sample was notably different from the other eight LS samples. As such, the reason for the marked difference in the LS4 sample can be attributed more to biotic factors than to abiotic factors. Polyunsaturated fattyacids have been reported to be dominant among the fattyacids in some edible mushrooms and could be useful for the reduction of serum cholesterol. Interestingly, similar to findings by Barros et al.  in which trans isomers of unsaturatedfattyacids were not detected in various wild edible mushrooms, trans isomers of unsaturatedfattyacids were not detected in the presently studied Ganoderma strains (Table 2).
Milk quality in view of fattyacids compositions during the year is nutritive balanced. The fat content of milk and fluctuation values of milk fat may be affected by low fiber content (below 18 %), a high proportion of grain feed and a high degree of fragmentation feed. In terms of the composition of milk fat, we found the highest proportion of palmitic acid 34.85 %, a lower proportion of oleic acid was 30.92 %. Myristic acid accounted 11.44% and stearic acid 10.88 %. Linoleic acid, which has a beneficial effect on reducing cholesterol consumer, consisted of 3.48 % milk fat. The average content of unsaturatedfattyacids was 36.77%, monounsaturated fattyacids 32.77 % and polyunsaturated fattyacids accounted for 4.0 % of milk fat. Great importance for the future monitoring of the unsaturatedfattyacids such as linoleic acid, linolenic acid and arachidonic acid for their beneficial effects on the body of the consumer, because according to literature sources pass into the milk directly from the feed. It can be assumed that the content of said fattyacids in alternative systems would be higher. Content of fattyacids can be therefore regulated with diet and the low-fiber, high degree of fragmentation of the diet and to ensure a high proportion of grain feed.
Water stress, as well as other stress types, can modify lipids membranes composition and consequently alter cellular metabolic activities compartimentalization (Liljenberg et al., 1992). The fatty acid nature which composes plants lipids membranes depends on the temperature and water availability intimately (Ahmed et al., 1993; Kizis et al., 2001). On the other hand, those factors play a very important role in the maintenance of the fatty acid functional configuration (Dakma et al., 1995; Hamrouni et al., 2001; Kizis et al., 2001). Water deficit can modify plasmatic membranes lipids as much as different cytoplasmatic organelles affect their function, as well as the proper cellular metabolism. Alterations in lipids composition of the chloroplasts membranes can affect different plastidials lipids in an important way, such as the galactolipids - MGDG (monogalactosyl-diacylglycerol) and DGDG (digalactosyl-diacylglycerol), the sulfolipid - SQDG (sulfoquinovosyl-diacylglycerol) and the phosfolipid - PG (phosphatidylglycerol) (Navari- Izzo et al., 1989; Monteiro de Paula et al., 1990; Lauriano et al., 2000). The foliar membranes tyically possess high contents of galactolipids, differently of animal cells membranes and non- green plants tissues (Ferrari-Iliou et al., 1984; Pham Thi et al., 1987). Raising in saturated fattyacids grade and the reduction in unsaturatedfattyacids induce membranes structural modifications. The cellular membranes which possess an unsaturated level (the relation between saturated and unsaturatedfatty acid) changed in environmental stresses function, like water stress, are consequently modified in the selective permeability as in the enzymes compartimentalization (El-Tohamy et al., 1999). The galactolipids unsaturation level can be reduced due to an increase or acceleration of the
analyses of fattyacids profile of meat in turkeys demonstrated that the breast muscles of birds from group received phytoadditive in the diet characterized by markedly (P<0.05) higher content of cis-11,14-eicosadienoic acid. The same increasing tendency (P <0.01) observed in leg muscles for mentioned cis-11,14-eicosadienoic acid, and additionally for cis-8,11,14-eicosadienoic and arachidonic acids. Moreover, in the presented study the phytoadditive supplementation significantly (P <0.01) decreased content of some unsaturatedfattyacids as well. In experimental group of turkeys have been recorded lower level of elaidic and oleic acids in the breast muscle and cis-11,14-eicosadienoic and arachidonic acids in the liver, compare to birds from control group. The effect of phytoadditives had been investigated in poultry species in previous studies. Zuidhof, et al. (2009) observed an improvement in the fatty acid profile (an increase in PUFA and a decrease in SFA level) after the addition of 17% of linseed to a standard feed mixture for poultry. The administration of a lower dose (10%) affected the fatty acid profile only to a negligible extent. The effect of the phytoadditive supplementation confirmed also
ABSTRACT - The objective of this study was to evaluate the inﬂuence of unsaturatedfattyacids in diets for dairy cows during the transition period and early lactation on intake, digestion and nutrient balance. Thirty-six multiparous and pregnant Holstein cows were randomly distributed to receive one of the experimental diets in the period from 35 days before the expected date of parturition to 84 days post-partum. Diets were fed as a total mixed ration and were as follows: control (C); soybean oil (SO), based on inclusion of 30 g/kg (DM basis); and calcium salts of unsaturatedfattyacids (CS), based on inclusion of 30 g/kg (DM basis). Pre-partum dry matter intakes (DMI) of cows fed C, SO and CS were 11.9, 9.5 and 9.6 kg/d, respectively. Post- partum DMI was affected by experimental diets (18.5, 15.0 and 17.4 kg/d for C, SO and CS, respectively). The energy balance in the transition period of animals fed CS was 4.41 Mcal/d higher than cows fed SO and 1.3 Mcal/d higher than cows fed C. Supplementing cows with unsaturatedfatty acid sources is a strategy for dairy cows in the transition period.
Unsaturated fats have positive effects on human health. The consumption of foods with unsaturated fats controls the level of bad cholesterol in the blood and helps to absorb vitamins A, D, E and K (fat soluble vitamins) (HIRAYAMA et al., 2006). Jorge et al. (2010) found in cagaita seeds, amount of unsaturatedfattyacids of 62.33%, of which 21.18% are monounsaturated acids and 41.15% are polyunsaturated acids, with linoleic acid being the main component. Among monounsaturated and polyunsaturated acids, only oleic acid (20.17%) and linoleic acid (38.11%) were found in significant amounts.
Crossbreeding between European breeds produce higher carcass dressing and carcass conformation due to genetic improvements accumulated over decades. Further, genetic groups have a certain influence on fatty acid profile of the Longissimus muscle in bulls finished in feedlot. The difference is related to the origin of the various genetic groups. Cattle with zebu genes have the highest levels of unsaturatedfattyacids due to their fiber composition and higher percentage of muscle collagen. However, genetic manipulation only produced a small variation in meat composition. Acknowledgements
Abstract: The genus Hibiscus plants have different uses, some are used as foods (H. esculenta L.), and some species as remedy in traditional medicine (H. sabdariffa L.) as well as a colorant for herbal teas. The only species that grows naturally in Turkey is H. trionum L. The plant especially infests soy and corn fields, and therefore it is considered to be a noxious weed. The plant is also found to be a host for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV). Infestation of the crop fields by this plant shows that it germinates easily. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quiet easy. Though, seed oil yield is low (4.7%) since linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67,5%), it can still be used as a source of unsaturatedfattyacids. The other major fattyacids are palmitic, oleic and stearic acids in the studied seed oil.