ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Rapid increase of population due to unregulated fertility is related to increased maternal, perinatal and infant deaths. By using contraceptives, fertility can be regulated. This study was conducted to investigate the knowledge, attitude and practices of contraceptive in women attending urbanhealth center (UHC). OBJECTIVES: To study the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraceptive in mothers attending the UHC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted at UHC. All mothers in reproductive age group attending UHC for health check-up were included in the study, which was 109 mothers. Data was collected on preformed questionnaire and analysis was done. RESULTS: Among 109 women, 61 (56%) women were in age group 26-30 years. 84 (77%) women were Hindu by religion.68 (62%) women belonged to socioeconomic class III. 73 (66.97%) women were having knowledge of tubectomy. 64 (58.72%) women felt that contraceptives should be used after having 2 children. 59 (54.13%) women had undergone tubectomy. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of barrier and hormonal methods of contraceptives was poor among mothers. Positive attitude was seen towards use of contraceptive. KEYWORDS: Contraceptive, Family planning, Tubectomy.
Diez Roux’s paper is interesting in many ways, characterized with “opened questions” more than “authoritative proposals” (as we often en- counter). She explains in clear and illustrated terms the relevance of adopting a systemic ap- proach to “urbanhealth” in order to understand the complexity of the relationship between urban space, ways of life and health. Sharing Diez Roux’s point of view, I wish to briefly present three sets of additional questions.
The majority of the articles in this special edition consider the interconnections be- tween urban and health determinants. In addition to theoretical approaches that involve an interesting debate on complex systems, considering that they can potentially range all the way from epigenetics to health iniquities in the urban environment, this volume in- cludes empirical studies with innovative concepts and methods, including those designed to evaluate urban public policies and developed with an inter-sector approach. This spe- cial issue also features a high-level forum on the work of urban observatories, developing and testing potential urbanhealth solutions to local problems based on international ex- periences and health intelligence.
Diez Roux presents in this Supplement of Cader- nos de Saúde Pública a clear argument for why systems theory should be instrumental for un- derstanding the root causes of urbanhealth and for tackling ill health and inequalities in cities. I am persuaded by the ways in which systems theory can help transform research and action for urbanhealth, as she proposes. She focuses particularly on the development of conceptual dynamic models of the processes leading to health in urban settings, drawing on inputs from researchers and stakeholders, which in turn draw on scientific knowledge and contextual/local fac- tors, while mapping out expected feedback loops and dependencies. These conceptual models are essential for clarifying/generating hypotheses about linkages between health and the urban en- vironment and for identifying potential interven- tions and their expected impacts on health.
The determinants of slum health are too complex to be deﬁned by any single parameter. Yet, they arise from a common physical and legal pedigree that concentrates the ill effects of poverty, unhealthy environments, and marginalization from the formal sector. The promotion of urbanhealth in the 21st century must take neighborhood- centered as well as person-centered approaches. We recognize that broad economic, social, and political forces play an important role in the creation and growth of slums, and addressing these forces will take time. However, we represent clinicians and public health specialists, and therefore, our approach focuses on immediate solutions that can dramatically improve health and health disparities (Box 1).
Professor Diez Roux’s comments, focusing on the adoption of systems methods in urbanhealth inquiry, aim to introduce the relevance of these ideas to a broader audience. There is little ques- tion that the field of urbanhealth specifically, and public health more broadly, remains quite far from the widespread adoption of systems thinking. Our mainstream training, scholarship, and practice of urbanhealth remains centered explicitly on causal paradigms that suggest we can effectively isolate causes that are instrumen- tal in the production of health. This leads a quest for singular causes that can serve as levers we may manipulate to improve the health of these populations. But is this approach even realistic? Should systems thinking be (as it is now) a “new” approach on the margins of the field, which needs special commentaries to gain acceptance and a foothold in the mainstream of the science? Or should we accept that we are dealing with ir- reducibly complex systems, and that we need to be in the business of articulating metaphors that grapple with this complexity, grounded in the approaches of systems thinking? Systems thinking is late to the game in population health, emerging only recently in empirical discussions in the field. This reflects the dominant determin- istic paradigms that have long dominated think- ing in the health sciences, and the dominant pedagogical paradigms that continue to guide our training programs. Professor Diez Roux sug- gests that systems approaches will never replace more traditional empirical approaches in urbanhealth research. But, one wonders, should they? Traditional empirical approaches are predi- cated on the assumption that we can articulate simplifying metaphors to the end of generating knowledge that is durable and applicable across contexts. Hence, we can understand the phys- ics of motion of a spherical object in a vacuum, and those observations always hold. But that is worlds away from the questions of interest in ur- ban health. Urbanhealth is ultimately interested in questions that are irrevocably contextual. The very field, concerned with the nature of the ur- ban environment, rests on the understanding of particular contexts that are far too complex to distill into overly simplifying metaphors. One can imagine a body of scholarship that is predicated on an embrace of complexity, where the adop- tion of approaches in systems science underlies the questions we ask and the answers we seek, and frames how we teach our students. This does not have to mean that the methods of systems science – be they differential equations models or autonomous agent-based models – need to
This meeting report summarises the core discussion points and essential outcomes of the Lisbon Expert Meeting, which took place at the Portuguese Academy of Sciences during 19-20 September 2018. The Lisbon Expert Meeting was an in-depth inquiry of 15 internationally-known scientists and policy experts on the complex interconnection of uncertain climate change impacts, urbanhealth, and well-being problems and sustainable development, as well as on adaptation strategies and challenges. The meeting report contains three parts: 1) general framing of contexts, 2) review of climate change-health policies, and 3) systems sciences unraveling the nexus between climate change and health, and proposed science- policy pathways. Among these parts, we further organised Part 3 according to the four thematic components discussed at the meeting by the form of panel presentations and Q&A. The first thematic part presents the nexus challenge of climate change impacts on health and the implications on urban sustainability. The second thematic part introduces integrated approaches to urbanhealth provision and management. The third thematic part proposes a “health-centered” science-policy interface. Lastly, the fourth thematic part explores ways to better coordinate the implementation of health policies within the context of global climate change impacts. In this report, we also propose policy recommendations following each thematic discussion.
The local public health authorities in Olinda should continue to focus their efforts on the systematic vaccination of dogs and cats, prompt and complete human rabies post-exposure prophylaxis, responsible animal ownership, and stray dog and cat population management. Studies on the antigenic rabies virus variants circulating among dogs, cats and other animals, particularly bats, should be encouraged, in order to improve our understanding of the dynamic of rabies virus transmission in Olinda. Likewise, the localization and monitoring of all hematophagous bat populations living in this municipality are warranted.
Features, also studies the average expectation of physiological decline process (30% of the functional capacity of individuals older than 60 years) as a result of the natural aging process (decrease in the production of new cells and hormones, and self-regulatory capacity), and that is exponentially greater in the presence of nosological processes, but is minimized with the practice of physical exercises. In conclusion, therefore, those are undeniable positive efects of exercises on physical health presented in studies produced over the past 20 years.
Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are neglected diseases with limited data regarding prevalence in Brazil and many other countries. In increasingly urban societies, investigating the profile and socioenvironmental determinants of IPIs in the general population of slum dwellers is necessary for establishing appropriate public policies catered to these environments. This study assessed the socioenvironmental conditions and prevalence of IPIs in slums of Rio de Janeiro, RJ State, Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study covering an agglomeration of urban slums was conducted between 2015 and 2016 using participants observation, a socioeconomic survey, and the spontaneous sedimentation method with three slides per sample to analyze fresh stool specimens (n=595) searching for intestinal parasites. Results: Endolimax nana (n=95, 16.0%) and Entamoeba coli (n=65, 10.9%) were the most frequently identified agents, followed by Giardia intestinalis (n=24, 4.0%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (n=11, 1.8%). Coinfections caused by E. nana and E. histolytica/dispar and by Entamoeba coli/A. lumbricoides were significant. The use of piped water as drinking water, the presence of A. lumbricoides, and contamination with coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli were more common in major area (MA) 1. Children (0-19 years) had a greater chance of living in poverty (OR 3.36; 95% CI: 2.50- 4.52; p <0.001) which was pervasive. The predominance of protozoa parasites suggests that a one-size-fits-all approach focusing on preventive chemotherapy for soil-transmitted helminths is not appropriate for all communities in developing countries. It is important that both residents and health professionals consider the socioenvironmental conditions of urban slums when assessing intestinal parasitic infections for disease control and health promotion initiatives.
2. Antonov V.A., Sidorova A.E., Yakovenko L.V. Vliyanie elektromagnitnykh poley promyshlennoy chastoty na ustoychivost' bio- i urboekosistem [Influence of Industrial Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Stability of Biological and Urban Ecosystems]. Ekologiya urbaniziro- vannykh territoriy [Ecology of Urbanized Territories]. 2007, no. 1, pp. 25 — 34.
Young people have specific health risks whether they live in a rural environment or in an urban environment. It was intended with this integrative literature review to identify the specific health risks of young people in rural and urban settings. To achieve this, we carried out an integrative review of the literature on EBSCO databases, PROQUEST, Mendeley, B-ON, from February 2018 to May 2018, having the selection criteria articles published between 2002 and 2018 so that we identify recent studies that reveal actual risks. The results allowed us to identify a very varied set of risk behaviours in both rural and urban settings. Most of the studies analysed had a transversal design, anthropometric evaluations were performed to evaluate health status. Interesting findings resulted, namely young people in rural areas are exposed to additional and more varied risks than urban ones, requiring greater supervision and follow-up by health professionals. These findings can help to define practices more directed to real risks. Although health authorities are aware of some risks to which young people are subjected, studies report little or nothing has been done to protect them, so we believe that it is urgent to create health policies that are appropriate for each environment to safeguard them.
Inherent to “sentinel areas” are two funda- mental characteristics displaying the potential of this methodology as a complementary strat- egy for overcoming certain constraints and de- ficiencies in health information systems. The first relates to the methodology’s conceptual- ization, allowing for the identification of health problems on a time scale closer to the occur- rence of the events; it allows for surveys and analyses of information in different social con- texts represented by the diverse typologies of the respective “sentinel areas”; it contributes to the study of processes and conditions that are beyond the reach of traditional strategies; and it makes possible the incorporation of other el- ements (perception, behaviors, and attitudes) in the analyses and interventions. The second characteristic relates to its operability and costs, which can be absorbed by the local levels of the health system since it utilizes the preexisting infrastructure of human resources and materi- als and is limited to a small universe located within their territorial range.
Agora (bahasa Yunani: Ἀ γορά, Agorá) adalah tempat untuk pertemuan terbuka di Yunani kuno (Gambar 5). Pada awal sejarah Yunani, (900–700 SM), orang merdeka dan pemilik tanah yang berstatus sebagai warga negara berkumpul di Agora untuk bermusyawarah dengan raja atau dewan. Di kemudian hari, Agora juga berfungsi sebagai pasar tempat para pedagang menempatkan barang dagangannya di antara pilar-pilar Agora. Dari fungsi ganda ini, muncullah dua kata dalam bahasa Yunani: αγοράζω, agorázō, "aku berbelanja", dan αγορεύω, agoreýō, "aku berbicara di depan umum". Agora terbentuk dengan ciri-ciri sebagai berikut: (1) bangunan-bangunan pada Agora memperlihatkan sebagai facade yang membentuk ruang kota yang tertutup, dimana sekelilingnya merupakan suatu arcade; (2) dibentuk dalam waktu yang cukup lama; (3) merupakan ruang urban pertama dan terpenting sebagai tempat masyarakat bertemu, berinteraksi sosial (kegiatan dagang dan kehidupan politik); (4) ide Agora baik sebagai “place” maupun “space” merupakan satu kesatuan sebagai konsep yang sangat berguna di dalam urban design; (5) ruang yang terbentuk secara visual berupa keseimbangan asimetrik-dibentuk oleh gabungan detail yang mirip; (6) merupakan ruang terbuka dengan fungsi yang lebih terklasifikasi; (7) bentuk Agora umumnya geometris dengan luas sekitar 5% dari luas kota.
Let us explore, for example, the possible paths by which urban living contributes to cardiovas- cular disease. Cities experienced social and tech- nological changes that ultimately created a dom- inant human habitat: long time spent in traffic, long working hours, airborne pollutants, stress, and easy access to high-fat/high-sugar/high- sodium foods combined with sedentary lifestyle and poor eating habits. These factors contribute directly or indirectly (by modifying) the risks of heart diseases.
Second, seven work sessions with focal groups composed of 45 individuals were set. As a result, it was observed that an individual establishes different trust levels within his/her social environment, and this reflects on their behavior. One of the main conclusions was the need for clearly-defined characterizations of the individual and the urban atmosphere, when modeling urban computing systems.
what “rural” means (Adedeji & Olaniyan, 2011). Kashaa (2012) simply describes rural areas as deprived, lacking so many government developmental interventions such as pota- ble water, electricity, good roads, and school infrastructure to improve upon the lives of the people. Rural cultures can exist in urban areas but differences exist between rural areas and urban centers because large rural towns that are not far from urban centers often have more in common with the urban area than they do with remote and isolated small towns. Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa is concentrated in rural areas where 75% of the poor reside. Although rural areas can pro- vide family-oriented settings, lower crime rates, fresh air, and an enhanced quality of life, many teachers refuse rural postings due to concerns about the quality of housing, class- room facilities, healthcare, school resources, and opportuni- ties for professional development (Acheampong & Lewin as cited in Mulkeen, 2005; Armah, 2013; Hedges, 2000) and language barriers (Coultas & Lewin, 2002).
ABSTRACT – URBAN GREEN SPACES AND MENTAL HEALTH DURING THE LOCKDOWN CAUSED BY COVID-19. In the absence of effective pharmacological interventions against COVID-19, many governments have implemented lockdowns and other measures of social isolation. However, these measures are associated with a deterioration in the mental health and well-being of the population. The deleterious effects of lockdowns in the mental health of the population may be more pronounced in cities, in socially disadvantaged communities and among vulnerable demographic groups, such as children and the elderly. Though, the use and contact with urban green spaces (e.g. urban parks, public and private gardens) and other natural spaces (e.g. beaches, riverside areas) can reduce the stress caused by the lockdown and provide opportunities for relaxation, promoting urban resilience. This paper aims to discuss the theoretical models underlying this hypothesis, summarize scientific evidence on the topic and launch possible solutions.