Abstract: The useofindustrialwaste as an additive in soil improvement has many advantages, including recycling ofwaste, reducing the need for waste storage, and obtaining an economical material. With the useof these wastes, desired positive results are obtained in some geotechnical properties of soil. However, the wastes can create trace element contamination in soil and groundwater. In this study, trace elements originating from industrial wastes contaminating groundwater are investigated. The industrial wastes were mixed at different proportions with the soil. These mixtures were compacted into a permeameter cells, and a seepage tests were performed. The leachates obtained from seepage tests were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to determine trace elements. The measured trace element quantities were compared with the allowable values in the relevant standards (EPA 822, WHO, TS266). The results reveal that quantitative values of the trace elements from the leachates were within the allowable limits, except for arsenic and chromium. Furthermore, when fl y ash is used As and Cr can be combined with ettringite and be immobilized. Boron and silica fume are hazardous substances caused by trace elements. However, considering its long-term effect, they can be used with fl y ash.
Braz. J. of Develop., Curitiba, v. 5, n. 7, p. 8801-8810 jul. 2019 ISSN 2525-8761 Alguns ácidos graxos foram produzidos durante o processo de bioconversão, entre os quais os ácidos graxos de cadeia longa (entre 16 e 18 carbonos), foram encontrados em maior proporção o ácido palmítico (C16:0t) em concentrações que variaram de 25,4 a 53,1%, ácido heptadecanoico (C:17n-7t) encontrado apenas na biomassa resultante da bioconversão com cascas de banana em concentração de 13,9% , ácido elaídico (C18:1 n-9t) presente na maior parte das biomassas analisadas em concentrações que variaram de 11,1 até 47,2%, (apenas as biomassas produzidas com resíduos de caroço de abacate, cascas de banana e caule de bananeira não apresentaram este composto), ácido linoléico (C18:2 n-9,12cis) presente em todas as biomassas exceto no caule de bananeira em concentrações que variaram de 17,2 a 53,5%,.
PATEIRO, M.; VARGAS, F.C.; CHINCHA, A.A.I.A.; SANT’ANA, A.S.; STROZZI, I.; ROCCHETTI, G.; BARBA, F.J.; DOMÍNGUEZ, R.; LUCINI, L.; DO AMARAL SOBRAL, P.J.; et al. Guarana seed extracts as a useful strategy to extend the shelf life of pork patties: UHPLC-ESI/QTOF phenolic profile and impact on microbial inactivation, lipid and protein oxidation and antioxidant capacity. Food Res. Int. 2018, 114, 55–63.
Seguido da execução de ensaios para caracterização física dos agregados, comparou- se as características da brita e do resíduo da tinta (Gráfico 1). Pôde-se perceber que o resíduo de tinta apresentou menor massa específica, e massa unitária, provavelmente em função da sua elevada porosidade, certamente pelo fato de o resíduo ser proveniente de um processo industrial. Conforme a ABNT NBR 10004:2004 e a Lei nº 12.305, de 02 de agosto de 2010 o resíduo de tinta é classificada como resíduo industrial perigoso Classe I, devido às suas características químicas de composição e por seus componentes ofertarem características de inflamabilidade e toxicidade.
One of the difficulties of zootechnics branch which was intense developed in Moldova is insufficient supply of feed resources and biologically active substances that are imported at very high prices. At the same time in ponds and soil of Moldova were discovered over 300 species of algae that have a lot of valuable biochemical contents, have a reproductive capacity of tens and even hundreds times greater than that of plants growing. [ŞALARU, 2001] In addition, biomass of some species are rich in protein, carbohydrates, lipids, etc., which can easily be grown on an industrial scale. But biomass produced on mineral medium is expensive, becoming economically insufficient. Thus arose the need to develop technologies for mass cultivation of some species of algae to use as a nutrient medium wastewater from livestock complex given the fact that biomass produced can be used as a supplement feed for animals that produce the same sewage placed in nutrient medium [GONZÁLEZ & al. 1997; MALLICK, 2002].
According to the information presented on chapter 1.2, there is a need to find new environment friendly solutions and to adopt new lifestyles, and among other reasons, one of the most important is to expect a better future for planet Earth. As Roszak (1992) wrote in his book, The voice of the Earth, “if psychosis is the attempt to live a lie, our psychosis is the lie of believing we have no ethical obligation to our planetary home”. Bearing this in mind and taking into account that plastic provides unique and innumerable properties for manufacturers, there is the urge to stop the high rate of production and consumerism of oil-based plastics, since our dependence on it leads to concerns in terms of economic and environmental sustainability. Thus, according to the literature review, the useof bio-based plastic has been growing and proves to be capable of replacing oil-based plastic. Moreover, new materials can still be developed, mainly with the blending of several other materials to create new composites. From this point of view, incorporation of natural waste in thermoplastics proves to have increasing interest and a growing number of applications due to its properties. Besides, literature review showed that there are already many enterprises using natural waste for product design, as shown in chapter 2.4.
Plastics present versatile qualities of strength, lightness, durability and resistance to degradation. They have become an important material to enhance the comfort and quality of life. Plastics are an essential part of almost all industries and have replaced glass and paper in packaging. However, these very desirable properties have now become their greatest problem (Khanna and Srivastava 2004). The exponential growth of the human population has led to the accumulation of huge amounts of non-degradable waste materials across our planet. Living conditions in the biosphere are therefore changing dramatically, in such a way that the presence of non-biodegradable residues is affecting the potential survival of many species (Luengo et al 2003). As the conventional plastics derive from oil, other problems were raised. The limitation of oil reserves and the instability in oil prices are two of the drawbacks of the consumption of these resources (da Costa Sousa et al 2009). In addition, several environmental changes are being caused by the rise of greenhouse gases emissions (Jefferson 2006). In response to the harmful effects of plastics on the environment, there is a considerable interest in the development of biodegradable materials (Choi and Lee 1997). Among the various biodegradable polymeric materials, polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) attracted industrial attention because of their potential use as practical biodegradable and biocompatible thermoplastics (Tsuge 2002).
43(3):407-420. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5380/rf.v43i3.25789 Bustamante MA, Paredes C, Moral R, Agulló E, Pérez- Murcia MD, Abad M (2008) Composts from distillery wastes as peat substitutes for transplant production. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 52(5):792-799. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2007.11.005 Carmo DL, Silva CA (2012) Métodos de quantificação de carbono e matéria orgânica em resíduos orgânicos. Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo 36(4):1211-1220. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-06832012000400015 Costa MSSM, Bernardi FH, Costa LAM, Pereira DC, Lorin HEF, Rozatti MAT, Carneiro LJ (2017) Composting as a cleaner strategy to broiler agro-industrial wastes: Selecting carbon source to optimize the process and improve the quality of the final compost. Journal of Cleaner Production 142:2084-2092. DOI:
Logistics management ofwaste streams is primarily used as a tool for management in an appropriate manner all kinds ofwaste. Processes related to waste management permanently etched into the scope of logistics, together with still increasing amounts ofwaste, by-products and consumer goods have already useless after a period ofuse. Their integration in the logistics management ofwaste streams is seen as a source of significant improvement of this issue. At the same time a continuous reduction of resource materials and materials in the world requires increasingly attach importance to issues related to the acquisition of recycling, recovery and processing of used articles (Daniel, Tsoulfas, Pappis & Rachaniotis, 2004; Dima et al.). Logistic management ofwaste streams is the creation of logistic chains merging ofwaste disposal sites. It comprises the following steps: sorting ofwaste and their transport and storage, waste treatment, provision of secondary raw materials.
Coffee is a rich source of dietary antioxidants, and this property, coupled with the fact that it is one of the world’s most popular beverages, has led to the understanding that coffee is a major contributor to dietary antioxidant intake. Natural bioactive compounds from coffee industry by-products have been receiving increasing attention, having in view the sustainability of the processes [1,2]. Spent coffee grounds (SCG) are a by-product generated during espresso beverages or soluble coffee production. Food by-products are focus of great interest in scientific community, once they may provide natural antioxidant and antimicrobial substances. In addition, valorization and re-useof food by-products minimizes industry wastes, with higher impact in sustainability and economic concepts. Coffea Arabica (Arabica) and Coffea canephora var. robusta (Robusta) are the two main species of the genus Coffea usually cultivated for commercial production. Nowadays, Arabica accounts approximately 75 % of the world production and, is considered to be favored to Robusta due to its milder and more flavorful taste, while Robusta is mostly used by the instant coffee industry for the manufacturing of soluble coffee .
184 which is mainly due to the better particle shape of the ERMAs compared to cement particles (Figure 2), and the better fit with the modified Andreassen curve. The most significant exception was the BOFS/QIT-QTA sand-concretes. In this case, the interaction between BOFS-L and QTA seems to play an important role, once the reduction in the BOFS-L consumption improved the flowability. A similar trend was also observed for BOFS-QTA sand-concretes. All sand-concretes containing BOFS-L and QIT-H showed water:solids ratios above the average (including the better overall result). It is likely due to the useof a good-shaped coarse ERMA (BOFS-L), Portland cement, and an effectively thinner powder (QIT-H). In this sense, the mixtures containing QT ERMAs (similar particle sizes) did not exhibit the same performance due to their worst flow performance in comparison to BOFS-L (supposedly influenced by particle shape and interaction with the SP). Finally, the aggregates exerted minor influence, but sand- concretes produced with SSA showed better performances in combination with BOFS-L and worst performances in combination with QT ERMAs.
Nowadays, the assessment of the impact of a new industrial process on the economics and on the ecosphere is an obligatory prerequisite for a sustainable industrial development (Koller et al. 2011). This has been verified due to policies imposed around the world that incentive the development and implementation of new processes and materials (such as bioplastics, namely PHAs). These polices also restrict the materials that do not present any sustainable advantage over those already implemented (Queiroz and Collares-Queiroz 2009; Chanprateep 2010; Koller et al. 2011). As examples, in Europe, countries like Ireland, Scotland, Denmark and Sweden have already imposed levies and taxes on non-degradable plastics bags. Also USA, the San Francisco Board of Supervisors approved “first-in-the nation” legislation that outlaws the useof non-biodegradable plastics bags in large supermarkets within 6 months and large chain pharmacies in about 1 year. Also Asia, Japan and India created laws on promoting green purchasing and recycling and banned the useof plastics in some regions (Chanprateep 2010).
It has become more common in developing countries over the last decade for waste from industries that use grain and other materials from fields as an alternative to using animal, waste. These industries can generate large amounts ofwaste. Returning these industrial wastes to the field might provide a good nutrient source for pastures and has an environmental appeal. Waste derived from microbial fermentation processes that yield industrial enzymes contains N, P, K, Ca, Mg and micronutrients (CAVALETT et al., 2006). Because LWE (liquid waste from enzymes) is neutralized with Ca and Mg oxides, it can increase soil pH and other associated soil chemical properties (CAVALETT et al., 2006).
tic uses are the main types of end-use for these resources and no survey of general recycling practices has been carried out on a wide scale ( Hatt et al., 2006 ). Even though stormwater is usually of bet- ter quality than industrial discharges ( Mitchell et al., 2002 ), few cases ofindustrialuse for stormwater have been reported in the literature ( Thomas et al., 2002 ) and the most deals with roof water harvesting ( Ajit, 2010; Georgia Rainwater Harvesting Guidelines, 2010; Silva, 2007; Sivanappan, 2006 ). With water use approach- ing and in some cases exceeding the limits of sustainability in many locations, stormwater for non-potable requirements includ- ing industrial uses must be considered. Water and wastewater minimization techniques have been widely studied, developed and applied to process industry ( Lens et al., 2002; Mann and Liu, 1999 ). Rosain (1993) and Zver and Glavic (2005) have considered water minimization procedures based on the systematic approach for water reuse proposed by the Center for Waste Reduction Technolo- gies ( Byers et al., 1995 ) and on their experience in industrial plants. One of the tools for water use minimization is the maximization of water reuse and the identiﬁcation of regeneration opportunities (Smith et al., 1994). Case studies in chemical ( Rosain, 1993 ), petro- chemical/reﬁnery ( Bagajewicz, 2000; Zbontar and Glavic, 2000 ), textile ( Deul, 2002; Alvarez et al., 2004; Ujang et al., 2002 ), met- allurgic ( Bravo and Kiperstok, 2005 ), citrus ( Thevendiraraj et al., 2005 ), sugar/distillery ( Saha et al., 2005; Zver and Glavic, 2005 ) and thermal power ( Mohsen, 2004 ) plants are reported in the literature. Water use surveys on industrial sites have also been applied ( A1-Muzaini, 1998; Féres et al., 2008; Kiperstok et al., 2006 ).
The annual growth of pork production in developing countries was estimated to reach 1.5% by the end of 2013, and the growth rate of poultry production was estimated to reach 3.64% by 2020 (FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS, 2010). Brazil is the world’s fourth largest producer of pork and the third largest poultry producer (ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA INDÚSTRIA PRODUTORA E EXPORTADORA DE CARNE SUÍNA, 2011; UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 2010). In this context, the State of Paraná produced 2.9 million Mg of poultry and 629,000 Mg of slaughtered pork in 2011, making it the largest poultry producer and the fourth largest pork producer in the country (INSTITUTO BRASILEIRO DE GEOGRAFIA E ESTATÍSTICA, 2010). In Brazil, nearly 3 to 4 million Mg of animal waste are produced that are not consumable by humans (BELLAVER, 2003). It is estimated that 32% of poultry, 38% of pork, 46% of cattle and 48% of sheep are considered waste and destined for recycling processes. Of these, 75-80% will be reused in the manufacture of livestock feed, and 20-22% will remain as organic waste, generally disposed of in the environment. The National Environment Policy (Política Nacional do Meio Ambiente - PNMA - Law 6,938, 1981) calls for the management ofindustrial organic waste to prevent, protect from, and reduce pollution and to simultaneously restore the quality of the environment by recycling these wastes.
Another important aspect is the high volume of agro-industrialwaste produced in Brazil due to its very high agricultural activity. The acerola fruit industry, for instance, processes 34.40 thousand tons, the equivalent to 7.16% of the total processed fruit, producing 18 thousand tons of juice and pulp. As a consequence, a great quantity ofwaste is generated: organic material with no commercial value that often becomes a source of environmental pollution. In many research centers, there has been growing efforts to find alternative uses for the organic material generated by the agriculture industry (CATANEO et al., 2008). The useof vegetable waste to extract bioactive compounds that could be used in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics industry would be an effective low cost option that would also lessen their environmental impact (MAKRIS; BOSKOU; ANDRIKOPOULOS, 2007). In addition to that, it would be a viable alternative to explore antioxidant composites of the waste from the tropical fruits juice processing (OLIVEIRA et al., 2009).
The codes for waste classification present in the original questionnaire suggested by CON AMA 313/2002 were replaced by the European list ofwaste (Directive 2000/532/EC) in order to obtain more details about the waste characteristics and types for each industry. The questionnaire was sent to 30 selected industries in the SRJ. A total of 16 correctly answered questionnaires were collected. To complete the infonnation, estimates based on other available industry information were performed (empirical approach). Data from industrial activity, production process, water and energy consumption, number of staff involved in the production process, type of raw material used, and consumption were collected for the estimating process.
USEOF NMR AS AN ONLINE SENSOR IN INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is one of the most versatile analytical techniques for chemical, biochemical and medical applications. Despite this great success, NMR is seldom used as a tool in industrial applications. The first application of NMR in flowing samples was published in 1951. However, only in the last ten years Flow NMR has gained momentum and new and potential applications have been proposed. In this review we present the historical evolution of flow or online NMR spectroscopy and imaging, and current developments for use in the automation ofindustrial processes.
The lipid oxidation process results in changes of flavor, color, texture, nutritional value and toxic components production (Sales, 1995). The oxidative process can be accelerated if the fish silage in contact with light and air (FAO, 2003). Lipids oxidation can provoke the formation of peroxides, which form physical and covalent bonds with proteins. Covalent bonds between oxidized products and proteins can destroy amino acids, such as tryptophan, oxidize methionine, and bind lysine to other compounds, making these amino acids unavailable (Nelson and Cox, 2000). Disney et al. (1977) discussed the changes that occured with lipids during the storage of the silage. They mentioned that the increase in the contents of free fatty acids indicated the hydrolysis of glycerides, whereas oxidative changes caused darkening. The authors recommend that in order to keep the quality of the product there must be a fast fat removal, as most transformations touch place at the beginning of the ensilage process and depended on the temperature. Kompiang (1981) suggested that the nutritional value of ensilage was negatively affected with the increase in the storage time. There was a direct relationship between the darkening provoked by lipids reaction and the loss of the nutritive value.