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Applying the User-Centered Design approach for Prototyping the Interfaces of an Intelligent Emergency Management System

Applying the User-Centered Design approach for Prototyping the Interfaces of an Intelligent Emergency Management System

Usability is defined by ISO 9241-210:2010 as the “extent to which a system, product or service can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use”. The Usability Professionals Association, UPA, defines Usability as “an approach to product development that incorporate direct user feedback throughout the development cycle in order to reduce costs and create products and tools that meet user needs.” Steve Krug (2000) provides his view on Usability as “making sure that something works well: that a person of average (or even below average) ability and experience can use the thing – whether it’s a website, a fighter jet, or a revolving door – for its intended purpose without getting hopelessly frustrated.”. Tullis and Albert (2008), looked at the previous definitions as well as others, and noted that they shared common themes: (1) a user is involved; (2) that user is doing something; (3) that user is doing something with a product, system or other thing.”
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User-Centered Design of E-Learning Tools for Users with Special Needs: The VisualPedia Case Study

User-Centered Design of E-Learning Tools for Users with Special Needs: The VisualPedia Case Study

Therefore, teachers are aware that educational objects are the result of a collaborative process but, on the other hand, they know that their contributions remain identifiable, albeit not visible in the educational object presentation. The authoring MediaWiki interface has been adapted to capture the aspects discussed so far, for example by offering extra form fields for the different descriptions of the same educational object. To take into account technical accessibility from the initial design phase the MediaWiki output functions have been updated to meet the Italian requirements and the WCAG 1.0 guidelines 2 . Moreover, through the mechanism of the hooks, that is insertion points of arbitrary code, the behavior of VisualPedia has been changed according to the educational object inserted or edited by teachers in order to verify its accessibility via the AChecker 3 software. If the content presents accessibility problems [7], a report is shown to the teacher indicating a description of these errors, their position in the text and some suggestions for fixing them. This solution allows to pursue and ensure accessibility both of the structure and the content of VisualPedia, meeting the W3C requirements.
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User-Centered Design of the Interface Prototype of a Business Intelligence Mobile Application

User-Centered Design of the Interface Prototype of a Business Intelligence Mobile Application

The process of developing any product capable of satisfying its target user ’s needs requires many steps that should be taken in a cautious, structured way. Generally, a product can only be positively accepted and used by the target user if it has usability. Ideally, usability engineering should accompany the entire lifecycle of the product, with important activities happening even before designing the actual user interface (Nielsen, 1993). The following chapter describes in great detail, every step taken in the process of developing the interface prototypes. From collecting the user’s needs and “converting” them into system functional requirements, to finding appropriate software or understanding the differences between designing for different mobile operating systems, all the details are presented. Furthermore, several screen designs are displayed along with the detailed explanation of the reasons that led to such design.
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Ergonomics and Usability – key factors in Knowledge Society

Ergonomics and Usability – key factors in Knowledge Society

An approach for employing usability is User-centered design (UCD). UCD is an approach which focuses on users from the very beginning of the development process (Figure 2). By adopting this approach it is possible to develop more useful and easy to use applications and systems. It is known that many products are not accessible to large sections of the population. Designers instinctively focus on providing the necessary utility for someone with their physical and skill capabilities. They are either unaware of the needs of users with different capabilities, or do not know how to accommodate their needs into the design cycle (Clarkson and Keates, 2003). Usability engineering techniques exist that broadly extend the skill range of potential users, and accessibility techniques for physical capabilities. However, approaches for combining all three are rare (Keates and Clarkson, 2001).
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Guide to build YOLO, a creativity-stimulating robot for children

Guide to build YOLO, a creativity-stimulating robot for children

YOLO is a non-anthropomorphic social robot designed to stimulate creativity in children. This robot was envisioned to be used by children during free-play where they use the robot as a character for the stories they create. During play, YOLO makes use of creativity techniques that promote the creation of new story-lines. Therefore, the robot serves as a tool that has the potential to stimulate creativity in children during the interaction. Particularly, YOLO can stimulate divergent and convergent thinking for story creations. Additionally, YOLO can have different personalities, providing it with socially intelligent and engaging behaviors. This work provides open-source and open-access of YOLO’s hardware. The design of the robot was guided by psychological theories and models on creativity, design research including user-centered design practices with children, and informed by expert working in the field of creativity. Specifically, we relied on established theories of personality to inform the social behavior of the robot, and on theories of creativity to design creativity stimulating behaviors. Our design decisions were then based on design fieldwork with children. The end product is a robot that communicates using non-verbal expressive modalities (lights and movements) equipped with sensors that detect the playful behaviors of children. YOLO has the potential to be used as a research tool for academic studies, and as a toy for the community to engage in personal fabrication. The overall benefit of this proposed hardware is that it is open-source, less expensive than existing ones, and one that children can build by themselves under expert supervision. Ó 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY
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Alteridade da morte na perspectiva de Emmanuel Levinas

Alteridade da morte na perspectiva de Emmanuel Levinas

The second point on which one could anchor the ethics of palliative medicine concerns the aware- ness of the non-doman, which requires a patient and compassionate relationship with the other, an ethical relationship with the other. Such fact intro- duces a paradox in design of scientific knowledge and social role of medicine, since it invites to move from a centered knowledge in domain of life, death and the body to an oriented knowledge in search of meaning for the human being, particularly in what, apparently, has no sense. Considering that the can- ons and rules for coexistence serve as the represen- tation for the cognitive process and allow one to assume the domesticated nudity of the other and enjoy its form without revealing itself as otherness. Nudity not meant, ugly and without measures, is huge, brutal, shameful and therefore asked to retire from the cognitive construct that seeks to achieve understanding.
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LIANA Model Integration System - architecture, user interface design and application in MOIRA DSS

LIANA Model Integration System - architecture, user interface design and application in MOIRA DSS

The LIANA (in its MOIRASF version) is available as the part of the MOIRA system at http://moiradss.topcities.com. Acknowledgements. The author thanks M. Zheleznyak (IMMSP, Ukraine) for the supervision in the work (Hofman, 1999) and to Y. Sorokin (IMMSP, Ukraine) and L. Papush (currently Link¨oping University, Sweden) for the valuable discussions related to the LIANA system design and features of the LIANA language. Ar- chitecture, model integration techniques and user interface design of the MOIRA Software Framework has been constantly assessed by A. Appelgren, U. Bergstrr¨om and S. Nordlinder (Studsvik, Sweden), J. Brittain (University Oslo, Norway), E. Gallego (UPM, Spain), R. Helling (NRG, the Netherlands), L. H˚akanson (Uppsala University, Sweden) and L. Monte (ENEA, Italy). Evaluation of software features of the MOIRA Software Framework and planning
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Extending User Interface Design Patterns with accessibility recommendations to guide mobile developers

Extending User Interface Design Patterns with accessibility recommendations to guide mobile developers

One important discovery of the case study is shown in Figure 9 in the form of a memo that discusses the use of the interface design pattern List Navigation in terms of mobile accessibility. In the study we’ve identified that the navigation in lists on mobile devices is usually implemented in the form of an infinite list of items in which new items are loaded each time the user reaches the end of the current list. Although this implementation, called Infinite List, may seem appropriate and simple, it has several accessibility and usability problems that were identified in the research as the lack of responsiveness in low bandwidth scenarios and difficulty to find items in an ordered list. Also, from the stories collected in the ethnography, we were able to propose a possible solution for a better implementation in terms of accessibility.
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Attributes of information systems design leading to user satisfaction – a banking case study

Attributes of information systems design leading to user satisfaction – a banking case study

Subsequent research has confirmed the usefulness and validity of user satisfaction as either one dimension of or an overarching construct for information systems success. For example, the authors of the D&M IS success model, referred to before (DeLone and McLean 1992), advance three reasons for this, particularly for contexts in which use of the information system is compulsory, and therefore other measures, such as actual usage, become less relevant: first of all, its face value, i.e., the fact that a system whose users are satisfied is undeniably successful, at least up to a certain degree; second the availability of reliable tools for measuring it (such as Bailey and Pearson’s one (1983), among others); finally, due to the conceptual weaknesses or empirical obstacles of other proposed measures of IS success.
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A service innovation approach:the lead user proposal in the multilevel service design method

A service innovation approach:the lead user proposal in the multilevel service design method

This section is dedicated to define the research design, in order to link the data to be collected with the research questions, and ultimately to the main conclusions (Yin, 2009).Also according to Yin, the research design is a “blueprint”, dealing with the questions to be studied, which data is relevant and how to analyze the results. The main purpose of this structure is to avoid evidences that do not address the research questions. The dissertation starts with a literature review about the innovation methods, service design methods and service innovation. Firstly, articles and books about the subjects of famous authors are analyzed. Secondly, some internet data (texts, white papers, etc) is analyzed, in order to build a knowledge base, which contains traditional concepts and different points of view regarding the problem. The relevant information is selected and the state of art is visualized. The outcomes of the whole activity are the build of the research questions and the build of a valuable theoretical base, in order to generate a cohesive and consistent dissertation.
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Grounding the Innovation of Future Technologies

Grounding the Innovation of Future Technologies

One conceptual basis for needfinding in the future technology innovation context has been suggested by A. Kankainen (2003), who distinguished between two types of human needs: motivational needs and action needs. Motivational needs rationalize and motivate taking a certain action in a context. Motivational needs are experienced as emotional and behavioral potentials that are activated by particular situational incentives (see also Atkinson, 1982). For example, the social need of affiliation is activated by the incentive of having an opportunity to please others and gain their approval, which in turn causes the person to want to act in a certain way constituted by that situation, thus an action need. Furthermore, it is helpful to elaborate a distinction between two types of motivational needs: basic and quasi- needs. Any given user may harbor a multitude of basic needs related to a given HCI situation, some of which are related to regulating bodily homeostasis (physiological needs such as pain avoidance, thirst, hunger, and sex), some to providing psychological nutriments for growth and healthy development (organismic psychological needs such as self-determination, competence, and relatedness), and some preferring some aspects of the environment rather than others (social needs such as achievement, affiliation, intimacy, and power; e.g., Reeve, 2001). Quasi-needs, on the other hand, are more ephemeral, situationally induced wants that “create tense energy to engage in behavior capable of reducing the built-up tension” (Reeve, 2001, p. 151). They are not full-blown needs in the same sense as basic needs, but they do affect how we think, feel, and act. For example, the desire for an umbrella in the rain or for money at the store would be considered a quasi-need. Both basic and quasi-needs are instantiated in a given situation where the user eventually wants to perform a certain action that takes him/her closer to satisfying the motivational need.
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Integrating Service Design and Eye Tracking Insight for Designing Smart TV User Interfaces

Integrating Service Design and Eye Tracking Insight for Designing Smart TV User Interfaces

By integrating the internet into television sets, Smart TVs allow consumers to use on-demand streaming media services, listen to radio, access interactive media, use social networks, and download applications[20]. Nowadays, Smart TVs not only offer access to the internet and legacy web services, but also provide content services that are immediately coupled to broadcast content that is rendered on the terminal device[2]. To provide more and better services, a Smart TV must have a menu system and UI that can be navigated to complete a task. As several researched have noted, an intuitive and easily navigated HCI and UI are critical to a good user experience of a Smart TV[1, 9, 13, 18, 21]. Hence, a comprehensive process that includes design and evaluation of Smart TV UIs is very important for making Smart TV services more desirable and useful .Unlike the features of a conventional TV with a remote control, new Smart TV features, such as web search, social networking, multi-user support, personalized services and application development, depend on innovative “natural” HCIs[4]. To improve the HCIs with a Smart TV, our earlier work brought together technicians and designers in an inter-disciplinary context to generate a comprehensive roadmap for the development of Smart TVs and identify future requirements thereof[3, 5]. Any application of service design to the multimodal interaction development of Smart TV must consider aspects of both product design and interface design. Moreover, this work follows some features and characteristics of service design that were summarized as follows.
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Software Architectural Design for Image Retrieval System involving Data Streams and User Interactivity

Software Architectural Design for Image Retrieval System involving Data Streams and User Interactivity

Software architecture of a system should be designed in such a way that it can handle the changing requirements of the user. This is made possible using reflection architectural pattern where the entire application is sub-divided into meta level, base level and a meta object protocol. Information about the software is provided by the meta objects present in meta level. The services available at the meta level consists of – method definition, field assignment and its access and modification of function call mechanisms [4],[6]. Application logic is being dealt with the base level and hence is independent of changes in user requirements. The third level called the meta object protocol supports the implementation of functions operating on the meta objects.
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O papel do usuário em metodologias de projeto de sinalização | The user role in signage design methodologies

O papel do usuário em metodologias de projeto de sinalização | The user role in signage design methodologies

Este trabalho busca investigar como metodologias de projeto de sinalização, destacadas nas referencias bibliográficas, consideram a participação do usuário em suas diversas etapas e/ou fases. O objetivo é entender qual o seu papel no processo, tanto no que diz respeito a sua forma de participação (informativo, consultivo e participativo), quanto à etapa em que pode se dar o envolvimento (planejamento, projeto e implementação). Inicialmente foram abordados os conceitos e as implicações de sinalização e design centrado no usuário e, na sequencia, analisadas as metodologias que abordam o tema, através das diretrizes apontadas pela ISO WD 9241-210 (2010) e por Maguire (2001): (1) entendimento das necessidades do usuário; (2) participação do usuário no processo de projeto e, em caso afirmativo, (3) em que etapas ocorre e (4) de que maneira ela se manifesta. Os resultados apontam que quando o usuário é levado em consideração, isso acontece principalmente nas etapas iniciais do projeto, concentrando-se na compreensão de suas exigências e do contexto de uso e, de maneira mais tímida, durante a condução e finalização do projeto. Ainda, demonstram a preponderância do conhecimento técnico do projetista sobre o conhecimento advindo dos diferentes públicos ligado ao projeto (clientes, fabricantes, usuários etc.).
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QFD-based conceptual design of an autonomous underwater robot

QFD-based conceptual design of an autonomous underwater robot

The result in Table 5 concludes the relationships between 36 user requirements and 32 design parameters; including their significances in terms of importance rating and importance rank (IRank). Each design parameter has at least one relationship with the user requirements, while each user requirement has three or more relationships with the design parameters. No unfilled columns or rows was found in the table, hence no irrelevant or redundant parameters existed (Verma et al., 1998). Each user requirement was responded by at least three design parameters. Regarding the results in Section 3.5, three highest horizontal summing scores are operating depth up to 10 m (113), underwater standstill (102), able to track ship bottom (102), and low operating speed (95). The “operating depth up to 10 m” got the highest score both in the horizontal summing and user important rating (5) since most of the Thai Navy Military’s routine task operates at approximately 10 meter depth. The “underwater stand still” and “able to track ship bottom” got the same 2 nd highest score
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Systemic modelling and simulation: management strategy in the User Experience Design Process (UXD)

Systemic modelling and simulation: management strategy in the User Experience Design Process (UXD)

Carraro (2006) salienta que muitas empresas têm limitações que as impedem de alcançar a eficiência no momento de desenhar a experiência de seus usuários e, por isso, a concepção do modelo de maturidade Keikendo, “caminho da experiência”, se fez necessária. Este modelo se direciona à evolução das organizações voltadas ao desenvolvimento de produtos digitais, em termos de atividades, ferramentas e métodos para prover o design de interação. Tem por intuito auxiliar equipes de projeto a incorporar o usuário em sua estratégia de desenvolvimento, superando as dificuldades em entender clientes internos e externos como parte de um mesmo ecossistema, agregando-lhes valor. Para isso o modelo se estabelece a partir de cinco níveis de maturidade: 1- Sem Intenção, 2- Autorreferência, 3- Expert, 4- Centralizado e 5- Distribuído (Figura 4).
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Design and evaluation of adaptive multimoldal systems

Design and evaluation of adaptive multimoldal systems

While the main focus of multimodal systems to date has been the combination of speech with other modalities, recognition of other modes also is maturing and beginning to be integrated into new kinds of multimodal systems. In particu- lar, there is growing interest in designing multimodal interfaces that incorporate vision-based technologies, such as interpretation of gaze, facial expressions, and manual gesturing (Morimoto et al., 1999; Pavlovic et al., 1997; Turk & Robertson, 2000; Zhai et al., 1999). These technologies unobtrusively or passively monitor user behavior and do not require explicit user commands. This contrasts with active input modes, such as speech or pen, which the user deploys intentionally as a command issued to the system. While passive modes may be “attentive” and less obtrusive, active modes generally are more reliable indicators of user intent. As multimodal interfaces gradually evolve toward supporting more advanced recognition of users’ natural activities in context, they will expand beyond rudi- mentary bimodal systems to ones that incorporate three or more input modes, qualitatively different modes, and more sophisticated models of multimodal inter- action. This trend already has been initiated within biometrics research, which has combined recognition of multiple behavioral input modes (e.g., voice, hand- writing) with physiological ones (e.g., retinal scans, fingerprints) to achieve reli- able person identification and verification in challenging field conditions (Choud- hury et al., 1999; Pankanti et al., 2000).
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Mobile interface design: instant places mobile application case

Mobile interface design: instant places mobile application case

Designing complex interfaces for such small viewports 16 can mean a very hard task. However, one of the main features Steve Jobs presented when introduced the iPhone, was the use of natural gestures to manipulate a digital, touch-based, interface. Like zooming an image just by pinching or stretching with two fingers, e.g.. He also referred that it would be distributed without the typical User’s Guide, claiming however it wouldn’t be necessary. What Steve Jobs meant was the interface would be so intuitive that the user would know how to use it, even if he never experienced a touch screen before. It’s true that his viral presentation video from 2007 spread over every media, and was seen by millions of people all over the world, and that helped to know how to use the iPhone and, consequently, upcoming touch-based smartphones. As Hoober and Berkman (2011: 18) observed, most of user interface paradigms from the desktop have been applied to mobile, not making use of gesture interactions, and based just on simply replace mouse pointer to a finger tap. Usually, it’s the operating system itself that makes use of most touch opportunities. But in fact, we are witnessing a steady growth in the use of tangible smartphones capabilities. Likewise, there has been an emerging development focused on user and experience improvement. Almost everyone was fascinated by iPhone’s presentation in 2007 because the interface had a kind of “magic factor” implicit.
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Embedded DAQ System Design for Temperature and Humidity Measurement

Embedded DAQ System Design for Temperature and Humidity Measurement

The comparison of standard DAQ and proposed system is given in the Table 1. It can be seen that the proposed system offers more than one channels, and have upper and lower limits instead of only one as in contemporary DAQ systems. Other important aspects of proposed design are its simple interfaces, and cost- effective nature that is about 5 times lesser than contemporary designs.

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Graphical user interface (GUI) for design of passenger car suspension system using random road profile

Graphical user interface (GUI) for design of passenger car suspension system using random road profile

In this paper, an Interactive approach has been introduced for the design of Passenger car suspension system subjected to random road profile, by building a graphical user interface (GUI), using Matlab/Guide has been presented. The aim of the work is to show the importance and usefulness of the developed GUI in designing and describing the dynamic behavior of car suspension system for different design criteria. Common problems in the field of design of suspension systems for the quarter-car passive model are analyzed. The result shows that the designed GUI is very convenient for engineers, analysts, and designers of car suspension systems.
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