There is a growing concern about the microbiological safety of fresh vegetables. Vegetables’ natural microbiota is usually non-pathogenic for humans and may be present at the time of consumption. However, vegetables may also harbour human pathogenic bacteria. Listeria monocytogenes is a major concern for food producers and consumers, due to its ubiquity and tolerance to diverse stressing factors, as well as its presence in both raw and processed foods. Consumers’ are increasingly avoiding consumption of foods treated with artificial preservatives and so natural measures and interventions should be investigated and implemented to prevent and minimize the risk of food contamination. This dissertation aims at contributing to generate data on alternative and natural approaches to reduce L. monocytogenes from vegetables. The main purposes of this research were to ascertain natural strategies to control L. monocytogenes from vegetables in the home and retail environment, and to develop a biopreservation system to control and inhibit L. monocytogenes in vegetables.
Tria ls for evaluating harvest productivity using the mobile platform we re performed on a farm located in a citrus-growing area in the state of São Paulo, Bra zil, in a ten-year-old orange orchard of the Va lencia cultivar, with a row spacing of 7 meters and between-plant spacing of 4 meters, and average tree he ight of 3.5 meters. To conduct the trials, the orchard was divided in plots, one for manual harvesting and another for the platform mach ine. Trials were performed by the same harvesting team, 4 men, ranging in age from 47 to 52, with 5 years of experience in orange harvesting. For both methods, time spent in harvest was measured with a p recision chronometer. Fruits we re harvested at a standard comme rcia l stage, yellow color and average diameter size of 60 mm. Green and inferior-sized fruits were ma intained on the tree. After harvest, all bo xes (net weight of 26 kg), with outer dimensions of 0.55 m (length), 0.30 m (he ight), and 0.35 m (width) we re counted.
The organic sector has expanded recently worldwide, due to policy support and a growing market demand for these products. Organic farming can be defined as an ecological pro- duction system that promotes and enhances biodiversity and biological cycle in soil, crop and livestock. It is based on min- imal use of off-farm inputs and on management practices that restore, maintain and enhance ecological harmony. 15 The
Nowadays, drying is regarded not only as a preservation process, but also as a method for increasing added value of foods. Among foodstuffs, particular attention has been given to drying of fruits and vegetables. Diversified products can be obtained to include in breakfast cereals, bakery, confectionery and dairy products, soups, purees and others. Loss of water and volatiles, which occur during drying, results in major structural changes in materials that lead to textural and sensory characteristics different from the fresh product. These properties are utmost important to be kept, due to the growing consumer's appeal for products with freshly characteristics.
At the beginning of globalization, 1990-1993, the vegetable market in Brazil faced some volatility due to the instability of the Collor government and to the competition from the world market. During this period, production support services (research, technology transfer and rural extension) began to deteriorate. In 1994, the FHC government launched the Real Plan that allowed for the expansion of the market due to the success in controlling inflation. In the case of vegetables, price swings have declined. In addition, in the wake of the growing purchase power, Brazilians intensified significantly the frequency of meals outside the home and consumption of processed food. Both habits, in addition to the inflation control, were also driven by globalization. In the period of 22 years between 1990 and 2012, the production and availability of the vegetables that are the focus of this work accompanied such changes. Horticulture continued to incorporate technologies and to modernize, even for facing the 33.3% growth in the Brazilian population in this period.
Fresh-cut vegetables used in ready-to-eat salads are minimally processed healthy products. This is a growing market that has gained the consumer’s preference for its convenience and due to the growing awareness of the benefits of an adequate food intake. An “optimal nutrition” could provide the required amount of nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals) and also promote health, improve wellbeing and reduce the risk of developing diseases (presence of antioxidant compounds) (Francis et al., 2012; Viuda-Martos, Ruiz-Navajas, Fernández-López, & Pérez-Álvarez, 2010). Fresh vegetables must be included in a balanced diet and ready-to- eat salad mixtures are an option that can easily fit the busy lifestyle of today’s consumers (Tomás-Callejas, Boluda, Robles, Artés, & Artés-Hernández, 2011). The fresh-cut industry is continuously evolving and pursuing new varieties and innovations to meet consumer expectations in terms of convenience, freshness, new flavours and quality (Martínez- Sánchez et al., 2012). One of the latest innovations has been the inclusion of aromatic herbs to add more intense flavour to the salad mixtures. Fresh-cut herbs are minimally processed (washed, cut and packaged at chilling temperatures) vegetables, being the quality of the salad mixtures dependent on the combination of several properties from each product. Besides freshness, that is the principal quality factor of ready-to-eat vegetables, tenderness, safety and uniformity of green colour are also desirable characteristics (Barrett, Beaulieu, & Shewfelt, 2010). Microbiological safety is essential and is one on the most studied quality parameters in these products (Caleb, Mahajan, Al- Said, & Opara, 2013; Jacxsens, Devlieghere, Ragaert, Vanneste, & Debevere, 2003). Nevertheless, nutritional quality is also gaining more attention (Alarcón-Flores, Romero- González, Martínez Vidal, Egea González, & Garrido Frenich, 2014; Fan & Sokorai, 2008).
We have also compared our data with those published for some species, which are cultivated as well, such as Foeniculum vulgare and Cichorium intybus, and with other closely related species as Asparagus officinalis and Taraxacum officinale (Souci et al., 2008). PA has been reported in all the species, LA was the major fatty acid in Foeniculum vulgare, Cichorium intybus and Asparagus officinalis, whereas in Taraxacum officinale the major fatty acid was ALA. These data does not completely agree with our results except in the case of wild Cichorium intybus, with ALA as the major fatty acid. This could be due to the extremely different growing conditions and shows the higher amount of n-3 fatty acid present in some wild vegetables than in cultivated ones.
to excessive levels of Pb exhibit neuropathology. There is association between Pb in human body and the increase of blood pressure in adults (Maihara and Fávaro, 2006). Although Pb effects are more relevant for children, cal- culations for risk assessment were made for adults and children. The daily intake of Pb was estimated to 0.102 mg, which is 41.7 % of R f D value of 0.245 mg per day for a 70 kg adult. Although Pb concentrations were high in some vegetables, low consumption of vegetables re- sults in low intake of this element. This value was below those reported in literature (0.025 and 0.521 mg per day) (Santos et al., 2004; Tripathi et al., 1997). Rice contrib- uted with approximately 16.84 % for the Pb intake, fol- lowed by the ‘pêra’ orange (6.68 %), bean 2 (5.73 %), ‘prata’ banana (5.52 %) and onion (4.59 %).
We assessed elemental composition of the liver in mice subjected to one-time or chronic consumption of the juice of vegetables cultivated in a vegetable garden built over deposits of coal waste. Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce), Beta vulgaris L. (beet), Brassica oleracea L. var. italica (broccoli) and Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala (kale) were collected from the coal-mining area and from a certified organic farm (control). Elemental composition was analyzed by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method. Concentrations of Mg, S, and Ca of mice subjected to one-time consumption of broccoli and concentrations of these same elements plus Si of mice receiving kale were higher in the coal-mining area. Concentrations of P, K, and Cu were increase after chronic consumption of lettuce from the coal-mining area, whereas the levels of Si, P, K, Fe, and Zn were higher in the group consuming kale from the coal-mining area. Our data suggests that people consuming vegetables grown over coal wastes may ingest significant amounts of chemical elements that pose a risk to health, since these plants contain both essential and toxic metals in a wide range of concentrations, which can do more harm than good.
Fruits and vegetables can be divided into three large groups according to the aglycone bound to the C15 skeleton of the anthocyanin moleculeI: pelargonidin, cyanidin/peonidine and a group of multiple anthocyanins. All anthocyanins are soluble in polar solvents, and the use of water added to the solvent facilitates the extraction of more hydrophilic anthocyanins (Fuleki & Francis, 1968). Additionally, the use of water as extracting solvent for anthocyanins may be efficient for some species that contain a large amount of water in their constitution, such as cherries (Grigoras et al., 2012). Dn the other hand, the use of acidified solvents to extract anthocyanins can produce proanthocyanidins and flavanols, which may result in an overestimation of the total anthocyanins, as discussed in the study done by Revilla et al. (1998). Despite these drawbacks, many authors continue to use extraction with solvents containing hydrochloric acid to extract anthocyanins from a variety of sources (Montes et al., 2005; Fan et al., 2008; Teixeira et al., 2008; Zanatta et al., 2005; Dai et al., 2009; Patil et al., 2009; Pompeu et al., 2009).
Abstract: Vegetables are important for public health, as they may contain protozoan cysts, eggs and larvae of helminths, serving as an important channel for the transmission of enteroparasitosis. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the presence of enteroparasites in some vegetables grown in the community garden. Prince Geovane, in the East Zone of Teresina, Piauí. Method: Ten parts of each plant were collected and analyzed by the methods of Hoffmann and Modified Ritchie, to verify protozoan cysts, eggs and larvae of helminths. Results: In material analyzed by the Ritchie method, as parasite forms were found in 3 of them, as well as in 8 analyzed by the modified Hoffmann method. Conclusion: The result revealed weaknesses in the control of contaminating factors of vegetables, requiring corrective interventions.
Several authors (Lozano et al., 1980, 1983; Vagenas et al., 1990; Zogzas et al., 1994; Karathanos et al., 1996; Krokida and Maroulis, 1997) studied the effect of drying on particle density and correlated this parameter with water content of diversified fruits and vegetables (apple, banana, grapes, pear, carrot, potato and garlic; Table 2). It was observed that, as water content decreases, the particle densityincreases (Figure 4). However, apples and carrots, followed a peculiar behaviour consisting on an inverted tendencyfor lower values of water content (Lozano et al., 1980, 1983). In those situations, after a critical low water content value is reached, the particle densityshows a sharp decrease, as water content tends to zero. According to these authors, in the last drying stages there is an increasing number of pores which become closed, therefore they cannot be accounted in volume measurement.
Mandibular regional superimposition is very impor- tant to assess local changes and bone remodeling. This could be used to evaluate skeletal, alveolar, and dental changes that occur due to growth or from treatment. The literature is limited on the topic of 3D mandibular superimposition. Only one study has been published assessing the quality of superimposition for both nongrowing 13 and growing 14 patients. Therefore,
longitudinal and transverse incisions could be performed with minimal postoperative distortion and no functional consequence in immature growing animals. However, the experiment suggested that a transverse intercartilaginous incision heals with less scarring and deformity than the longitudinal one. It suggested that since both can be made equally easily, the incision of choice is clearly the transverse one. Fry et al. (11) have studied tracheotomy incisions in ferrets
Wild vegetables have been previously reported as natural sources of phenolic compounds, mainly flavonoids. Natural phenolic compounds are accumulated as end- products from the shikimate and acetate pathways and can range from relatively simple molecules (phenolic acids, phenylpropanoids, flavonoids) to highly polymerised compounds (lignins, melanins, tannins), being flavonoids the most common and widely distributed sub-group (Bravo 1998). The antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds are well known. They play a vital role in the stability of food products, as well as in the antioxidative defense mechanisms of biological systems (Nijveldt et al. 2001).
Faecal coliform counts are an efficient indicator of sanitisation, although, the presence of faecal coliforms does not necessarily indicate the presence of a pathogen (13). In the present study, faecal coliform counts were high, especially in summer. The presence of E. coli in the samples, which were also positive for faecal coliforms, indicated faecal contamination of the ready-to- eat vegetables analysed. These results are similar to those from other studies on ready-to-eat vegetables (9,13) and lettuce served in restaurants (19). Bacterial counts, mainly those for psychrotrophic microorganisms, were lower in cold weather and higher in warm weather. Faecal coliforms and E. coli also showed elevated counts in January and March (austral summer).
Cleaner Production is gaining emphasis in both the world and Brazilian production sectors. Nature’s ending capability of absorbing and regenerating waste, stricter legislation regarding pollution emitters, and the market competitiveness associated with environmental and social responsibility are leading to actions for reducing environmental impacts. This paper reviews the concepts and presents three study cases in which two are in a large manufacturing automobile industry, and one in a small manufacturing company of medical supplies, with their suppliers promoting the change in the way they deliver their products, by either eliminating or reusing large volume of cardboard, plastic and wood packaging. For the environmental evaluation analysis the methodology of Material Intensity Factor was applied. The benefits of Cleaner Production implementation were evaluated by confronting environmental and financial assessment. Results showed that the companies reached financial, spatial and productivity gains. The important fact the paper reveals is the existence of a still fuzzy, yet incremental and growing movement within the companies, in order to reduce or eliminate either products or activities’ which do not aggregate values to the product, damage the environment or spoil the company’s image towards the market.
Grapevine wood disease that appears very frequently is caused by fungus Eutypa lata [Pers.Fr.] Tul. & C.Tul. The wood infection with this fungus reduces the production life of grapevine and significantly influences the loss of yields through worse quality and less quantity. It expands by wind carried ascospores to great distances. Due to these reasons and because of great number of potential hosts, the application of sanitation measures is of limited significance. The fungus penetrates through fresh pruning wounds. If appropriate measures are not timelily taken, the infected grapevine eventually dries out. The suppression measures include late pruning to healthy wood so that the spots could dry as fast as possible. The pruned shoots should be removed from the vineyard and burned, as well as the infected wood from neighbouring vineyards and orchards in order to reduce the infectious inoculums and pathogen expansion. In case of raining during pruning, new pruning of the biggest wounds is recommended. Recent results show that these measures did not affect the disease in France, while burning of the remains of pruning reduced the number of disease events and drying of grapevine plants. According to the results of this analysis, in France 3.5% of grapevines are infected with Eutypa, while list of varieties and grapevine growing region had the greatest impact on the onset of disease (Bertrand et al., 2007).
The objective of this study was to develop simple mathematical models for the prediction of the total anthocyanin content of fruits and vegetables, using colorimetry. Phenolic extracts of 13 species of fruits and vegetables were produced using 70% acidified ethanol and 70% ethanol. The quantification of the total anthocyanins of the extracts was performed by the spectrophotometric method, and the color characterization was done through the tristimulus colorimeter. The correlation between the L* value and the anthocyanin content was high (r = - 0.95) for extracts produced with 70% ethanol and diluted 20 times. Linear equations based on colorimetric coordinates, with R 2 from 0.80 to 0.99, were obtained using 70% ethanol and 70% acidified ethanol as