Vigor of seeds.

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Clarissa Abreu Santos Teles

Clarissa Abreu Santos Teles

either of the J. curcas seed lots (Table 2). These results imply that vigorous seeds apparently respond inversely in such conditions to what is expected from proper ‘osmotic priming’ because it led to a reduction in seed vigor parameters. Therefore, the effectiveness of osmoconditioning as a priming method in J. curcas seeds depends on the initial quality of the seeds, where lots with good physiological quality did not respond to the osmopriming treatment applied (ROSSETTO et al., 2002). Alternatively, further studies on osmoconditioning might be required for the establishment of characteristic positive effects of invigoration or priming in J. curcas seeds, perhaps by testing other combinations of osmotium, time and temperature during osmoconditioning, which is corroborated by the studies of Pereira and Lopes (2011), which evaluated the effect of osmopriming in J. curcas from -0.2 to -1.2 MPa and concluded that the pre-treatment did not contribute to the uniformity of germination and seed vigor, independently of the seed lot and the osmotic potential solution. Similarly, Pinho et al. (2009) found that osmopriming of Anadenanthera peregrina L. seeds at -0.4 MPa decreased the viability and the vigor of seeds previously stored at 5 and 20ºC and assumed that hydration and dehydration by osmopriming may have damaged the regeneration system of the membranes and thereby caused the decrease in the viability and the vigor of A. peregrina.
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Seed vigor of maize (Zea mays) cultivars affected by position on ear and water stress

Seed vigor of maize (Zea mays) cultivars affected by position on ear and water stress

Differences in seed leakages among cultivars (Table 2) were the consequence of differences in their genetic constitution. Higher electrical conductivity of upper position seeds of maize ear (Fig. 2) could be attributed to incomplete maturity of these seeds. Seeds of upper plant position also had the highest electrical conductivity in pinto bean (Ghassemi-Golezani et al. 2012) and chickpea (Ghassemi-Golezani et al. 2010b). In contrast, Ghassemi-Golezani et al. (2012) reported that larger and better quality seeds were obtained from the upper position of soybean plants in comparison with the seeds from the lower and middle positions. These results clearly indicate that the differences in vigor of seeds at different plant positions directly related with time of their formation and maturity.
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Effect of Fusarium graminearum and infection index on germination and vigor of maize seeds

Effect of Fusarium graminearum and infection index on germination and vigor of maize seeds

Pathogens in maize (Zea mays) seeds cause serious problems, such as the loss of their capacity to germinative. The objectives of this study were to identify the optimal period for infection of maize seeds on agar colonized by Fusarium graminearum, when incubated for 4, 8, 16 and 32 h, and to evaluate the effect of the fungus on the germination and vigor of seeds with different infection levels. After the respective incubation periods, the seeds were removed from the culture medium and submitted to the blotter test for 3 min with and without superficial disinfection with 1% solution of sodium hypochlorite. Once the optimal period for seed incubation was identified, seeds from the same sample were again placed on the colonized agar for infection. Germination and vigor tests (accelerated aging and cold test) were performed with a mixture of healthy seeds (placed on PDA medium) and inoculated seeds, resulting in seeds with 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% rates of infection. The results showed that a period of 32 h was long enough to obtain seeds infected by the pathogen. There were no significant effects of fungal infection on seed germination at any of the infection levels, probably due to the high vigor of the maize seed lot tested. Regarding vigor tests, infection levels differed significantly from the control (0% infection), but there were no significant differences among the infection levels.
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Vigor of lentil seeds evaluated by the tests of accelerated aging and controlled deterioration / Vigor de sementes de lentilha avaliadas pelos testes de envelhecimento acelerado e deterioração controlada

Vigor of lentil seeds evaluated by the tests of accelerated aging and controlled deterioration / Vigor de sementes de lentilha avaliadas pelos testes de envelhecimento acelerado e deterioração controlada

There were no significant differences observed in viability between the six lots of lentil seeds by the germination test. Although high germination values were observed in seed lots, it does not necessarily means those seed lots have high vigor. One must consider germination tests are performed under favorable temperature and humidity conditions (Marcos Filho, 2015). According Castilho et al. (2019), lots with similar germination are fundamental in studies aiming to determine better methods to evaluate the vigor of seeds, once the objective is to separate seed lots with similar germination. If the germination potential of seeds displays accentuated differences, the germination test by itself detects differences in the physiological potential of seeds (Marcos Filho, 2015).
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1 Diego Medeiros Gindri2 , Cileide Maria Medeiros Coelho2, Clovis Arruda Souza2 , Isaac Heberle2 , Heitor Amadeu Prezzi

1 Diego Medeiros Gindri2 , Cileide Maria Medeiros Coelho2, Clovis Arruda Souza2 , Isaac Heberle2 , Heitor Amadeu Prezzi

Assessing the vigor of seeds exposed to cold made it possible to separate the accessions into four classes in the two farming systems. In the organic system, BAF 81 and BAF 75, followed by BAF 42, BAF 115, BAF 84, BAF 13, BAF 112 and BAF 50, obtained results above 84 %. Accessions BAF 13, BAF 42, BAF 75, BAF 81, BAF 84, BAF 97, BAF 110, BAF 121 and BAF 36, in the conventional system, exhibited results greater than 83 % (Table 3). Similarly to the accelerated aging test, the cold test, according to AOSA (1983), has been highly efficient in indicating the field emergence potential of seeds. The cold vigor test is used to assess the seed germination performance in low temperature conditions, during the field emergence period, what can be observed in early planting in Southern Brazil. The results observed in the present study, in terms of seed vigor using the electrical conductivity test (Table 3), divided accessions from both farming systems into four classes. BAF 44, BAF 68, BAF 3, BAF 4, BAF 7 and BAF 46 showed the lowest values (21.5-33.7 μS cm -1 g -1 ) in the organic system, and, in
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EFFECT OF SULFONYLUREAS APPLICATION ON RR/STS SOYBEAN

EFFECT OF SULFONYLUREAS APPLICATION ON RR/STS SOYBEAN

Germination and vigor of seeds were evaluated according to Brasil (2009) and electric conductivity of seeds according to Loeffler et al. (1988). The germination test was performed using four sub-samples of 50 seeds per field repetition of each treatment, placed to germinate between three sheets of filter paper, moistened with demineralized water, in the proportion of three times the weight of the dry paper. Rolls were made and taken to a germinator chamber set to maintain a constant temperature of 25°C. The evaluation was performed eight days after assembling the test, computing the percentage of normal seedlings obtained. The seed vigor test was analyzed in conjunction with the germination test, computing the percentage of normal seedlings obtained on the fifth day after assembling the test.
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Germination and vigor of long-pepper seeds (Piper hispidinervum) as a function of temperature and light

Germination and vigor of long-pepper seeds (Piper hispidinervum) as a function of temperature and light

ABSTRACT - The long pepper is considered a promising species because of offering the prospect of making Brazil self- sufficient in the production of safrole, an important essential oil used as a fixative for fragrances and having therapeutic properties. In establishing areas intended for the cultivation of this species, it is necessary to evaluate the physiological quality of the seeds used in the production of seedlings. The objective was to determine the conditions of temperature and luminosity for the test of germination and vigor in seeds of the long-pepper. Seeds from four different lots were used to make the following measurements: moisture content (105 3 °C for 24 hours), germination (20; 25; 30 and 35 °C with photoperiods of 12 and 24 hours, and alternating between 20-30 °C and 20-35 °C with 12 hours of light at the higher temperature), speed of germination index, speed of germination, seedling dry matter, seedling emergence, emergence rate index and relative frequency of germination. The experimental design was completely randomized with averages being compared by the Tukey test (P 0.05). The germination of long-pepper seeds can be assessed at 25 °C with 12h darkness - 12 h light, 25 °C with 24 h darkness, 30 °C with 12 h darkness - 12 h light and 30 °C with 24 h light, and the physiological potential at 30 °C with 24 h light.
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Swingle citrumelo seed vigor and storability associated with fruit maturity classes

Swingle citrumelo seed vigor and storability associated with fruit maturity classes

Swingle citrumelo [Citrus paradisi Macfad. Duncan grapefruit. × Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.] was hybridized by Walter. S. Swingle at Eustis, FL (USA) in 1907, pro- ducing hybrids tolerant to “tristeza” virus and root-rot organisms (Hutchison, 1974) that are now used in all cit- rus production areas. In Brazil, Swingle citrumelo is one of the preferred rootstocks due to its tolerance to citrus sudden death, a severe disease found in the late 1990s in the Southwest of Minas Gerais State and the North of São Paulo State (Gimenes-Fernandes and Bassanezi, 2003). However, nurseries have faced problems in the production of seedling rootstocks such as poor germi- nation and low seed storage potential (Carvalho et al., 2002; Roberts, 1973; Rodrigues et al., 2010), as well as difficulties to identify the optimum fruit ripening stage to obtain high quality seeds (Medina et al., 2005; Silva et al., 2011).
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IMPROVED ASSESSMENT OF WHEAT SEEDS VIGOR

IMPROVED ASSESSMENT OF WHEAT SEEDS VIGOR

The tetrazolium test is widely used for seed vigor assessment of various plant species. For wheat, however, there is no methodology specifically recommended. This study aimed at determining an efficient procedure to evaluate vigor of wheat seeds by this test; besides allowing the establishment of seed quality classes. Thus, four different wheat seed lots were assessed by determining the moisture content and through tests of germination, accelerated aging, and field seedling emergence. The following methodologies were assessed: 1) longitudinal bisection of seed, with subsequent placement of the two halves on filter paper moistened with a 1.0% tetrazolium solution, at 30º C, for 2 h; 2) longitudinal bisection, with subsequent immersion of one seed half into a 1.0% tetrazolium solution, at 30º C, for 3 h; and 3) longitudinal bisection, with subsequent immersion of one seed half into a 0.075% tetrazolium solution, at 40º C, for 2 h. It was concluded that the tetrazolium test is more efficient in evaluating wheat seed vigor when performed with immersion of one half of the seed into a 0.075% tetrazolium solution (40º C, for 2 h) or a 0.1% tetrazolium solution (30º C, during 3 h); allowing to sort seeds into four quality classes.
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Size and vigor of Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan seeds harvested in Caatinga areas

Size and vigor of Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan seeds harvested in Caatinga areas

RESUMO - O angico é uma espécie encontrada em diversos ambientes no Brasil, e apresenta diversas aplicações, sendo utilizado pela indústria madeireira e principalmente na medicina popular. Buscando-se verificar a variação quanto a caracteres biométricos e qualidade de sementes provenientes de diferentes matrizes em diferentes anos de coleta, desenvolveram-se ensaios após o beneficiamento das sementes, em que foram avaliados: teor de água, diâmetro, densidade, condutividade elétrica, matéria fresca e seca de plântulas, porcentagem e cinética de germinação, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com esquema fatorial 2x3 (lotes x tamanho). Os resultados obtidos demostraram que sementes de angico de diferentes lotes apresentam qualidade fisiológica distinta, possivelmente pelas variações do clima as quais as árvores matrizes foram submetidas nos diferentes anos de coleta. O tamanho das sementes interfere diretamente no crescimento de plântulas tanto em condições controladas, quanto em casa de vegetação, podendo ser utilizado como indicativo de vigor para sementes de angico.
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Seed-borne pathogens and electrical conductivity of soybean seeds

Seed-borne pathogens and electrical conductivity of soybean seeds

For fungal inoculation, seeds without cracks were visually selected and then disinfected with sodium hy- pochlorite + distilled water (1:1) for 30 s, rinsed with au- toclaved distilled water, and dried at room temperature on sterilized sheets of filter paper. These seeds were then distributed in a single layer over colonies of each fungus, developed on Petri dishes with PDA culture medium (-1.0 MPa), and slightly pressed into the medium. After 20 h, seeds were removed and kept in a dry chamber with a forced air flow, at an initial temperature of 25 ºC, which was raised first to 27 ºC, then 29 ºC, reaching a maximum of 32 ºC, until seeds returned to their initial weight. Next, seeds were maintained in a cold chamber (10 ºC) for seven days until all seeds of the treatments control (pure seeds), control in PDA culture medium (-1.0 MPa) without fungus, seeds inoculated with the Phomop- sis sojae fungus (-1.0 MPa) and those inoculated with the C. dermatium var. truncata fungus (-1.0 MPa) reached hygroscopic equilibrium. Following that, the seeds were submitted to field and laboratory tests as described:
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Mobilization of reserves and vigor of soybean seeds under desiccation with glufosinate ammonium

Mobilization of reserves and vigor of soybean seeds under desiccation with glufosinate ammonium

performed with 1 g of soybean seed from all selected points of the soaking curve. The samples were ground in liquid nitrogen to form a flour. The material was homogenized in 10 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) containing 1 mM of EDTA (Ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid, widely abbreviated as EDTA (ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid), 3 mM of DTT (dithiothreitol) and about 4% of PVPP (polyvinyl polypyrrolidone), according to Azevedo et al. (1998) and Garcia et al. (2006). The homogenate was centrifuged at 3500 rpm for 30 minutes. The total soluble proteins were determined in a spectrophotometer according to the method described by Bradford (1976) and results were expressed in mg.g -1 of seeds dry weight.
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Testes de vigor na avaliação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes de cenoura / Vigor tests in the physiological quality evaluation of carrot seeds

Testes de vigor na avaliação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes de cenoura / Vigor tests in the physiological quality evaluation of carrot seeds

O vigor compreende as propriedades da semente que determinam o potencial para uma emergência rápida e uniforme de plântulas sob diferentes condições de campo (MARCOS FILHO, NOVEMBRE, 2009). Em campo, sementes vigorosas geralmente produzem plântulas mais vigorosas, com maior taxa de crescimento, emergência mais uniforme e capacidade de competição intraespecífica e de maior sobrevivência em relação às menos vigorosas, mesmo sob condições edafoclimáticas desfavoráveis (HÖFS et al.; 2004, EGLI, RUCKER, 2012; MONDO et al., 2012). Por outro lado, sementes de baixa qualidade tendem a originar estandes desuniformes, com falhas na emergência que podem ou não comprometer a produtividade e a qualidade final do produto colhido.Em geral, os efeitos do vigor sobre o desempenho das sementes em campo são, mais correlacionados com a emergência e com o estabelecimento de plântulas, havendo controvérsias quanto a estes efeitos se estenderem até estádios fenológicos mais avançados da cultura e se podem afetar significativamente o rendimento final da cultura (MARCOS FILHO, 2005; NASCIMENTO et al., 2011). Neste estudo, objetivou-se comparar a eficiência de testes de vigor, visando a avaliar a qualidade fisiológica de lotes de sementes de cenoura.
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Vigor tests to evaluate the physiological quality of corn seeds cv. ‘Sertanejo’

Vigor tests to evaluate the physiological quality of corn seeds cv. ‘Sertanejo’

RESUMO: Os testes de vigor têm como finalidade monitorar a qualidade das sementes, pois permite distinguir com segurança os lotes de baixo e alto vigor, fornecendo informações adicionais ao teste de germinação. Assim, no presente trabalho, objetivou-se identificar os testes de vigor mais eficientes na estratificação de lotes de sementes de milho cv. ‘Sertanejo’. O experimento foi realizado no Laboratório de Análise de Sementes do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal da Paraíba, utilizando amostras de 20 lotes de sementes, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso. Para caracterização dos lotes foram avaliados o teor de água, a germinação e o vigor (teste de frio, condutividade elétrica, envelhecimento acelerado, emergência de plântulas em campo e germinação a baixa temperatura). Os testes de envelhecimento acelerado, condutividade elétrica e emergência de plântulas em campo são os mais eficientes para classificação dos lotes de sementes de milho cv. ‘Sertanejo’, em níveis de vigor, sendo as sementes do lote 1 mais vigorosas.
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Viabilidade e vigor de sementes de arroz de cultivo manejado com preparados homeopáticos / Viability and vigor of rice seeds of cultivation managed with homeopathic preparations

Viabilidade e vigor de sementes de arroz de cultivo manejado com preparados homeopáticos / Viability and vigor of rice seeds of cultivation managed with homeopathic preparations

The objective of the study was to evaluate the viability and vigour of rice seeds from irrigated crops conducted with different management of insects and phytopathogens: management with homeopathic preparations, with pesticides and without management (control). The seeds were harvested during the 2017/2018 harvest in Pouso Redondo, Santa Catarina, from three plots of ± 2.5 ha, each conducted under one of three different managements. The viability and vigour studies were conducted at the Laboratory of Homeopathy and Plant Health at the Epagri Experimental Station in Lages. The experimental design was completely randomized, with 12 replicates of 30 seeds for each type of management. The seeds were placed in Gerbox® boxes and maintained in a germination chamber at 25 ºC in continuous darkness. The germination percentage, Germination Speed Index (IVG), Average Germination Time (TMG), fresh weight and dry weight of the seed, aerial part and root were evaluated. The data obtained were analyzed with the aid of the R environment, considering the 5% level of significance. The seeds that were harvested from the unmanaged plots showed a higher germination rate compared to seeds from cultivation with pesticides and homeopathic treatment. However, in the control, the TMG was superior to the other treatments, showing slower germination. The fresh and dry aerial part was superior with the management with homeopathy when compared with the management with pesticides. Rice seedlings treated with homeopathic preparations showed better performance compared to seedlings treated with pesticides.
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ACCELERATED AGING OF Piptadenia moniliformis (BENTH.) SEEDS1

ACCELERATED AGING OF Piptadenia moniliformis (BENTH.) SEEDS1

RESUMO – O teste de envelhecimento acelerado consiste em avaliar o vigor das sementes em condições de elevada temperatura e umidade, com a finalidade de identificar diferenças na qualidade fisiológica de lotes com germinação semelhante. Dessa forma, objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência do teste de envelhecimento acelerado para classificar os lotes de sementes de P. moniliformis em diferentes níveis de vigor. Inicialmente os lotes de sementes foram avaliados por meio da emergência de plântulas, índice de velocidade de emergência, comprimento da parte aérea e da raiz, além da massa seca total de plântulas, além da determinação do grau de umidade, antes e após cada período de envelhecimento das sementes. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3 x 4 (três lotes de sementes e quatro períodos de 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas), e avaliado separadamente nas temperaturas de 38 e 41 °C. O teste de envelhecimento acelerado conduzido sob a temperatura de 41 °C durante 24 horas é a combinação mais adequada para separar os lotes de P. moniliformis em diferentes níveis de vigor, pois possibilitou a obtenção de resultados semelhantes à classificação dos lotes em relação à qualidade inicial.
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Effect of acetic acid on rice seeds coated with rice husk ash

Effect of acetic acid on rice seeds coated with rice husk ash

The length of shoot and primary root (SL and RL) was evaluated using replicates of 20 seeds per treatment. The paper towels were moistened as in the standard germination test (G). The seeds were distributed in two straight longitudinal lines in the upper third of the paper and placed in a germination chamber at 25 °C. Seven days after sowing, SL and RL of normal seedlings were recorded, and then the average length of shoot and primary root were recorded. For the dry weight of shoot and root of seedlings (SDW and RDW), the plant parts were separated with a scalpel, placed in paper bags and dried in an forced air circulation oven at 60 ± 2 °C for 48 hours. The results were expressed as mg seedling -1
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Automated system of seedling image analysis (SVIS) and electrical conductivity to assess sun hemp seed vigor

Automated system of seedling image analysis (SVIS) and electrical conductivity to assess sun hemp seed vigor

The efficiency of the SVIS software in evaluating seed vigor has been observed in the seeds of various species, such as lettuce (Sako et al., 2001; Peñaloza et al., 2005), soybean (Hoffmaster et al., 2003; Marcos- Filho et al., 2009) and melon (Marcos-Filho et al., 2006). Hoffmaster et al. (2003) and Marcos-Filho et al. (2009) also demonstrated the potential of this software in evaluating the vigor of soybean seeds using 3-day old seedlings. The electrical conductivity test has been standardized for other leguminous seeds (Vieira et al., 2004; Artola and Carrillo-Castañeda, 2005; Muasya et al., 2006). Nakagawa et al. (2003) proposed a 24 hour imbibition period at 20 ºC for sun hemp seeds to determine seed vigor. In the present study, a 1 hour period of seed imbibition in water at 25 ºC was enough to separate the different lots for vigor with reproducible results, whereas an imbibition period of 16 hours or more caused primary root protrusion, which directly influenced the leaching rate of the exudates. However, when the leaching rate of the exudates in the imbibition solution was measured after 4 or 8 hours, the leaching stability was less variable and there was a consequent reduction in the coefficients of variation.
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TESTS FOR THE SELECTION OF FORAGE TURNIP PROGENY TO ORDER THE VIGOR AND LONGEVITY OF SEEDS

TESTS FOR THE SELECTION OF FORAGE TURNIP PROGENY TO ORDER THE VIGOR AND LONGEVITY OF SEEDS

água. Os dados experimentais foram avaliados quanto à variância e correlações genotípicas e ambientais; herdabilidades; coeficientes de variação genética e ganho por seleção. O teste de germinação, primeira contagem e envelhecimento acelerado podem ser utilizados para a seleção de progênies de nabo-forrageiro visando maior vigor e potencial de armazenamento das sementes. Nenhum dos testes foi eficiente para selecionar progênies visando maior emergência de plântulas em campo.
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Drying on the germination and vigor of Crataeva tapia L. seeds

Drying on the germination and vigor of Crataeva tapia L. seeds

For all variables, including the dry mass of seedlings during the emergence test, the highest values were observed at 0 hours of drying time in both environments, and a significant reduction was seen with increasing drying time. This decrease was more drastic in the seedlings that were derived from the seeds dried in the greenhouse environment (Figure 3D). Although, relatively higher dry matter content was observed in seedlings from the emergence test, certainly due to the longer lengths of them, since the paper substrate seedling growth is limited due to the space between the seed and also because of the way the substrate is kept in roll format.
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