Water quality

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Agroforestry practices for water quality and quantity benefits

Agroforestry practices for water quality and quantity benefits

Establishment of perennial vegetation on agricultural watersheds as upland buffers and streamside riparian buffers improve water quality parameters (Schultz et al. 2009; Udawatta et al. 2011, 2017). Buffers with fast growing trees along water bodies followed by slow growing trees, shrubs, and native grass strips have been effective in removing sediment, nutrients, antibiotics, and herbicides in surface and subsurface water before water enters water bodies (Schultz et al. 2009; Chu et al. 2010). This is because incorporation of permanent vegetation on row crop and pastured watersheds improves soil physical and biological properties compared to row crop management alone (Udawatta et al. 2017). Strategically positioned buffers can enhance environmental benefits by filtering nutrients and reducing sediment losses more effectively. This strategy might include conversion of sensitive areas such as variable source areas or areas with greater runoff potential to perennial vegetation or wetlands.
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The Nišava river water quality as the indicator of the sustainable development of the city of Niš

The Nišava river water quality as the indicator of the sustainable development of the city of Niš

For this purpose the data of Public Utility Company Naissus have been used, as it collects daily samples of the Nišava river water. The number of conducted analyses, depending on the water quality parameters, varies from 1 to 1,240. The obtained results, which have been presented in detail in the paper, indicate that a great majority of analyses, of almost all the water quality parameters, is within predicted range. At the end of the paper, certain measures have been proposed, which should contribute to the sustainable development of Niš in this field.
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Plankton community as an indicator of water quality in tropical shrimp culture ponds

Plankton community as an indicator of water quality in tropical shrimp culture ponds

The use of phytoplankton biomass as an indicator for this type of system is sufficient, but it has specific limita- tions. Firstly, the total chlorophyll a values may be under- estimated in areas having high macroalgal populations. The absorption of nutrients by the macroalgae may result in an underestimated biomass value and, consequently, an inaccurate characterization of the water quality. The size fractions of the phytoplankton are important on a microscopic level in the determination of water quality. However, the presence of colonial phytoplankton species may overestimate the contribution of a size class to the total biomass at that site. Thus, it is important to know the species composition, as phytoplankton undergoes a continual succession of dominant species due to dynamic changes of growth factors like light, temperature, and nutrient concentrations in an aquatic environment (Gold- man and Mann, 1980; Yusoff and McNabb, 1997; Yusoff et al., 2002).
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WATER QUALITY INDEX IN TWO LAND USE SITUATIONS IN THE MANTIQUEIRA RANGE

WATER QUALITY INDEX IN TWO LAND USE SITUATIONS IN THE MANTIQUEIRA RANGE

Analyzing the data of figure 2, it can be observed that the Water Quality Index for the Mantiqueira Range conditions demonstrated better behavior for the Atlantic Forest conditions. Even according to the table and above mentioned figure, the Water Quality Index remained high in the months of little precipitation, evidencing that the surface runoff is one of the possible causes of the water quality alteration and that the soil use is fundamental in this aspect. In the month of April of 2011, even with low total precipitation, the WQI of the Pasture remained low and that was the month where the highest WQI distinction between the two monitored sub-basins occurred. This WQI behavior is due to the previous precipitation, where the beginning of the month of April was preceded by an atypical period of high precipitation, which reduced the WQI values of the pasture environment gradually by the carrying off of eroded soil due to lower soil protection by the pasture. This effect did not happen in an accentuated way in SBAF due to the mitigating effect of the forest in the context of the generation of the direct surface runoff and flood flow, as demonstrated by Mello et al. (2008).
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INFLUENCE OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES ON WATER QUALITY OF RIVERS AND GROUNDWATERS FROM BRĂILA COUNTY

INFLUENCE OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES ON WATER QUALITY OF RIVERS AND GROUNDWATERS FROM BRĂILA COUNTY

For the study, were analyzed data concerning water pollution in annual environmental reports issued by the Environmental Protection Agency Br ăila from te perioad 2007 – 2012 (Environmental Annual Report Brăila, 2007-20012, A.P.M. Brăila). In order to present the influence of human activities on water quality in the county of Brăila, the biological land general physico-chemical conditions have been analysed. Were analysed the rivers from county Brăila (Buz ău, Călmățui, Dunăre) from hydrological point of view and from biological elements and physico-chemical conditions. The biological conditions are refering to benthic invertebrates, phytobenthos, macrophytes, phytoplankton and evaluation of biological elements. The general physico-chemical conditions temperature (°C) and pH, oxygenation conditions, salinity, nutrients and assessment of the elements general physico – chemical (Peters et al., 2006). It also have used the analyzes and studies on iodine concentration by V. Lepadatu and I. Andronache (Andronache, 2008). According to the dataset from the Environmental Protection Agency Brăila from 2007 – 2012, we make an analysis with the data to explain the variation of the concentration of nitrates, phosphates, dissolved oxygen, organic matter and ammonium in rivers mentioned above. For processing the cartographic raster data and for spatial representation of geographic on maps, were used several software, including: Quantum GISversion 2.6.1.Brighton, Corel Draw X5 (Andronache & Ciobotaru, 2013). It was used as the basis the digital model of relief, ASTER GDEM 30 m spatial resolution and terrain data (Ursu ţa, 2013). The data obtained were represented in the form of thematic digital maps (map iodine concentration in the ground water and the location of Brăila in Romania).
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Coupled Hydrodynamic-Water Quality Model for Pollution Control Scenarios in El-Burullus Lake (Nile Delta, Egypt)

Coupled Hydrodynamic-Water Quality Model for Pollution Control Scenarios in El-Burullus Lake (Nile Delta, Egypt)

Since 1965, pollution and eutrophication have increasingly threatened the ecosystem of the region (Chen et al., 2010). There are nine inflowsinto El- Burullus Lake, discharging approximately 3904 million m3/year, including agricultural, industrial and domestic waste water (Abayazid and Al-Shinnawy, 2012). The lake receives runoff from agricultural areas and inputs via eight drains in addition to fresh water from Brimbal Canal situated in the western part of the lake. The main water quality problems are declining salinity level and associated deterioration in aquatic ecosystem and declining marine fish population (Abayazid and Al-Shinnawy, 2012). Aquatic pollutants include industrial chemicals that are indicative of industrial growth in the region. The lake’s nutrient-rich environment promotes growth of aquatic plants. The subsequent sediment accumulation around plant roots effectively sub-divides the lake and affects the water circulation. In addition, Total Suspended Solids (TSS) values are very high, indicating high pollution by organic and non-organic matter from industrial and agriculture waste. The declining salinity of the lake is considered a problem: Total percentage by weight of marine fish species such as Liza ramada decreased from 16% in 1973 to less than 1.8% in 2003 and freshwater species such as Tilapia increased from about 81 to 98.2% (Al Sayes et al., 2007). Figure 2A shows one of the drains discharging into the lake, while Fig. 2B indicates the shallowness of the lake. Despite its self-purification capacity and increase in the number of aquatic plants, the environmental quality of water in El-Burullus Lake had been deteriorating.
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Multidimensional Measurement of Household Water Poverty in a Mumbai Slum: Looking Beyond Water Quality.

Multidimensional Measurement of Household Water Poverty in a Mumbai Slum: Looking Beyond Water Quality.

Questions remain, however, regarding the relative importance of quality as compared with other water service indicators for slum populations. In rural settings, the prevalence of unim- proved water supplies makes bacterial contamination an issue of central importance. In con- trast, studies of water quality in slums suggest that point-of-source bacterial contamination may be less common, especially when water is obtained from taps, because many city water supplies are centrally chlorinated [6, 7, 10, 11]. While slum residents are often exposed to point-of-use contamination from unsafe water storage [4–6, 8–10], the contribution of such household-level contamination to health outcomes remains unclear [8]. Few studies in slums have evaluated other water service indicators (e.g., quantity, reliability, or access) or non- health-related outcomes resulting from inadequate service delivery (e.g., economic or quality- of-life outcomes) [12–16].
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THE WATER QUALITY FROM SAINT ANA LAKE

THE WATER QUALITY FROM SAINT ANA LAKE

ABSTRACT. The water quality from Saint Ana Lake. Inside the Ciomad Massive appears a unique lake in Romania, with an exclusive precipitations alimentation regime. The lake’s origin and the morphometric elements, together with the touristic activity, determine the water’s quality and characteristics. Water status evaluation was realized using random samples taken between the years 2005 and 2010. Qualitative parameters indicate the existence of a clear water lake, belonging to ultra-oligotrophic faze. This is because the crater is covered with forest and the surface erosion is very poor. Also the aquatic vegetation is rare. From all analyzed indicators, only ammonium and total mineral nitrogen have higher values during last years. In the future, the lake needs a higher protection against water quality degradation.
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Water quality index using multivariate factorial analysis

Water quality index using multivariate factorial analysis

The Rio das Pedras watershed, located in the cities of Mogi Guaçu and Estiva Gerbi, SP, and which belongs to the Mogi- Guaçu River watershed, was chosen as the study area. This watershed was selected due to the significant activities of to- mato crop production in the area, with constant applications of agrochemicals associated with furrow irrigation, known for its low application efficiency and water losses. This combina- tion is considered a potential generator of diffused loads that are harmful to the availability of water resources. Thus, six water collection points were chosen, taking into consideration urban nuclei. Care was taken not to gather samples from re- gions near city districts since the objective was to evaluate only the agricultural impacts on water quality in the Rio das Pedras Watershed. In order to facilitate the location of the selected points, since the distances between points was relatively large, and to permit future researches to be conducted to expand the database, GPS equipment was used to georeference the sample collection points. Figure 1 shows the hydrological map for the Rio das Pedras Watershed in 2004 and the location of the water sample collection points.
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Moving beyond classical markers of water quality: detection of enteric viruses and genotoxicity in water of the Sinos River

Moving beyond classical markers of water quality: detection of enteric viruses and genotoxicity in water of the Sinos River

This study evaluated water quality at 4 points routinely monitored by local authorities using classical water quality markers, genotoxicological assays and molecular methods to detect genetic material of enteroviruses (EV, single-stranded positive sense RNA, family Picornaviridae, genus Enterovirus), rotavirus (RV, double-stranded segmented RNA, family Reoviridae, genus Rotavirus) and adenovirus (AdV, double-stranded DNA, family Adenoviridae, genus Mastadenovirus). Enteric viruses, such as EV, RV and AdV, may be found in the environment as a consequence of fecal pollution and in surface waters (Hot et al., 2003; Vecchia et al., 2012). Analyses of genotoxicity in surface waters may help to diagnose environmental quality accurately. Among other cytogenetic techniques, number of nuclear abnormalities and micronuclei are good biomarkers of genotoxicity (Çavas and Ergene-Gozukara, 2003). The micronuclei technique is rapid and sensitive to detect structural changes, loss of DNA and chromosomal abnormalities (Heddle et al., 1983). This technique has been used to test fish samples in the monitoring of genotoxic effects of agents released into the environment (Bolognesi et al., 2002). This integrated diagnosis of environmental quality is highly needed in the Sinos River basin (Spilki and Tundisi, 2010).
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Water quality and treatment of river bank filtrate

Water quality and treatment of river bank filtrate

This paper discusses the origin and fate of macro components in river bank filtrate, based on extensive full-scale measurements in well fields and treatment systems of the Drinking Water Company Oasen in the Netherlands. First, it clarifies and illustrates redox reactions and the mixing of river bank filtrate and PW as the domi- nant processes determining the raw water quality for drinking water production. Next, full-scale results are elaborated on to evaluate trickling filtration as an efficient and proven one-step process to remove methane, iron, ammonium and manganese. The interaction of methane and manganese removal with nitrification in these systems is further analyzed. Methane is mostly stripped during trickling filtration and its removal hardly interferes with nitrification. Under specific conditions, microbial manganese removal may play a dominant role.
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Drinking-water quality in the Caribbean

Drinking-water quality in the Caribbean

b) Each country should develop and imple- ment a comprehensive drinking-water quality improvement program which incorporates a de- liberate and continuous selective s[r]

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An Expert System Applied in Construction Water Quality Monitoring

An Expert System Applied in Construction Water Quality Monitoring

Abstract: Problem statement: An untoward environmental impact of urban growth in Malaysia has been deterioration in a number of watercourses due to severe siltation and other pollutants from the construction site. Water quality monitoring is a plan for decision makers to take into account the adverse impacts of construction activities on the receiving water bodies. It is also a process for collecting the construction water quality monitoring, baseline data and standard level. Approach: In recent years, expert systems have been used extensively in different applications areas including environmental studies. In this study, expert system software -CWQM- developed by using Microsoft Visual Basic was introduced. CWQM to be used for water quality monitoring during construction activities was designed based on the legal process in Malaysia. Results: According to the water quality monitoring regulation enacted in Malaysia, construction activities require mandatory water quality monitoring plans duly approved by Department of Environment before staring activities. CWQM primarily aims to provide educational and support system for water quality monitoring engineers and decision-makers during construction activities. It displays water quality monitoring plan in report form, water sampling location in GIS format and water quality monitoring data in graph. Conclusion: When the use of CWQM in construction water quality monitoring becomes widespread, it is highly possible that it will be benefited in terms of having more accurate and objective decisions on construction projects which are mainly focused on reducing the stormwater pollution.
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GOLD MINING IN IGUN IJESHA, SOUTHWEST NIGERIA: IMPACTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR WATER QUALITY

GOLD MINING IN IGUN IJESHA, SOUTHWEST NIGERIA: IMPACTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR WATER QUALITY

This study was carried out in Igun-Ijesha, Osun State, Nigeria to determine the likely hotspots of water contamination for future treatment trials. Water quality analyses were based on physico-chemical and heavy metal parameters of surface and ground water collected from the study community. A total of thirty-eight water samples were collected between September 2012 and February 2013 and analyzed using standard procedures. Concentrations of heavy metals were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Results showed that water samples within the gold mining community are contaminated and the hydrochemistry varied with seasons. The values of magnesium, turbidity, total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity and pH during the period of sampling ranged 3.1-42.1 mg/L, 0-150 NTU, 30-560 mg/L, 80- 1192 µS/cm and 5.95-8.55 respectively. Chloride, nitrate, phosphate, sulphate and sodium data were within the stipulated limits set by the Nigerian Standards for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ). Heavy metal contents of the groundwater were generally higher than those from surface water sampled within the mining district. The values of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc, ranged from 0.01-1.20, 0.05-0.52, 0.80-34.80, 0.09-4.30, 0.09-8.30, 0.05-3.94, 0.05-19.6 and 1.80-29.90 mg/L respectively. Most of the listed metals have values exceeding the international and national recommended limits. The daily intake of water in the study area poses a potential health threat from long-term exposure to heavy-metals. The study suggests that water safety plans should be developed to safeguard water resource and public health within the mining community.
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Risk analysis in water quality problems

Risk analysis in water quality problems

Engineering Risk Analysis has been a very strong methodology in order to measures the uncertainties presents in all Engineering processes. In the field of Water Quality, the presence of this uncertainty comes from the different sources. Data base, approximation theory, numerical methods for the solutions of the differential equations are some of these sources. This work applies the methods of probabilities to evaluate the uncertainties present in the water pollution analysis processes. The results have shown that even that the method of probability is a very strong method, there are some restrictions to use the method.
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Water quality and communities associated with macrophytes in a shallow water-supply reservoir on an aquaculture farm

Water quality and communities associated with macrophytes in a shallow water-supply reservoir on an aquaculture farm

were washed and plankton and macrofauna were fixated with 4% formalin and 1% lugol iodine; the specimens were then identified and counted. Plankton and macrofauna communities associated with S. auriculata and E. azurea had a similar diversity of species but different (p<0.05) in the abundance of associated organisms. Eichhornia azurea had the highest contents in dry and wet weight, total phosphorus, total nitrogen and organic matter. Planktonic algae were directly correlated with biomass of E. azurea. The taxa with highest densities were Rotifera and Zygnematophyceae. Results showed that the environmental variables associated with macrophytes presence in the shallow reservoir is a strong predictor of favourable conditions to maintain great diversity plankton community and macrofauna associated with plants. The role of macrophytes is important for not only stabilising the clear-water state and maintaining high diversity of organisms associated, but also it seems to be a good alternative to maintaining desirable water-supply quality for aquaculture farms.
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Arsenic in drinking water: a worldwide water quality concern for water supply companies

Arsenic in drinking water: a worldwide water quality concern for water supply companies

The cancer risk at low-to-moderate exposure concentra- tions in drinking water is still under debate (Smith et al., 2002; Celik et al., 2008). Most risk estimations use data from Taiwanese studies (Tseng et al., 1968; Chen et al., 1992), since limited epidemiological information is available from elsewhere in the world. In Bangladesh, results indicated at least a doubling of lifetime mortality risk from liver, blad- der, and lung cancers (229.6 vs. 103.5 per 100 000 popula- tion) owing to arsenic in drinking water (Chen and Ahsan, 2004). This has an enormous impact since it is estimated that of the 140 million inhabitants of Bangladesh, more than 100 million are at risk of arsenic poisoning (Chowdhury et al., 2006). The cancer risks from arsenic in drinking water were assessed by Smith et al. (1992) for the USA situation. At that time the national guideline in the USA was 50 µg L −1
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Carlos Alexandre Borges Garcia2 , Gilsia Fabiane Oliveira Moraes

Carlos Alexandre Borges Garcia2 , Gilsia Fabiane Oliveira Moraes

Contamination of water body by diffuse and point sources in springs has caused concerns mainly due to restrictions on its quality. The problem becomes more serious when contamination affects water for human consumption, as occurs in the river São Francisco, which supplies several municipalities of Sergipe. In this sense, the objective of the study was to evaluate water quality in eleven tributaries of the São Francisco river in its low course in the period from 2013 to 2014, in order to subsidize decision making by public management bodies operating in the region. For this purpose, it was used the Water Quality Index (WQI) and the Trophic State Index (TSI), as well the hierarchical grouping techniques associated to the samples to compare the different causes of contamination of each source. The lowest WQI values were observed in the rivers Betume and Jacaré and they were associated with high concentrations of coliforms related to the disposal of domestic effluents from the riverside cities. It was observed a tendency to eutrophication in the Jacaré stream, Santo Antônio, Pilões, Papagaio and Capivara rivers demonstrated by the high TSI in the rainy season. The results of the cluster analysis were close to their Euclidean distance, and showed that there were similarity relationships between the different water sources related to their parameters of water quality. In this piece of work, we also used the Factor Analysis resulted in the selection of five factors of water quality indicators which are mainly related to mineral content, organic matter, surface runoff and the level of pollution. Thus, it is concluded that the water quality of the São Francisco river tributaries is at a strong tendency towards contamination and that its tributaries need a constant monitoring for the environmental management decisions to be the most adequate for the sustainable survival of the riverside communities.
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Importância da calibração na modelagem matemática de autodepuração em ambiente lótico

Importância da calibração na modelagem matemática de autodepuração em ambiente lótico

The longitudinal behavior of the water quality parameters simulated by calibrating the state variables was compared with the behavior of the same parameters simulated via state variables available in the literature. The sensitivity of the state variables was also analyzed. Results: The calibration process led to good fits between the simulated and actual data for all the parameters analyzed. On the other hand, the comparison of the water quality model using calibrated state variables with the model based on state variables obtained in the literature revealed inconsistencies regarding the parameters DO, P total , ammonia, nitrate and all the heavy metals. Conclusions: Considering the wide threshold ranges of the state variables in the literature and the dearth of studies on calibrating the coefficient of decay and quantifying the release of heavy metals by bottom sediment, this study can serve as a base for future investigations in lotic environments with similar hydraulic and water quality characteristics.
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MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF POTABLE WATER IN DEHRADUN CITY

MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF POTABLE WATER IN DEHRADUN CITY

Coliform organism have long been recognized as a suitable microbial indicator of drinking-water quality, largely because they are easy to detect and enumerate in water. The term “coliform organisms” refers to Gram-negative, rod shaped bacteria capable of growth in the presence of bile salts or other surface-active agent with similar growth-inhibiting properties and able to ferment lactose at 35-37 0 C with the production of acid, gas, and aldehyde within 244-48 hours. They are also oxidase-negative and non-spore-forming and display beta galactosidase activity. Traditionally, coliform bacteria were regarded as belonging to the genera Escherichia, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, and Klebsiella. However, as defined by modern taxanomical methods, the group is heterogeneous. It include lactose fermenting bacteria, such as Enterobacter cloacae and Citrobacter freundii, which can be found in both faeces and the environment(nutrient-rich water, soil, decaying plant material) as well as in drinking water containing relatively high concentration of nutrients. Coliform bacteria should be detected in treated water supplies and, if found, suggest inadequate treatment, post treatment contamination, or excessive nutrients. The coliform test can therefore be used as an indicator both of treatment efficiency and of the integrity of the distributing system. Although coliform organism may not always be directly related to the presence of faecal contamination or pathogens in drinking –water, the coliform test is still useful to monitoring the microbial quality of treated piped water supplies.
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