Abstract. Understanding hydrological responses to refor- estation is an important subject in watershed management, particularly in large forested watersheds ( > 1000 km 2 ). In this study, we selected two large forested watersheds (Pingjiang and Xiangshui) located in the upper reach of the Poyang Lake watershed, southeastern China (with an area of 3261.4 and 1458 km 2 , respectively), along with long-term data on climate and hydrology (1954–2006) to assess the ef- fects of large-scale reforestation on streamflow. Both water- sheds have similar climate and experienced comparable and dramatic forest changes during the past decades, but with different watershed properties (e.g., the topography is much steeper in Xiangshui than in Pingjiang), which provides us with a unique opportunity to compare the differences in hy- drological recovery in two contrasted watersheds. Stream- flow at different percentiles (e.g., 5, 10, 50 and 95 %) were compared using a combination of statistical analysis with a year-wise method for each watershed. The results showed that forest recovery had no significant effects on median flows (Q 50 % ) in both watersheds. However, reforestation sig-
studies have observed a significantly positive correlation between yeast counts and water quality indicators in aquatic environments, such as fecal coliforms, total coliforms and Escherichia coli (Hagler and Mendonça-Hagler 1981, de Almeida 2005, Medeiros et al. 2008, 2012, Coelho et al. 2010, Carneiro et al. 2015). Unpolluted water sources exhibit the prevalence of nonfermentative species from the genus Cryptococcus and Rhodotorula (Hagler et al. 1995). Species from the genus Candida are the main target on polluted freshwater environments and their recovery rate are prevalent. Other yeasts commonly recovered belongs to the genus Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula, Saccharomyces, and Trichosporon. Some species often are recovered in higher concentrations that fecal coliform isolates, such as R. mucilaginosa, T. beigelii, Cryptococcus laurentii and Debaryomyces hansenii (Brilhante et al. 2015).
The applicability of bone grafts in the recovery of bone tissue is an area that has been extensively studied and is constantly evolving. In the last years, several techniques for applying these grafts have been developed. Thus, there is a need of creating an automated method of analysis, objective, impartial and efficient evaluation of the results of these techniques. Several studies using image segmentation have been conducted in several areas. Among them we can cite the medical field, where the segmentation can be applied to define the image regions such as tumors, cells, glands, organs, tissue, cells, among others. Several segmentation methods were developed specifically to detect each one of these elements. Segmentations like these were traditionally performed manually. In some cases, the objects in an image were detected of a purely visual method, and no numerical data could accurately determinate the size or other properties of the picture. Evaluations like this become subjective to the interpretation of each researcher, and could bring impartial and unbiased results. Thus, the use of a computational method for carrying out this type of analysis is essential. This work presents a morphometric analysis method of the bone formation on bone grafts applied to mice that received implants of biomaterials. The technique employs a combination of segmentation algorithms k-means, and watershed in order to perform a segmentation based on the color represented by the L*a*b*. For identification of the region that corresponds to new bone formation, an analysis was performed using the HSL color system. Several experiments were performed with a large number of images and satisfactory results were obtained. The performance of the segmentation method on images of bones of rodents has been thoroughly evaluated by researches, who considered the process efficient and compatible with results obtained by experts.
Streamflow was measured at P1 (SW) and P5 (EW) through automatic stream-gauging stations equipped with V-notch weirs; the other sites measurements were made with current meters, by the discharge-area method. Monthly discharges at all five points were obtained simultaneously with water samplings. It is understood that the adopted sampling protocol is not ideal for stream sys- tems of the dimension of those here studied, how- ever results were very promising and will be used for the establishment of future intensive sampling rou- tines. The results at this stage, allowed the calcula- tion of annual watershed water yield and element fluxes.
The Extra Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation system (ECMO) – a set of cannulae, an artificial oxygenation membrane, and a pump – provides pulmonary, heart, or cardiorespiratory support. When used for cardiorespiratory assistance, it is in the occurrence of heart failure, pulmonary failure, or both. It is an extra corporeal circulation closed circuit. Deoxygenated, carbon dioxide rich blood is drained from the venous system and pumped through an artificial oxygenation membrane, to then return to arterial system after oxygenation. It is a continuous flow. The aim is to keep tissue perfusion with oxygenated blood while waiting for the recovery of impaired organ: heart, lungs, or both. The concept is called recovery bridge. Particularly under heart failure condition, another aim when using the ECMO system is to act as a bridge to other prolonged circulation support devices in case native cardiac function is not restored. By doing that, better candidates for prolonged ventricular support can be selected, as well as costs optimized.
Faunal responses to disturbances reported in the literature are presented in Appendix A, identifying ecosystem type, geographic region, type of impact, comparable potential mining impact, scale of impact, response category (density or diversity), type of response measured (e.g. species richness S, Shannon-diversity H ’), taxonomy information (phylum, class, order, family, genus, species), size class (meio-, macro-, megafauna), and mobility (mobile, sessile). The results of the literature search and speci ﬁc meta-analysis for nodule systems are reported in more detail in Jones et al. (2017). Mobility was included in the analyses as it may be linked to species con- nectivity and thus recovery potential (Correa et al., 2016). Size classes were used in the analyses since meio-, macro- and mega- fauna communities in ﬂuence and depend on each other ( Olafsson, 2003), and recent studies have shown that different sized organ- isms may respond differently to stress and disturbance (Gollner et al., 2015a,b). We followed the de ﬁnition of size-classes used in original articles. Megafauna typically included large animals seen with the unaided eye or are visible in seabed photographs. At hy- drothermal vents, where fauna is typically large, (adult) macro- fauna was classi ﬁed as fauna larger 1 mm, with no further discrimination into mega- and macrofauna. On nodule ﬁelds, where macrofauna is typically small, macrofauna included organ- isms retained on a 500 m m mesh sieve. Meiofauna was typically classi ﬁed as fauna smaller than 1 mm. The lower mesh-size used varied from 32 to 63 m m (older studies typically used 63 m m). However, Ingole et al. (2001) classi ﬁed all fauna in deep-sea sedi- ments (including nematodes and copepods) as macrofauna, but we reclassi ﬁed typical meiofauna taxa (nematodes, copepods) as meiofauna.
Main characteristics of the groups can be seen in Table 1. No statistical difference was found for mean number of sessions between the groups (7.9 ± 1.5 for propofol, 8.7 ± 1 for etomidate, and 8.8 ± 0.4 for thiopental). The variables total electric charge received (p < 0.0001), and time for patient recovery (p = 0.042) were significantly associated with the type of anesthetic used. For instance, thiopental and propofol were associated with a significant increase in charge (OR = 5.33 and OR = 18.97, respectively) when compared to etomidate, as well as a significant decrease of time for recovery (OR = 0.49 and OR = 0.50, respectively). The multinomial logistic regression model confirmed these findings, as charge (p = 0.0002) and time for patient recovery (p = 0.014) remained significant after the adjustment for the other variables. Propofol needed the highest charge but had the shortest time for recovery. No difference was observed between groups related to seizure threshold and total number of treatments received.
One of the most notable findings of this large study is that there are significant and sizable differences in intestinal permeability associated with sex. Boys had higher urinary recovery of mannitol than girls. Differences in mannitol recovery by sex were consistent, significant, and highly reproducible across sites at the 4 ages assessed, and consistently varied by >50% in most countries at most time points. There are some reports of changes in intestinal permeability by sex in the literature (11,46), but results have been conflicting on this point (47), and have relatively small sample sizes. There are different levels of estradiol and bioavailable estradiol in infants at 3 months of age, the age at which we did our first lactulose mannitol assay (48). Estrogen receptor agonists have been shown to effect claudin expression in the placenta, and in rabbit models estradiol potentiates occluding expression and attenuated augmented
Neither smoking nor educational level inluenced the in- tensity of need for recovery. In both cases, the shape of data distribution may have inluenced the results, since most workers were non-smokers and had completed high school. Studies with a wide distribution of individuals among dif- ferent educational categories should be conducted to better assess the association between these factors and NFR.
Climate change involves complex interactions and possibilities of various impacts on water and energy balance, even in small watersheds. Thus, the use of hydrological models has been a very effective tool to support decisions about the future of water resources (Mello et al., 2016). The Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM) is a physical-distributed model tested and validated in mountainous areas in the state of Montana, USA, notably in the Middle Fork Flathead watershed (Wigmosta; Vail; Lettenmaier, 1994). In an overview, the effects of climate changes on water resources have been studied using DHSVM with different downscaling of climate change data (Dickerson- Lange; Mitchell, 2014; Leung; Wigmosta, 1999; Safeeq; Fares, 2012). Thus, the DHSVM was applied to forecast streamflows in the Igarapé Asu watersheds (watersheds of 0.95, 6.58 and 12.43 km 2 ) in Amazonia central (Cuartas
Most high-performance data processing (a.k.a. big-data) systems allow users to express their computation using abstractions (like MapReduce) that simplify the extraction of parallelism from applications. Most frameworks, however, do not allow users to spe- cify how communication must take place: that element is deeply embedded into the run-time system (RTS) abstractions, making changes hard to implement. In this work we describe Wathershed-ng, our re-engineering of the Watershed system, a framework based on the ﬁlter-stream paradigm and originally focused on continuous stream pro- cessing. Like other big-data environments, Watershed provided object-oriented abs- tractions to express computation (ﬁlters), but the implementation of streams was an RTS element. By isolating stream functionality into appropriate classes, combination of communication patterns and reuse of common message handling functions (like com- pression and blocking) become possible. The new architecture even allows the design of new communication patterns, for example, allowing users to choose MPI, TCP or shared memory implementations of communication channels as their problem demands. Applications designed for the new interface showed reductions in code size on the order of 50% and above in some cases. The performance results also showed signiﬁcant im- provements, since some implementation bottlenecks were removed in the re-engineering process.
Patients included in this study had unilateral ISSHL of at least 30 dB in at least three consecutive frequencies occurring within 72 hours. They were treated at the Outpatient Clinic of ISSHL for at least 2 months and by that time exhibited hearing recovery stabilization, or normalization of hearing. Patients treated with different types of therapeutic approaches were followed. The standard treatment, when used, was oral pred- nisone 1 mg/kg/day, with a maximum daily dose of 60 mg for at least 7 days, followed by gradual drug tapering.
Acute renal failure can cause neurologic manifestations. Some of those symptoms are mood swings, impaired concentration, tremor, stupor, coma, asterixis, dysarthria, myoclonus . Simi- lar findings can be a sign of cerebral infarct. Here, we report a case of watershed (WS) cerebral infarction in a patient with acute renal failure secondary to contrast administration and use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor.
FIGURE 4 | Glucose, octopine, and arginine levels following 1 h recovery from intense contractility. One of two paired mantle muscle sheets from cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) was stimulated to contract for 30 s at 3 Hz simulating jetting behavior. (A,C,E) tissue concentrations after a 1 h period following contraction. (B,D) rate of uptake or release of metabolite into the bathing medium during the 1 h period following contraction. Open bars represent unstimulated preparations; stippled bars indicate preparations that were stimulated. Text below x-axis shows additions to media. For CHX and IAA additions, preparations were incubated for 10 min prior to stimulation, during stimulation, and throughout the post contraction incubation period. N = 6 under all conditions except tissue glucose in stimulated preparations incubated with CHX, tissue octopine in unstimulated preparations incubated with CHX, and media glucose in unstimulated preparations incubated with IAA where N = 5. Values with different letters are significantly different. ∗ Significant difference from zero (one sample t-test) for rate of glucose appearance in bathing medium.
The measurement of cardiac performance during recov- ery from exercise could provide added insight into cir- culatory impairment and risk stratification in CHF patients. As with more widely used indices for functionally classify- ing and estimating risk in CHF patients, impaired cardiac function is presumably at the foundation of abnormal recovery responses to exercise, but this issue has not been fully explored. Two studies have observed delayed cardiac output recovery in CHF patients using direct Fick measure- ments, and these studies demonstrated that the degree to which cardiac output is delayed is related to CHF severity. 14,15 However, direct measurement of cardiac out- put is impractical for routine clinical use because it is
We concluded that regardless of hydration status, the exercise protocol caused alterations in cardiac auto- nomic modulation, characterized by increased sympa- thetic and decreased parasympathetic activity. Although the isotonic solution administered (Gatorade, Brazil), containing carbohydrates (30 g), sodium (225 mg), chlor- ide (210 mg) and potassium (60 mg) per 500 ml of the drink, generally produced lower alterations in HRV indi- ces during exercise, it was not enough to significantly in- fluence the changes in cardiac autonomic modulation. Throughout the recovery period, the hydration exercise protocol induced significant changes in cardiac auto- nomic modulation, promoting faster recovery of HRV indices, analyzed in the time and frequency domain.
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