Wave run-up

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Wave run-up on sandbag slopes

Wave run-up on sandbag slopes

In addition to the studies on wave run-up on smooth inclined planes, the behaviour of wave run-up on non-smooth slopes was also investigated. Van der Meer and Stam [8] conducted experiments on random wave run-up on rock slopes ranging from 1:1.15 to 1:4. There were four tested cross sections varying in thicknesses of the armour layer and the filter layer. Two relationships between relative wave run-up and surf similarity parameter were proposed. For a small surf similarity parameter (smaller than about 1.5), a linear relationship was taken, whereas for a larger surf similarity parameter (larger than about 1.5), the relationship was described simply by a power function, which resembles Mase’s form [3]. Shankar and Jayaratne [9] carried out a series of hydraulic model tests to investigate the influences of roughness, layer thickness and porosity on the wave run-up on impermeable and permeable breakwaters. The surfaces of the breakwater models were made rough with gravels and welded wire meshes. Neelamani and Sandhya [10] investigated the wave run-up on plane, dentate and serrated seawalls that were fabricated using aluminum boxes zigzaggedly fixed on steel sheets. It was found that the sloping serrated seawall was capable of dissipating the wave energy better than the plane and dentate seawalls.
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Coastal vulnerability assessment based on video wave run-up observations at a mesotidal, steep-sloped beach

Coastal vulnerability assessment based on video wave run-up observations at a mesotidal, steep-sloped beach

with the bathymetry as they propagate to the coast and are gradually transformed to skewed and following, asymmetric breaking waves, before they eventually trigger wave run up. Predicting swash motions when the wave characteristics at the shoreline are known is relatively straightforward, and swash excursions have been well described by ballistic models. The above approach is based on translating swash energy/momentum into wave run-up height, considering the beach-face friction and slope (e.g., Hunt 1959) and has been proved to be accurate, despite uncertainties, i.e. the ones related to the interaction of individual waves (e.g., Larson et al. 2004). On the other hand, wave energy dissipation due to shoaling/breaking is more difficult to quantify, especially since the surf zone is often a denied environment for field measurements.
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Effective coastal boundary conditions for tsunami wave run-up over sloping bathymetry

Effective coastal boundary conditions for tsunami wave run-up over sloping bathymetry

and the solid lines with “o” marker represents the LSWE simulation in the solution of Choi. The thick solid line is the sloping bathymetry. The implementation of the hard-wall boundary condition at x = B in Choi’s method causes that the point-wise wave height in the whole domain cannot be predicted accurately. In this case, the effect of reflected waves for shoreline movement prediction is small, but it may become important when

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Braz. j. oceanogr.  vol.65 número2

Braz. j. oceanogr. vol.65 número2

a new point was added in order to ill the gap between measurement points (see Figure 1). A base station was deployed to enable real time data collection using a roving staf. At each point the maximum up-rush of each wave was measured during a 30 minute campaign (Figure 2). The data were collected refered to the Imbituba vertical datum - default reference level in Brazil = approximatelly mean sea level at Imbituba, city located 170 km South - 28°14’S, 48°40’W - of study area), therefore, it was necessary to correct the measured elevations to the still water level, as proposed by HOLMAN (1986). To do that, the AWAC™ pressure time series were used. The mean sea level (equal to Imbituba vertical datum mean sea level) was assumed to be equal to the mean sea level of the 34 days of mooring. The instantaneous sea level was subtracted from the instantaneous wave run-up to derive the wave run-up with respect to still water level.
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A typical wave wake from high-speed vessels: its group structure and run-up

A typical wave wake from high-speed vessels: its group structure and run-up

Abstract. High-amplitude water waves induced by high- speed vessels are regularly observed in Tallinn Bay, the Baltic Sea, causing intense beach erosion and disturbing ma- rine habitants in the coastal zone. Such a strong impact on the coast may be a result of a certain group structure of the wave wake. In order to understand it, here we present an experimental study of the group structure of these wakes at Pikakari beach, Tallinn Bay. The most energetic vessel waves at this location (100 m from the coast at the water depth 2.7 m) have amplitudes of about 1 m and periods of 8–10 s and cause maximum run-up heights on a beach up to 1.4 m. These waves represent frequency modulated packets where the largest and longest waves propagate ahead of other smaller amplitude and period waves. Sometimes the groups of different heights and periods can be separated even within one wave wake event. The wave heights within a wake are well described by the Weibull distribution, which has differ- ent parameters for wakes from different vessels. Wave run-up heights can also be described by Weibull distribution and its parameters can be connected to the parameters of the distri- bution of wave heights 100 m from the coast. Finally, the run- up of individual waves within a packet is studied. It is shown that the specific structure of frequency modulated wave pack- ets, induced by high-speed vessels, leads to a sequence of high wave run-ups at the coast, even when the original wave heights are rather moderate. This feature can be a key to un- derstanding the significant impact on coasts caused by fast vessels.
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The impact of embedded valleys on daytime pollution transport over a mountain range

The impact of embedded valleys on daytime pollution transport over a mountain range

tical CBL and AL heights over the plain qualitatively con- firm results of De Wekker et al. (2004). The vertically in- tegrated tracer mass is homogeneously distributed with ap- proximately 3.3 % km −1 . This results in slightly less than 100 % tracer mass when integrating between −30 km ≤ x ≤ 0 km, as a small part of tracer mass is horizontally trans- ported out of this subdomain due to turbulent diffusion. In the reference run (Fig. 8b), tracer particles are advected to- wards both ridges by upslope winds. After 6 h of simula- tion, concentration maxima exist in regions of updrafts over slope 2 (−13 km ≤ x ≤ −11 km) and in the upper part of slope 3 (−1 km ≤ x ≤ −0 km). Therefore, the largest tracer masses are found with up to 5.9 % km −1 over the valley re- gion after 6 h of simulation. The AL and CBL heights over the foreland are in all simulations similar to the ones in the plain simulation. Over the valley region of the reference run (−9 km ≤ x ≤ −3 km), the AL height is considerably higher (up to 0.8 km for CBL1) than the CBL heights. In the HMIN0.5 (Fig. 8c) and HMIN1 (Fig. 8d) run, the superim- posed plain-to-mountain flow leads to a less complex tracer distribution than in the HMIN0 case with a rather continuous horizontal increase in tracer mass towards the main ridge. In the region x < −8 km, the AL heights are considerably higher (up to 0.9 km for CBL1) than the CBL heights. As in the reference run, this implies a tracer transport towards higher altitudes than the temperature-based CBL heights. In the S-RIDGE simulation a second tracer maximum above crest height exists at approximately 2.5 km. The total hori- zontal mass flux of tracer particles in the return flow above the CBL is only sightly higher in the S-RIDGE run than in the other simulations (not shown) and, hence, cannot explain the formation of the elevated layer of tracers in S-RIDGE. However, the center of the return flow is located about 500 m higher in S-RIDGE which favors the formation of a pollution layer at this height compared to the other runs (cf. Figs. 3 and 8). Generally, similar elevated pollution maxima were mod- eled by Fiedler et al. (2002) and elevated moist layers down- stream of mountain ridges related to advective venting were observed by Adler et al. (2015).
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SeaBuoySoft – an On-line Automated Windows based Ocean Wave height Data Acquisition and Analysis System for Coastal Field’s Data Collection

SeaBuoySoft – an On-line Automated Windows based Ocean Wave height Data Acquisition and Analysis System for Coastal Field’s Data Collection

Central Water and Power Station (CWPRS), Pune, INDIA is actively involved in providing Sea- Port solutions to a number of critical and equally challenging problems in the area of costal and offshore engineering. These studies require understanding of wave climate as the sea behaves abruptly. The ocean wave height data are collected at sites to study the wave climate in order to design marine structures, break waters, sea walls etc. In earlier days the available period for the observation of data at a site is less and ranges from 6 months to 9 months (i.e. only pre and post monsoon) due to battery supply issues. The data are normally collected every 3 hours for duration of 20 minutes resulting in 8 records in a day. Thus the ocean wave height data at a site at a time range from approximately 1400 to 2000 records, depending on the period of observation. From this voluminous data, engineers have to obtain meaningful ocean wave characteristics to arrive at a certain design conclusions.
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RUN   Dissertação de Mestrado   Regina Branco

RUN Dissertação de Mestrado Regina Branco

As necessidades não satisfeitas de reabilitação podem atrasar a alta, limitar as atividades, restringir a participação, causar deterioração na saúde, aumentar a dependência [r]

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RUN   Dissertação de Mestrado   Klara Dimitrovova

RUN Dissertação de Mestrado Klara Dimitrovova

Os longos tempos de internamento das patologias integradas na MFR, em relação às restantes especialidades hospitalares, e a necessidade de uma intervenção rápida e eficaz n[r]

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Isolated lower mesospheric echoes seen by medium frequency radar at 70&deg; N, 19&deg; E

Isolated lower mesospheric echoes seen by medium frequency radar at 70&deg; N, 19&deg; E

Normally, as discussed above, most of the reflected power received by an MF radar results from progressive partial re- flections from horizontally stratified structures in refractive index (a function of electron density at radio frequencies) extending over a Fresnel zone, as the radio wave propagates through the D-region; often, when the E-region is reached, the wave is substantially retarded by the increasing electron density and is ultimately reflected. This propagation of radio waves in an ionized medium is described by the Appleton- Hartree equation and more fully by the Sen-Wyller formula- tion (e.g. Hargreaves, 1992). If the electron density is suffi- ciently high, the radio wave may be completely absorbed, a condition which may be detected by checking whether the f min parameter from an ionosonde exceeds the radar fre-
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Elasticity of substitution between capital and labor: a panel data approach

Elasticity of substitution between capital and labor: a panel data approach

32 In addition it allows us to distinguish between the short run and long run price elasticities and, as it turns out, this distinction is quantitatively significant; the long run [r]

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RUN   Dissertação de Mestrado   Pedro Reis

RUN Dissertação de Mestrado Pedro Reis

Em resumo e para concluir, pode-se afirmar que , como foi referido ao longo do trabalho, a questão das listas e dos tempos de espera é uma questão complexa, claramente c[r]

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2DAM-WAVE : um método de avaliação para o modelo de capacidade wave

2DAM-WAVE : um método de avaliação para o modelo de capacidade wave

Os resultados de ambas as dimensões do 2DAM-WAVE devem ser armazenadas em um repositório histórico para benchmarking. Os resultados das capacidades das unidades avaliadas, junto com as informações da unidade, possibilitarão verificar, por exemplo, a evolução das capacidades das unidades brasileiras em DDS ao longo dos anos. Além disso, será possível ao avaliador verificar como outras unidades resolveram problemas típicos do DDS em outras avaliações, podendo utilizar essas informações para propor as melhorias em outra avaliação. Com uma estrutura WEB montada, pode-se disponibilizar às unidades avaliadas uma forma de se compararem com outras empresas do mercado. Além disso, esse banco histórico pode proporcionar à comunidade acadêmica uma oportunidade de analisar a evolução do mercado nessa área. Essa prática já é parcialmente utilizada no MMGP. Para que isso seja possível, deve-se garantir às empresas que os dados serão confidenciais, ou seja, não será possível recuperar dados de uma unidade específica.
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RUN   Dissertação de Mestrado   João Sarmento

RUN Dissertação de Mestrado João Sarmento

Uma vez que a acção dos prestadores dos cuidados primários de Saúde é o factor determinante para a evicção dos internamentos em estudo, e o acesso a estes é determinado c[r]

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RUN   Dissertação de Mestrado   Liliana Pereira

RUN Dissertação de Mestrado Liliana Pereira

(JAHNKE et al ., 2010), considera-se pertinente o estudo desta temática por forma a poder eventualmente contribuir, não só para a saúde e qualidade de vida das pessoas ido[r]

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ISSN 8755-6839 SCIENCE OF TSUNAMI HAZARDS Journal of Tsunami Society International Number 2 2013 IMPACT OF TSUNAMI FORCES ON STRUCTURES The University of Ottawa Experience

ISSN 8755-6839 SCIENCE OF TSUNAMI HAZARDS Journal of Tsunami Society International Number 2 2013 IMPACT OF TSUNAMI FORCES ON STRUCTURES The University of Ottawa Experience

Another interesting phenomenon observed during the experiments was the influence of the condition of the flume bed. Fig. 16 compares the base shear force-time histories experienced by the square structural model when subjected to flows generated by the 550 mm impoundment depth. Fig. 16 (a) illustrates the measured response under dry-bed conditions (an initial condition with negligible water on the flume bed), which typically corresponded to the first test of the day. This condition could reasonably represent in-land ground conditions during the arrival of the first tsunami wave. Fig. 16 (b) provides the measured response under wet-bed conditions (an initial condition wherein the flume bottom was covered by a thin film of water), which corresponded to all subsequent tests. This could be representative of the ground conditions for subsequent tsunami waves. The corresponding bore depth-time histories are also superimposed in Fig. 16.
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UMA ABORDAGEM PARA DESENVOLVIMENTO DE APLICAÇÕES MÓVEIS COM REÚSO DE SOFTWARE BASEADO EM MODELAGEM ESPECÍFICA DE DOMÍNIO E ARQUITETURA ORIENTADA A SERVIÇOS

UMA ABORDAGEM PARA DESENVOLVIMENTO DE APLICAÇÕES MÓVEIS COM REÚSO DE SOFTWARE BASEADO EM MODELAGEM ESPECÍFICA DE DOMÍNIO E ARQUITETURA ORIENTADA A SERVIÇOS

A identificação desses Web Services, no entanto, não é uma tarefa simples e imediata. Em geral são utilizadas três abordagens para resolver esse problema: bottom-up, top-down, e middle-out. A estratégia bottom-up é focada na análise dos sistemas existentes, módulos das aplicações legadas e os pacotes das aplicações para selecionar os candidatos viáveis a fornecer uma funcionalidade que suporta o processo de negócio. Por outro lado, a estratégia top-down realiza a análise dos modelos de casos de usos de negócio no qual prevê a especificação dos serviços. Essa abordagem é referida como a análise dos processos de negócio para a decomposição do domínio em suas áreas funcionais, subprocessos, subsistemas, e casos de uso. A abordagem middle-out consiste na validação e identificação de outros serviços não contemplados pelas abordagens top-down e bottom-up. A middle-out fornece a ligação entre os objetivos de negócio e os da Tecnologia da Informação (TI) por meio da rastreabilidade dos serviços diretamente a um objetivo de negócio (PEREPLETCHIKOV et al., 2005) (MEIJLER et al., 2006).
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Developing de Broglie Wave

Developing de Broglie Wave

We have seen that the total wave superposed from the elect- romagnetic component waves generated by a traveling oscil- latory vaculeon charge, which together make up our particle, has actually the requisite properties of a de Broglie wave. It exhibits in spatial coordinate the periodicity of the de Broglie wave, by the wavelength Λ d , facilitated by a beat or de

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Reproductive parameters of Sindhi cows (Bos taurus indicus) treated with two ovulation synchronization protocols

Reproductive parameters of Sindhi cows (Bos taurus indicus) treated with two ovulation synchronization protocols

synchronization protocol, repeated every 24 hours. In each assessment, the largest follicle of each day with a diameter greater than 4 mm was measured by the ultrasound of the device itself to monitor the follicular growth and determine the maximum diameter of the dominant follicle (DF). After the second application of EB (day 9), the animals were assessed by ultrasound twice daily (every 12 hours) until ovulation was detected, and then subjected to FTAI 36 hours later. The reproductive parameters evaluated were: emergence of follicular wave (days); interval between wave emergence and ovulation (days); interval between wave emergence and implant removal (days); interval between implant removal and ovulation (hours); diameter of DF at the time of implant removal (mm); maximum diameter of DF (mm); growth rate of DF (mm/day); ovulation rate (%); and pregnancy rate (%). Pregnancy diagnosis was performed by ultrasonography (CHISSON ® D600 VET) 55
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RUN   Dissertação de Mestrado   Jose Tempero

RUN Dissertação de Mestrado Jose Tempero

- O PVP dos novos medicamentos genéricos a entrar nos grupos homogéneos deviam ser inferiores em 3% relativamente ao PVP do medicamento genérico de preço mais baixo, com pelo menos 1[r]

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