Mechanisms through which dietary fiber is believed to facilitate weightmanagement include enhancement of satiation and suppression of between-meal appetite . Dietary fiber may influence appetite through the characteristics it imparts to food and also through physiologic effects in the individual. For example, high fiber foods may provide bulk, leading to gastric distention, which creates a sense of satiety . Consistent with this, enhanced satiety and/or reduced appetite were in fact identified in most of the studies measuring this outcome [14, 15, 17, 19, 20, 23, 25]. It is noteworthy that only one of these studies  was conducted in overweight patients. All four studies in which dietary fiber was not associated with satiety/appetite were conducted in healthy, normal weight subjects [13, 22, 24, 27].
way. In the present studies, several functional food ingredients which have reported positive effects on weightmanagement were combined to achieve negative caloric balance. This may be useful for weightmanagement from various aspects based on their mechanisms of action. Daily consumption of this combination has been shown in the present studies to increase energy expenditure, which may be caused by improving caloric metabolism, As a result, body weight, waist circumference and other anthropometric parameters seem to be significantly reduced. These results suggest that a combination of the ingredients in TAIslim System may work in collaboration to increase PPEE, with effects lasting until the next meal time. Based upon the reported effects of the formulated individual ingredients [2-4, 12-24] and current study results, it is suggested to provide increased metabolism/thermogenesis. Although these effects may be exhibited by the hypothesis that TAIslim increased fat burning, decreased absorption of dietary fats and starches by inhibiting lipase and amylase enzymes, improved insulin sensitivity, appetite suppression, blood lipid reduction, blood glucose control and remodeling of intestinal flora to eliminate those implicated in obesity, it is left to a future studies to show such effects, as we have not measured these blood markers including cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, the satiety- inducing gut hormones and visceral fat content, except for fasting blood glucose level. It is assumed that these additional parameters might be influenced by taking TAIslim System products based on various previously published studies [2-4, 12-28] for each ingredient. Due to the limitation of the current pilot trials, extended scale of the study is necessary to confirm the effects found in the current trials, and furthermore, more detailed analysis of several key blood biochemical markers, such as CCK, adiponectin, blood lipids, and other related indications are needed to confirm the above hypothesis and the mechanism of the actions.
Lifestyle Wellness Program (LWP) is a 12-week weightmanagement intervention developed by Eli Lilly Labora- tories for controlling weight gain for individuals with schizophrenia under antipsychotic use . The pro- gram consists of a one-hour weekly session to discuss topics like dietary choices, lifestyle, physical activity and self-esteem with patients and their relatives . The program combines behavioural techniques such as the use of diaries and role play to dealing with stress, and psychoeducation components including awareness of dietary habits. The intervention is comprised by 12 sessions as follows: a) one session for the introduction of the intervention; b) four sessions for discussing dietary choices using the concept of the food pyramid; c) three sessions for discussing the importance of physical activ- ity; d) one session for self-esteem and motivation; e) one session for management of anxiety; and f) one session opened to relatives, and h) the wrap up of the program . The inclusion of relatives may be a particular fea- ture of the program for countries where most of the patients live with their families as is the case in Brazil. The groups are led by mental health professionals (nurses, occupational therapists, psychologists and dietitians), who are trained with a manual and a set of DVDs explaining the program.
The foregoing suggests that EP activity may serve as selective and efficient target for treating metabolic disorders. Whereas complete inhibition of EP would cause the undesirable effects seen in patients affected by CEP, partial inhibition should diminish the efficiency of energy absorption via the gastrointes- tinal (GI) tract. A 15–20% reduction in the daily absorption of energy deriving from both proteins and fatty acids should have a significant impact on long-term weightmanagement, and it should be a more effective weight-control measure than a treatment based only on pancreatic lipase inhibitors such as Xenical or Alli. It should be noted that these drugs promote the accumulation of undigested lipids in the intestinal tract, resulting in leaky stool and diarrhea. An added advantage of partial EP inhibition is that the mixture of undigested lipids and proteins would be more consistent than just fat, arguably diminishing or suppressing the above unpleasant effects.
This is the largest real-world pragmatic multicentric national study of a non-pharmacological intervention for weightmanagement involving 1071 patients with schizophrenia and other severe mental disorders from 93 health services distributed all over the country. We found a signiicant weight and waist circumference reduction. However, the magnitude of the reduction in weight (0.41kg) and waist (1cm in female and 0.8cm in male) was small and the clinical impact of this change is questionable.
The improvements obtained in the animals fed the supplemented ractopamine diet can be linked to the deviation of the nutrients to muscle tissue deposition, which requires fewer nutrients to synthesize one tissue unit compared to fat tissue (Moser et al., 1986). Moreover, the increase in protein deposition (due to a 35% water aggregate) is the main factor that justifies the increase in daily weight gain associated with the improved feed:gain ratio. Thus, the addition of ractopamine in finishing pig diets improves the efficiency of nutrient use (Marinho et al., 2005). The interaction between ractopamine supplementation and feed management on metabolism parameters was not significant (P>0.05) at the 14 th day (Table 3). The
Performance management processes have come to the fore in the recent years as means of providing a more integrated and continuous approach to the management of performance than was provided by previous isolated and often inadequate merit rating or performance appraisal schemes. Performance management is based on the principle of management by agreement or contract rather than management by command. It emphasizes the integration of individual and corporate objectives as well as the initiation of self managed learning development plans. It can play a major role in providing for an integrated and coherent range of human resource
- The management of the company understands that analysis of the jobs is an important factor to discover the causes of underperformance and the fact that, by signing the job description, responsibility is also given to the employee. Only if he knows he has some responsibility, the employee may be sanctioned for underfulfillment of tasks. It is worth mentioning that, in the area of railway transport, underfulfillment of some tasks may result in high losses both for the company and for the third parties that are involved.
The sludge containing concretes appears economically attractive given the low prices of raw industrial wastes. Wide scale application of this method can significantly improve the environmental situation in industrial regions. Utilization of sludge ash as raw materials in the production of pellet aggregates was reported by Bhatty et al. (1992), who observed a lower aggregate specific gravity and hence a better strength-to-weight ratio with no adverse effects on concrete strength. SSA has been used in mortars , concrete mixtures , in brick manufacture , as a fine aggregate in mortars , and in asphalt paving mixes . J.Monzo et. al observed that control paste has shorter initial and final setting times than pastes containing SSA. In addition, an increase of both setting times is observed when percentages of SSA do. SSA improves mortar strength at early curing time. Studies conducted By R. Khanbilvar showed that the design strength is still attainable for up to 30% (by weight) ash replacement.
Favorable factors for promoting energetic efficiency in Romania are represented by the law, institutions and existing regulations, the relatively high price of energy and fuels. Unfavorable factors (which paradoxically outperforms favorable factors) are owned to the fact that energetic efficiency is downplayed, the responsible institutions are not very active, the energetic efficiency programs are only declarative, without any practical outcome, energy audits are formal, unstimulating penalties, bad management, difficult financing.
The results of the present study show that rats fed a high-fat diet for 15 weeks had a 22.8% increase in final body weight and an 89% increase in body fat compared with control animals. The difference in body weight be- tween groups was observed after two weeks of obesity induction (Figure 1). Although the obese group ingested less food, the higher weight gain exhibited by these ani- mals was most likely due to their increased calorie intake and feed efficiency. In addition, the obese rats developed metabolic abnormalities that are typically associated with obesity, e.g., glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia. These findings are consistent with other studies that have reported that diet-induced obesity dis- plays several characteristics commonly related to human and experimental obesity (7,19).
Experiment 2, carried out with the PP line, evaluated the effect of egg weight on embryo development. Eggs were collected for 4 periods of 5 consecutive days, with two-week intervals, and 4 incubations were conducted. Egg storage and incubation were managed as described in Experiment 1. In each period, a total number of 960 eggs were individually weighed, identified, separated in 4 groups of 240 eggs (replicates) as a function of weight, and stored in the cold chamber for subsequent incubations. At 9 (EW9), 11 (EW11), 13 (EW13), 15 (EW15), and 17 (EW17) days of incubation, eggs were collected. The live embryos were removed from the eggs, dried in absorbent paper, and individually weighed. On day 18, the remaining eggs were transferred to the hatcher, and separated in trays placed in individual cages, where they remained until day 21, when the hatched chicks were weighed (EW21).
Human resource in training, especially graduates of economics, law, administrative sciences and technical sciences could benefit by a casuistry in real terms and practical examples from real economy. At the same time the teachers from several universities in the country could also benefit by an actual training program in order to obtain a certificate for management business trainer in Europe.
70 www.hrmars.com/journals public funding of advisory services for such farmers may still remain the only viable option. It is also interesting to note that farmer groups and individual farmers are among the important providers of some advisory services. For example, significant share of nonbeneficiaries and Fadama II beneficiaries received agricultural marketing advisory services from fellow farmers. This demonstrates the important role that farmers play in providing advisory services. Radio and TV also play an important role in providing some advisory services. Crop management practices, livestock management practices, improved crop varieties, and agricultural marketing are mostly provided by radio/TV (Table 1&2). Fadama II has used radio and TV programs to promote various technologies. Radio is an especially important tool for disseminating advice on agricultural technologies (Nwaerondu and Thompson, 1987). Radio communication is becoming increasingly important in rural areas where ownership of private FM radios continues to spread. The major challenge for the use of the mass media is to ensure that programs are accessible to all listeners by using local languages in rural areas. Adamawa Fadama II has used local languages on the local radios/TVs to disseminate information to the benefiting communities.
missing gestational age or birth weight or gender, and 545 outliers (0.05%) according to previous inclusion criterion , were subsequently removed. Finally the procedure proposed by Alexander et al.  was adopted to screen records with implausible combinations of gestational age and birth weight. Specifically, gestational age distributions were examined for each 125 g interval of birth weight for preterm infants aged 28–32 weeks. Gestational age values of +/22.5 standard deviations from the mean were used as cutoffs for implausible records. Under a normal distribution, the cutoffs roughly correspond to the 1 st and 99 th percentiles. In Alexander et al. , manual adjustments of the gestational age ‘‘by a week or more’’ were conducted for certain birth weight intervals. We did not perform such adjustments, due to the infrequent occurrence of abnormal observations. Following this procedure, a total of 7,319 newborns (0.66%) were removed from downstream analysis, yielding a final sample size of 1,105,214 for this study.
Approximately 95% of the lambs were vigorous after birth; they took on average 26 (± 17.8) min to stand up and 40 (± 12.8) min to first feeding (Table 1). Latency time to stand up and have the first feeding were positively correlated (r = 0.88, p < 0.0001), while the lamb vigor tended to be negatively related to latency to stand up (r = -0 45, p < 0.10). It is important for lambs to be able to stand up and show proper search behavior for the udder since they are born with limited energy reserves and require colostrum immediately after birth to survive. Most lambs take less than 30 min to stand up after birth, and 60% ingest colostrum within the first two hours of life (Nowak, Keller, Val-Laillet, & Lévy, 2007). A short time to first feeding is desirable because the survival rate is enhanced for the lambs that stand out and quickly ingest milk (Dwyer et al., 2003). This is due to the fact that lambs with low birth weight have little tissue of body reserves; they are less vigorous at lambing; they have a lower body temperature and they take longer time to stand up and ingest the colostrum (Dwyer & Morgan, 2006). Darwish and El-Bahr (2007) also observed that the increase in lamb´s birth weight was associated with the speed to stand up and ingest colostrum. Assessing the amount of time lambs spend to stand up and suckle, Aita et al. (2012) observed that lambs spent between 5 and 58 min (mean 21 min) and between 9 and 120 min (mean 60 min), respectively, after birth, whereas Rech et al. (2008) reported an average of 23 min (9-62 min) to lift up and 10 min (3-30 min) to suckle.