The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of organic farming of winegrapes under physical and chemical characteristics of Ultisol Brazil’s northeastern semiarid region. The samples of soil were collected from the row and interrow of the farming and from the fallow area, at the depths of 0.0-0.10, 0.10- 0.20, 0.20-0.30 and 0.30-0.60 m. The samples were collected at six and twelve months after the culture implementation to evaluate the state of aggregation, bulk density and total soil porosity, flocculation index and organic matter contents, calcium, magnesium, and sodium. The results were submitted to statistical analysis. The adoption of organic farming contributed to the soil aggregation process. The bulk density and total soil porosity did not differ significantly between the evaluations, but were within the critical limits for sandy soils. The index flocculation did not have a great influence on the aggregates formation, being this process influenced by organic matter. The period of one year was considered short to obtain conclusive results in improving the soil quality by organic farming, since there are difficulties in tropical soils in promoting significant increases in organic matter content in short time.
Although ‘VR 043-43’ rootstock showed few disadvantages such as difficulties in grafting establishment and slightly lowering of soluble solids content, it could be recommended in areas infested by “Perola da Terra” scale (Eurhizococcus brasiliensis), considering that this rootstock showed similar cluster yield of grapevines grafted on ‘Paulsen 1103’, one of the most used rootstock in Southern of Brazil, for winegrapes.
The corridor area of Gansu Province is one of the most important wine grape growing regions in China, and this strip of land results in a significant difference in terms of terroir between its regions. Chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of the main wine grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivated in the corridor area of Gansu Province in northwest China were compared. Three regions (Zhangye, Wuwei, and Jiayuguan) were selected to explain the influence of soil and climate conditions on the quality of winegrapes. This study aims to investigate the effect of different regions on berry composition and antioxidant capacity, providing a general evaluation of red and white winegrapes quality in the corridor area of China. The results showed that ‘Merlot’ grapes grown in Zhangye had the best quality among the different varieties in the three regions of Gansu evaluated. The moderate temperature and nitrogen deficiency were associated with improved fruit quality. It was identified that the most suitable grape variety from Zhangye is ‘Merlot’, and that ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Italian Resling’ are the most suitable varieties from Wuwei and Jiayuguan, respectively.
Minas Gerais is a state in Southeast Brazil, where grapes are traditionally cropped during the summer season. Trials were conducted with some Vitis vinifera varieties in the South of the state (a traditional coffee growing region) to identify new regions of Minas Gerais that could offer better ecological conditions to grow grapevines. 'Syrah' is a variety that during the last few decades has been imported for cultivation in several countries. The preliminary results suggested that 'Syrah' showed good performance when the harvest was changed from January (summer) to July (win- ter) (AMORIM et al. 2005). However, in that trial the per- formance of Syrah growing under the winter cycle was not compared with a traditional summer growing season. In this context, the present work compared some agronomical and ecophysiological responses of ﬁeld-grown grapevines in two different growing seasons: the ﬁrst from August to January (the cycle normally adopted in the main Brazilian vineyards), and the second, from January to July, a period with dry weather conditions, to evaluate the viability for production of winegrapes with improved quality in South of Minas Gerais.
Grapes have a complex microbial ecology including ﬁlamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria with different physiological characteristics and effects upon wine production. Some species are only found in grapes, such as parasitic fungi and environmental bacteria, while others have the ability to survive and grow in wines, constituting the wine microbial consortium. This consortium covers yeast species, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The proportion of these microorganisms depends on the grape ripening stage and on the availability of nutrients. Grape berries are susceptible to fungal parasites until véraison after which the microbiota of truly intact berries is similar to that of plant leaves, which is dominated by basidiomycetous yeasts (e.g. Cryptococcus spp., Rhodotorula spp. Sporobolomyces spp.) and the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. The cuticle of visually intact berries may bear microﬁssures and softens with ripening, increasing nutrient availability and explaining the possible dominance by the oxidative or weakly fermentative ascomy- cetous populations (e.g. Candida spp., Hanseniaspora spp., Metschnikowia spp., Pichia spp.) approaching har- vest time. When grape skin is clearly damaged, the availability of high sugar concentrations on the berry surface favours the increase of ascomycetes with higher fermentative activity like Pichia spp. and Zygoascus hellenicus, including dangerous wine spoilage yeasts (e.g. Zygosaccharomyces spp., Torulaspora spp.), and of acetic acid bacteria (e.g. Gluconobacter spp., Acetobacter spp.). The sugar fermenting species Saccharomyces cerevisiae is rarely found on unblemished berries, being favoured by grape damage. Lactic acid bacteria are minor partners of grape microbiota and while being the typical agent of malolactic fermentation, Oenococcus oeni has been seldom isolated from grapes in the vineyard. Environmental ubiquitous bacteria of the genus Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Bacillus spp., Burkholderia spp., Serratia spp., Staphylococcus spp., among others, have been isolated from grapes but do not have the ability to grow in wines. Saprophytic moulds, like Botrytis cinerea, causing grey rot, or Aspergillus spp., possibly producing ochratoxin, are only ac- tive in the vineyard, although their metabolites may affect wine quality during grape processing.
Grapevine is one of the most common fruits growing in Portugal. They are well known for their sweet taste and juicy pulp. They grow during the summer and reach the maturation point around late August and early September. Grapes are very important due to their abundant applications. They can be consumed as a fresh or dried fruit or used to produce juice and wine (Perestrelo et al. 2018), granting numerous nutritional and health benefits for humans. They have also high value in some pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries due to their high content of antioxidants in form of polyphenols (Agudelo-Romero et al. 2015, Agudelo- Romero et al. 2013). It is important to define the characteristics of each grapevine variety since they are all different. Even when they belong to the same variety, growing in different locations can show different properties depending on the environmental conditions to which it is exposed. Also, in the same location, the same variety can show different characteristics during the years (Zarrouk et al. 2016).
The incidence and populations of LAB on grapes were very low on both healthy and sour rotten grapes. Detectable populations were only found from the middle of ripening phase: 0.87 and 1.42 MPN/mL (average of both vine sets), in case of sound and rotten grapes, respectively (Table 6). However, at the harvest time, results showed a slight trend for higher counts in damaged grapes, increasing from 0.63 MPN/mL (vine set B) to 1.71 MPN/mL (average of both vine sets). In this study we were only able to isolate Enterococcus species from the surface of both sound and rotten grapes even after using enrichment cultures. Likewise, E. durans were one of the most frequently isolated species in a broad study on the bacteria associated with winegrapes cultivated in Australia (Bae et al., 2006), and other authors have already described the isolation of E. faecium from surface of grape berries at harvest (Renouf et al., 2005) or grape must (Marcobal et al., 2004). In fact, the association of Enterococcus species with the surface of plants, soil, and agricultural environments is well documented (Chen et al., 2005). The usual LAB of wine (Oenococcus oeni, Lactobacillus spp., Pediococcus spp.) were not detected. Other reports showed their rarity in sound or damaged grapes, with counts usually lower than 10 2 CFU/g (Bae et al., 2006; Francesca et al., 2011), which justifies the use of enrichment cultures for their current detection (Bae et al., 2006; Renouf et al., 2005; Renouf et al., 2007). LAB are regarded as anaerobic and nutritively fastidious (Hammes and Hertel, 2009), probably unable to compete with yeasts and acetic acid bacteria under the aerobic conditions of the grape berry.
The sampling phase intended to gather a large sample of wine tourism apps promoting a speci ﬁc region for comparison with those of their international competitors. A few criteria to collect comparable data sets were predetermined in the sampling procedure, notably that the apps represent a wine region. Also, the apps should be downloadable in the Google Play Store, free of charge and in the English language. Only Android apps were selected, mainly because more Android smartphones are in circulation than iPhones ( Forni and Van der Meulen, 2016 ), as well as because the content and functionality features of Android apps are reportedly superior to those of iPhone apps ( Arruda-Filho and Lennon, 2011 ). Apps that had not been downloaded at least once were marked as irrelevant and excluded from the analysis.
This paper presents an internship at Balnaves of Coonawarra winery and describes the specialties of the wine region trough the current technologies both in winemaking and viticulture. The biggest concern of the region is the global warming increasing average temperature and CO2 content in the air which can effect on grape maturity, and increase oenological parameters such as pH, sugar and alcohol level. Thus, temperature influences grape development, especially the breakdown of acids and berry color development. In this study, a Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) vintage 2018 harvested with high maturity level and potential alcohol was monitored during alcoholic and malolactic fermentation. Oenological parameter were collected from the date of harvest to investigate the possibility of quality optimization and reduction of microbiological spoilage. To overcome the problem of high sugar media and high pH must corrections were made. The organoleptic results showed minimal difference in the evaluated wines qualities concluding that with using correct winemaking technologies wine quality can be increased in case of overripe grape harvest. This is a promising view on winemaking in climate change; considering Balnaves of Coonawarra winemaking technologies could increase fermentation efficiency and closing the gap for potential spoilage in wine.
The impact of social media plays a vital role in the wine industry. Day by day, social media is becoming a significant part of the marketing strategies in the wine industry in any country in the World. Based on the research of Portuguese wine sector in digital marketing, I found out that the use of social media still in the initial stage and not just in Portugal. According to Wilson & Quinton (2012), and Dean & Forbes (2016), wine-oriented companies currently do not optimize their value creation through social media. The wine industry tries to understand how social media can help to improve the business and that existence with proper marketing strategies are essential in social media to be competitive in the market. Each day marketing getting more complicated and more competitive in any sector and the wine sector is one of the most competitive in the World. The wineries need to follow trends and understand which marketing tools are the most important in the market. According to Flint (2016), whereas social media are becoming well entrenched in the wine industry, the wineries will begin to leverage and master it more. Consumers want to engage with wine experience, and social media can provide it, to be always in touch with customers.b
Cambourne & Macionis, 2000). The “wine tou- rism” is a marketing opportunity for producers to sell their products, directly to consumers, but also to educate them (Getz & Brown, 2006). According to Yoo, Saliba, MacDonald, Prenzler, and Ryan (2013), many studies have revealed the potential health benefits of wine, contributing, at the same time, to a better perception of wine as a healthy product.
Most of viticultural aspects that are influenced by using one of the mentioned strategies/techniques can be measured and sometimes predicted, even if takes several years to perform the measurement; on contrary, the aspects involving fruit and wine quality are difficult to be measured and/or predicted - as there are too many factors that have a determinant influence in wine quality (factors regarding viticulture, biochemistry, chemistry, sensorial, cultural and hedonic perception) some other factors related to wine quality also, are too subjective to be described and measured in an accurate way. Viticulture should be complementary to winemaking and may determine wine producing goals, through being able to pursue the strategies needed to obtain fruits that are able to produce the intended wine; but then, viticulture should also be useful to typify the virtues of the grapes produced in a particular vintage in order to predict the quantity and the qualities of the wines that can be produced with those fruits. Extensive and more complex relationship between viticulture and winemaking should be pursued in order to aid the decisions of the winemakers but also to empower their decisions, that is, to provide enough information to the winemakers in order that render them able to consciously make decisions leading to produce the wines they want.
After identifying the types of wine consumers, their perceptions on wine labels and packaging were analysed. Firstly, it was possible to conclude that the four groups value the informational elements on wine label significantly differently. Experts, in particular, is the segment that marketers should give more attention to when creating a wine label, given that, comparing with the other groups, they gave greater importance to most of the informational elements. This conclusion goes against Ellis & Caruana´s (2018, p.81) assumption that: “wines targeting experts may not need to provide detailed information on the label because these consumers will actually know what they are acquiring and do not need to be told much more”. Additionally, it is important to point out that the Expert group, composed mainly by men with 65 years old or older found the following elements extremely important: “Grape variety”, “Vintage” and “Brand name”.
The phrase ‘keep well’ appeared as a generic term. Also, words such as clean, not pitted, whole, etc. were grouped together. The table grape can last among one week and 10 days after being harvested. This period is only indicative given that conservation depends on a range of factors such as maturity, care taken during harvest, transport, temperature of warehousing, packaging etc. In perfect conditions, the grape can be kept for up to two or three months according to the variety. As such, consumers clearly want a well- presented and robust grape, which might be difficult to provide given the perishable and delicate nature of the fruit. Related to seeds, the data obtained from the sensory analyses carried out in the taste tests corroborate that already expressed, specifically that pips are undesirable in grapes. The seedless varieties, Flame and Sugraone, gained average scores significantly superior for ‘seed’ characteristics compared to varieties that contain seeds. Skin texture, size of grape and the presence of seeds (in quantity or size) are intrinsic characteristics of the variety. However, through modern growing techniques some aspects can be improved. For example, covering the clusters on the vine intensifies the taste, aroma and colour of the grape (Martinez, 1997), or by using hormones one can induce seedlessness or increase the size of the grapes (Pommer et al., 1996). The presence of green grapes (which are more acidic) in the market place, usually occurs at the beginning of the season, when the prices are more attractive for the producer and the seller. This produces, on the whole, negative effects on consumption, for when the consumer tries green, unripe grapes, he/she will not return to buy more for several days, as he/she is waiting for the grapes to ripen. This can cause a significant decline in consumption over several days, or it can cause outright rejection in the future, as the consumer thinks that the acidity is due to the variety (Domingo & Herrera, 1970).
No que diz respeito à distribuição e os canais de comunicação da Living-Wine, de acordo com o inquérito realizado aos 52 clientes, verificou-se que cerca 63% das pessoas conhecem a loja online, o que representa um bom indicador de performance da loja. Segundo as proprietárias, não se conseguiu chegar a um consenso quanto a esta questão tendo-se obtido as respostas de “suficiente” e “muito boa”. Esta performance poderá ser melhorada. Para isso, dever-se-á apostar no aumento do número de clientes que conhecem esta “segunda loja”, através da inclusão do endereço da loja online e uma mensagem alusiva à mesma aquando do envio de mail shot para a base de dados de clientes para promoção de eventos e novos produtos.
Price is an important cue for quality when few other cues are available, when the product cannot be assessed or when the risk of making the wrong choice is high. For example, consumers may assume higher price and quality when they see wines marked as “reserve” (Hollebeek, Jaeger, Brodie and Balemi, 2007), and expect a lower price or price discounts to wines without those elements. Also, almost every study conducted regarding wine attributes, consider price as the major determinant for consumer purchase decisions (Batt and Dean, 2000; Brochado and Martins, 2008; Hollebeek et al., 2007; Hristov and Kuhar, 2014; Tustin and Lockshin, 2001). Much research about price influence in the wine industry was conducted previously because it was one of the main factors that wineries used to distinguish themselves. Premium prices and price discounting are the main marketing strategies adopted in retail (Quester and Smart, 1998; Tustin and Lockshin, 2001), because that way wineries can reach both the consumer that is willing to pay higher prices (Trustin and Lockshin, 2001) and the consumer who purchase wine less frequently (Batt and Dean, 2000).
the recipe, the cooking process or even around the selection of local vegetables, wild edible flowers, etc. Furthermore, it was during the service when the staff can talk more with the guests about the wine subject, observing their interest on it, introducing I Pini wines (the different labels and vintages), recommending according their preferences, the occasion and the dishes. It has been encouraged the inclusion of different vintages of I Pini wine labels in the menu (before it was served only one vintage of each wine) as a way to diversify the offer once only the wines produced by the Agrivilla are available at the restaurant. Additionally, restaurant service duties includes to keep the place (cleaning, decoration, etc.), prepare the menu board every day, place and polish glasses and cutlery, control and replacing of stock of drinks. D. Wine tastings: Finally, when all the basic services were properly organized and incorporated to the work routine, other activities such as wine tastings could started to be promoted and conduced. From a basic script written last year, a complete story board has been developed basing a tour in the vineyards followed by the winetasting, which can be adapted according the interest and knowledge level of the clients (the wine cellar is not opened for visiting because it is being renewed). The tasting in itself was structured to contemplates four wines (Stappo, two vintages of Vernaccia and one Toscovivo or Stappo, Vernaccia and two vintages of Toscovivo, depending the interest of the client). Also, together with the Chef, it was created a snack plate (which go regularly along with the wines) and an optional “vegan cheese” plate (to be included for an additional price), encouraging some pairing experience.
The ancients explained the boiling during fermentation (from the Latin fervere, to boil) as a reaction between substances that come into contact with each other during crushing . In the XVII century, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek analyzed yeast in beer wort using a microscope, but the relationship between yeast and alcoholic fermentation wasn´t establish. Only in the end of the XVIII century Lavoisier started the study of yeasts and alcoholic fermentation , when with his studies in wine and beer gave a true credibility to the viewpoint of alcoholic fermentation. His studies showed that the yeasts responsible for spontaneous fermentation of grape must came from the surface of the grape . He even conceived the view that the strain of the yeast could influence the characteristics of the wine and that the yeast during fermentation also produced other products such as glycerol in addition to alcohol and carbon dioxide.
The wine market is an excellent example of monopolistic competition, demonstrating both vertical and horizontal product differentiation. The propensity toward monopolis- tic competition and the asymmetric preferences of wine consumption can justify the coexistence of different sized wineries. The main goal of this chapter is to analyze the economic performance of wineries, using indicators widely employed in economic and business literature, and to assess the potential influence of size on firm’s performance. To achieve this goal, different statistical tests are applied to firms´ data collected from two representative Portuguese demarcated wine regions (Douro and Vinho Verde). The results confirm that the wine firm’s performance is a multidimensional construct, exhibiting similarities and differences, according to the index used. The size of firms increases their export performance but exhibits a nonstatistical effect on the financial performance. The indices of productivity and productive efficiency show that there is no standard behavior. The results of this study can be useful both for managers and public decision-makers, given the importance of controlling economic performance in order to guarantee the industry’s competitiveness in an increasingly globalized wine business. Keywords: competitiveness, demarcated wine regions, economic performance, size, wine industry, monopolistic competition