Wing imaginal disc

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Dpp signaling activity requires Pentagone to scale with tissue size in the growing Drosophila wing imaginal disc.

Dpp signaling activity requires Pentagone to scale with tissue size in the growing Drosophila wing imaginal disc.

We used our data to further test a model that was recently proposed to explain the uniform growth in the wing imaginal disc [37]. The model poses that the temporal changes in Dpp signaling levels drive tissue growth; cells divide when they experience a relative increase of 50% in the levels of Dpp signaling. Since it is the relative differences and not the absolute amount of Dpp signal that regulate cell divisions, the model can account for the uniform growth of the wing disc. Since the relative increase in Dpp activity slows down, the cell cycles lengthen as the disc grows. Growth stops when the cell division time exceeds 30 h. The model of Wartlick et al. is based on the finding that Dpp activity scales with tissue size and that cells at a given relative position experience increasing levels of Dpp signaling over time. In contrast, we do not observe a general temporal increase in the level of Dpp signaling at a given relative position in our study. P-Mad is the most upstream and the most dynamic readout available for the activity of the Dpp pathway and we find that the relative increase in P-Mad levels throughout development is not significantly different from zero at most relative positions (in Figure S13A–A9, almost all the error bars (95% confidence interval) cross the value Dc/c = 0). Why is the increase in Dpp-GFP levels not reflected in P-Mad levels? A potential explanation for this might be that the observed accumu- lation of Dpp-GFP was due to the stability and accumulation of Gal4 since Dpp-GFP was under UAS control [37]. The authors showed that the half-life of the Dpp-GFP fusion protein is only 20 min, but the Gal4 stability was not considered. Alternatively, the system could get desensitized over time and more and more Dpp would be required to lead to similar P-Mad levels. Finally, increases in Dad levels could counteract the increase in Dpp levels, since Dad is an inhibitory Smad [14,56].
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Detection of genetically altered copper levels in Drosophila tissues by synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microscopy.

Detection of genetically altered copper levels in Drosophila tissues by synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microscopy.

when copper transport genes are manipulated. Localization of correlation regions derived from colocalization analyses in Figure 4. Splines (green circles in A, C, E, G) were drawn around specific regions of Cu-Zn colocalization clusters for a wild-type wing imaginal disc (A, C) and a pannier-GAL4/UAS dNCtr1A+UAS Ctr1B (E, G) disc. The GeoPIXE software then displays the location of these data points as green spots superimposed on the copper distribution map of the tissue analysed (B, D, F, H). A spline positioned at a moderate relative copper level (A) reveals pixels spread evenly across the wild-type disc (B). A spline positioned at a high relative copper level (C) reveals clustering at the margins of the wild-type disc (D). On a pannier-GAL4/UAS dNCtr1A+UAS Ctr1B disc, a spline positioned at a moderate relative copper level (E) also reveals an even spread of pixels (F) whereas a spline positioned at the high relative-copper cluster highlights exclusively the dorsal pannier domain of the disc where the genetic manipulations are targeted to. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0026867.g005
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Drosophila lipophorin receptors mediate the uptake of neutral lipids in oocytes and imaginal disc cells by an endocytosis-independent mechanism.

Drosophila lipophorin receptors mediate the uptake of neutral lipids in oocytes and imaginal disc cells by an endocytosis-independent mechanism.

and subsequently shown to be involved in insect lipid metabolism. In particular, the locust Lipophorin Receptor, by far the best characterized member of the family, was able to induce the endocytic uptake of labeled lipophorins when expressed in mammalian cells [42]. Moreover, it was required for the endocytosis of lipophorins by locust fat body cells [15,16]. Here, we generated several novel mutations in Drosophila which disrupted lpr1, lpr2 and, in view of a possible functional redundancy between Figure 6. Neutral lipid uptake does not require endocytosis. (A–B) Wing imaginal disc of Df(3R)lpr1/2 genotype expressing UAS-lpr2E in the posterior compartment driven by en-gal4. Neutral lipids were revealed by nile red staining (red). Lpr2E distribution was detected with a-HA antibody (green). Lipophorin distribution is shown in magenta to mark cell outlines. The wing imaginal disc is shown in a cross-section in (A), with the apical side at the top and the basal at the bottom. A basal section of the same disc is shown in (B). Note that Lpr2E expressing cells and two rows of adjacent non-expressing anterior cells (arrows) accumulate high levels of lipid droplets in a basal location. A line marks the limit of Lpr2E expression. Nile red staining is also shown in a separate panel (B’). (C–E) Detail of the somatic follicle epithelium (f) wrapping around the oocyte (o) in a stage 10 egg chamber dissected from a Df(3R)lpr1/2 female (C) and similar Df(3R)lpr1/2 mutant egg chambers overexpressing UASp-lpr2E in the germ-line driven by V32-gal4 (D) or UAS-lpr1J in the follicular epithelium driven by CY2-gal4 (E). Lpr2E and Lpr1J were detected with an a-HA antibody (green). The oocyte membrane was marked with a dotted line. Overexpressed proteins accumulated at the oocyte membrane (arrow in D) and at the apical region of the follicle cells (arrow in E). DAPI marks the cell nuclei (blue). Lipids are shown in grey as a separate channel (C’, D’ and E’). Note that expression of UASp-lpr2E in the nurse cells and oocyte induces an autonomous increase in lipid accumulation in these cells and also a non- autonomous rescue in the adjacent follicular epithelium (yellow arrows in D’). Expression of Lpr1J in the follicular epithelium rescues lipid accumulation in these cells to a similar extent (yellow arrows in E’). Note that the Df(3R)lpr1/2 egg chamber shown in (C) was dissected from young females in which a few egg chambers from each ovary escaped mid oogenesis degeneration. (F–G) Egg chambers stained with the lipophilic dye nile red (red) and DAPI (blue) to mark cell nuclei. (F) Wild-type genotype. Note the accumulation of lipids (arrow) in the nurse cells (n) and the auto- fluorescence of yolk proteins (Y) (in F’) in the DAPI channel within the oocyte (o). (G) rab 5
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Role of the Drosophila non-visual ß-arrestin kurtz in hedgehog signalling.

Role of the Drosophila non-visual ß-arrestin kurtz in hedgehog signalling.

The ability of Krz to interact with Smo in the Drosophila wing is very specific, as we did not observe any other alterations in the localization and activity of other receptors, such as Notch or EGFR. In this context, it is intriguing that the function of vertebrate b-arrestins has also been linked to Smo signalling in several experimental settings. First, b-arrestin 2 promotes Smo signalling by translocating this protein to the primary cilium in mouse NIH-3T3 cells [28,40]. Second, b-arrestin 2 promotes, upon GRK phosphorylation, the internalization of activated Smo in human embryonic kidney 293 cells [26]. Finally, b-arrestin 2 promotes Smo signalling in zebrafish embryos, and this seems to be a physiological function because it is detected in loss-of-function Figure 8. Interactions between Gprk2 and Krz in Smo signalling. (A) Wild type control wing. (B) Gprk2 loss-of-function phenotype resulting from iGprk2 over-expression in the wing blade (638-Gal4/+; UAS-iGprk2/+). (C) Krz gain-of-function phenotype resulting from UAS-krz over-expression in the wing blade (638-Gal4). (D) Genetic interaction between Gprk2 loss of expression and krz gain of expression. Over-expression of Krz when Gprk2 levels are reduced cause a strong Hh los-of-function (638-Gal4/+; UAS-iGprk2/+; UAS-krz/+). (E–F) Third instar wing discs over-expressing Krz and reducing Gprk2 levels in the dorsal compartment (ap-Gal4 UAS-GFP/+; UAS-iGprk2/+; UAS-krz/+) have a complete loss of Ptc (red in E) and En (red in F) expression in anterior-dorsal cells. E9–F9 correspond to the single red channels showing Ptc (E9) and En (F9) expression. (G–G9) Expression of Smo (in red) in wing discs reducing Gprk2 expression in the dorsal compartment (ap-Gal4/UAS-GFP; UAS-iGprk2/+; GFP in green). (H–H9) Expression of Smo (in red) in wing discs over-expressing Krz and reducing Gprk2 levels in the dorsal compartment (ap-Gal4 UAS-GFP/+; UAS-iGprk2/+; UAS-krz/+). Note the difference in Smo expression between G9 and H9. (I–J and O) Expression of Smo in third instar wing discs bearing clones of cells homozygous for the Gprk2 deficiency (I–I9) and for the Gprk2 deficiency in cells that also over-express Krz (J–J9). Panels O–O9 correspond to the same genotype as J–J9 at higher magnification. Clones were induced in hsFLP1.22 actin-Gal4 UAS-GFP/+; FRT82 Df(3R)Gprk2/FRT82 tub-Gal80 (I–I9) and in hsFLP1.22 actin-Gal4 UAS-GFP/+ ; FRT82 Df(3R)Gprk2/FRT82 tub-Gal80; UAS-krz/+ (J–J9 and O–O9). (K–M) Expression of Ptc (K), En (L) and Smo (M) in wing imaginal disc over- expressing an active form of Smo (Smo SD123
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Análise dos aspectos comportamentais através da ferramenta DISC

Análise dos aspectos comportamentais através da ferramenta DISC

Por outro lado há ainda o sentimento de parte dos profissionais de R e S de que, no caderno com a lista dos candidatos, não deve ter o perfil dos mesmos no que se refere aos aspectos comportamentais, sob a alegação de que isso influenciaria o selecionador. Ora, apesar de o argumento ser verdadeiro, ele não nos parece coerente com a proposta do DISC, que consiste em não simplesmente identificar se o indivíduo é adequado para a vaga, mas também, e principalmente, o grau dessa adequação. Em outras palavras, o que o selecionador deve buscar é identificar o nível de aderência DISC do candidato com cada um dos níveis de intensidade DISC requeridos pelo cargo. A questão não é selecionar um candidato, mas aquele que seja o mais adequado. A primeira filtragem quanto ao grau de adequação, em principio, já terá sido feito pelo sistema de triagem. Compete, agora, avaliar em grau de profundidade máxima o grau de adequação, o que só pode ser feito por um especialista em R e S. Até porque um processo seletivo de qualidade deveria constar:
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Queixas auditivas de disc jockeys da cidade de Recife.

Queixas auditivas de disc jockeys da cidade de Recife.

Objetivo: investigar a ocorrência de queixas auditivas em disc jockeys da cidade de Recife/PE. Método: foi realizada uma entrevista com 30 disc jockeys, com idade entre 19 e 28 anos, abordando informações ocupacionais, conhecimentos gerais sobre o ruído e queixas auditivas (diminuição da acuidade auditiva, desconforto a sons intensos, zumbido, sensação de ouvido abafado e otalgia). A análise foi realizada por meio de abordagem quantitativa, utilizando o teste estatístico t-student. Resultados: dentre os dados mais relevantes, destacam-se: 46,7% dos disc jockeys apresentaram, espontaneamente, queixas auditivas, em especial, a diminuição da acuidade auditiva (relatada por todos os sujeitos); 14 disc jockeys (46,67%) referiram desconforto a sons intensos e 13 (43,33%) mencionaram zumbido. Todos airmaram ter conhecimento sobre os riscos do ruído para a saúde auditiva, mas 76,7% não realizam qualquer medida preventiva de suas consequências. A perda audi- tiva foi referida pelos sujeitos como o principal risco da exposição a níveis intensos de pressão sonora. Conclusão: todos os disc jockeys apresentaram queixa de perda auditiva e, entre as demais queixas auditivas, destacaram-se o desconforto a sons intensos e o zumbido. Tendo em vista a irreversibili- dade da perda auditiva induzida por elevados níveis de pressão sonora, os disc jockeys devem ser periodicamente avaliados a im de que se conirme ou não a perda auditiva de que se queixaram e, caso ela exista, deve ser monitorada para que seja passível de intervenção pelo fonoaudiólogo. Desta forma, percebe-se a necessidade de atuação da Fonoaudiologia junto aos disc jockeys, uma vez que poder-se-á propiciar a otimização do exercício proissional com o mínimo de risco possível.
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Lat. Am. j. solids struct.  vol.13 número12

Lat. Am. j. solids struct. vol.13 número12

The aircraft used for the numerical application is a business jet responding to the EASA Certifica- tion Specifications Part 25. The aircraft top view is shown in Figure 2. The maximum vertical load factor is 2.5, whereas the chosen WCS is at the wing root. The aeroelastic model is made up of an aerodynamic model for Doublet Lattice Method (DLM) calculations, a dynamic model and a match- ing model (see Figure 3).The dynamic model is of stick-beam type for wing, fuselage and tail-planes while the junctions are modeled by means of direct matrix input simulating stiffness and inertia behaviour (Nastran DMIG matrices). Winglets and nacelles are considered rigid. The inertia is modelled by a set of concentrated masses with their own moments of inertia. The matching model – link between aerodynamics and structure – is made up of a set of grids (Interface Grids) for load and displacement interpolations.
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Lumbar herniated disc - endoscopic discectomy treatment

Lumbar herniated disc - endoscopic discectomy treatment

17. Anichini G, Landi A, Caporlingua F, Beer-Furlan A, Brogna C, Delfini R et al. Lumbar Endoscopic Microdiscectomy: Where Are We Now? An Updat- ed Literature Review Focused on Clinical Outcome, Complications, and Rate of Recurrence. Biomed Res Int 2015; 2015:417801. PMID: 26688809 18. Lee DY, Shim CS, Ahn Y, Choi YG, Kim HJ, Lee SH. Comparison of percu- taneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy and open lumbar microdiscecto- my for recurrent disc herniation. J Korean Neurosurg Soc 2009; 46:515-21. PMID: 20062565

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Role of the different actin genes during extrusion of capping protein mutant cells in the Drosophila wing blade epithelium

Role of the different actin genes during extrusion of capping protein mutant cells in the Drosophila wing blade epithelium

Not surprisingly, I found that, wing cells overexpressing either of the 6 actin-GFP isoforms promote excessive actin filaments formation highlighted by higher Phalloidin staining (see Results Fig. 4.2). This suggests that all actin fused to GFP are at least incorporated in actin filaments. However, the accumulation of actin filaments was found to be differential from one actin-GFP isoform to another (see Results Fig. 4.2). For instance, Actin 5C-GFP and 57B-GFP could promote excessive actin filaments at the basal surface of wing disc epithelium. In contrast, Actin 42A-GFP, 79B-GFP, 87E-GFP and 88F-GFP induced formation of excessive actin filaments at the apical surface of the wing disc epithelium. This indicates that each actin isoform incorporates in specific actin filament structures. For instance, Actin 5C and 57B might get incorporated in basal actin structures such as the stress fibers, while, Actin 42A, 79B, 87E and 88F might incorporate in more apical actin structures like the actin belt (Ursprung, 1972). Other actin-based structures have also been described in imaginal discs. Filopodia and lamellipodia have been shown to being located at basal and apical locations, respectively, in wing discs. Both these structures are involved in all motility and in cell-cell interaction. According to my data, Actin 5C and 57B are the isoforms that are preferentially observed basal, while 42A, 79B, 87E and 88F are mainly located apical. The hypothesis would be that the first isoforms would bundle into filopodia, while the second ones would do it to the lamellipodia. However, the level of my analysis was not accurate enough to verify this. Both these actin structures are very sensitive to the fixative protocols, therefore to verify these possibilities live imaging would be crucial.
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Wing-dimorphism and population expansion of Pterostichus melanarius (Illiger, 1798) at small and large scales in central Alberta, Canada (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Pterostichini)

Wing-dimorphism and population expansion of Pterostichus melanarius (Illiger, 1798) at small and large scales in central Alberta, Canada (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Pterostichini)

Patterns of Wing-Dimorphism in P. melanarius and A. retractum. Two-way ANO- VA showed a signiicant interaction between ‘Gradient’ and ‘Species’ (P < 0.001) for transformed data about %LW in these two species. he %LW individuals was sta- tistically higher for P. melanarius in rural sites than in either urban or suburban sites (Tukeys HSD, P<0.01) (Figure 1). Diferences between urban and suburban popula- tions were not as consistent (P = 0.070), although the average data certainly suggest existence of a gradient. here was no signiicant diference in the %LW for A. retractum across the gradient, suggesting that the clear pattern seen in P. melanarius did not re- sult from underlying environmental variables that generally afect light ability in local carabid populations. Also, we note that the %LW for P. melanarius was signiicantly higher than for A. retractum, but these means difered signiicantly only in rural sites (P < 0.001).
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Feedback Linearization Controller Of The Delta WingRock Phenomena

Feedback Linearization Controller Of The Delta WingRock Phenomena

Wing rock phenomena is a limit-cycle rolling motion by flight aircrafts with small aspect-ratio wings, or with long pointed forebodies at angles of attack [1]. thewing rock phenomenais studied by many researchers, because of its importance in the stability of an aircraft during attack maneuvers. It is also reported in [6] that the such phenomena does not have a limit cycle can happen at an 80/65 degree double delta wing.

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The Effect of Height, Wing Length, and Wing Symmetry on Tabebuia rosea Seed Dispersal

The Effect of Height, Wing Length, and Wing Symmetry on Tabebuia rosea Seed Dispersal

This investigation explores the relationship between dispersal and variations within Tabebuia rosea seeds under windless conditions. Some studies have looked at variations in mass and wing areas of seeds, either artificial seeds 3 or natural seeds 4 . No research was found on dispersal in Tabebuia species or on the seed variations used in this investigation. Other studies have concluded that taller trees have a greater distance of dispersal than shorter trees 5 . However, there is little information on dispersal from controlled drop heights, which allows a calculation of dispersal ratio. Dispersal ratio is defined as ratio of the horizontal distance and the vertical distance travelled by the seed as it falls.
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Ecos da poesia no leitor mirim.

Ecos da poesia no leitor mirim.

esse fascínio natural que a criança sente pela palavra e toda sua dinâmica imaginal normalmente fica reprimido na sala de aula, uma vez que os professores apreciam somente o valor funci[r]

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Hérnia discal: procedimentos de tratamento.

Hérnia discal: procedimentos de tratamento.

The disc herniation is a process where the fibrous ring disrupts, with subsequent central disc mass dislocation. It is considered a extremely common pathology, which causes disability. It is estimated that 2 to 3% of the population have taken with this process whose prevalence is 4.8% in males and 2.5% in female, over 35 years old. Environmental causes, posture, muscular imbalance and possibly genetic influence have been considered as risk factors. The conservative therapy has been preferred as the first choice treatment, aiming pain relief, increase of functional capacity and avoidment of disease progression. In this review, it is approached the main methodologies, according to the literature, focusing on drugs prescriptions, orthesis indication, acupunture, rest and a suitable exercise program.
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Automatic localization of the optic disc

Automatic localization of the optic disc

The second phase of the algorithm, which is new in the here in proposed solution, is either a validation or a recalculation of the disc position. When values of entropy are low, and in particular the absolute maximum of entropy or the entropy in the estimated OD location, the quality of the vascular segmentation is not reliable and a new estimate for disc position is searched for using mainly intensity criteria. For high values of entropy, the initial OD posi- tion is validated if all other local maxima of entropy occurring in different image locations show lower values when compared with the one corresponding to the current estimation for OD position. On the other hand, if several identical local maxima are found, the pro- cess for estimating the OD position is repeated once again using the full resolution image. A final post-processing phase is applied to a restricted region around the estimated position of the disc, in order to get the final OD location as the weighted centroid of the region formed by the combination of vessel and intensity segmentation location results. The main processing phases required for locating the OD are detailed in the following subsections.
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An unusual long-tailed pterosaur with elongated neck from western Liaoning of China

An unusual long-tailed pterosaur with elongated neck from western Liaoning of China

The specimen (IVPP V15113) is preserved in a grey- dark shale and most elements are exposed in dorsal view. The skull is exposed on its right side and com- pletely lacks the occipital and dorsal portions as well as part of the middle region, possible broken away dur- ing the collecting process. The anterior cervical verte- brae and parts of the left wing are also lacking. Bones tend to be flattened, a common condition of pterosaur material. The specimen is well articulated with almost all elements in their natural position, indicating that the carcass reached the bottom of the water column com- plete and remained practically undisturbed before final burial. The left wing is partially folded underneath the body and the left manus lies close to the right one. Some patches of soft tissue are preserved near the wing el- ements, particularly on the left side between the third and fourth wing phalanges. Although not as extremely well preserved as some other specimens from the Dao- hugou locality, Inner Mongolia, China (Wang et al. 2002, Kellner et al. 2009) and deposits from other countries (e.g., Wellnhofer 1991, Kellner and Campos 1999), the preserved material shows the structural fibers that are typical of the pterosaur wing (e.g., Unwin and Bakhu- rina 1994, Kellner 1996, Sayão and Kellner 2007).
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Factors Affecting the Oxygenation Capacity of Disc Aerators in an Oxidation Ditch System

Factors Affecting the Oxygenation Capacity of Disc Aerators in an Oxidation Ditch System

The disc also serves as an agitator. The liquid was caught by the edges of the holes and began to form eddies. As the disc rotated and holes left the liquid, a mass of eddies was brought above the surface of the liquid as shown in Fig. 8b. These eddies are considered as continually exposing fresh liquid surface to the air, then gliding swiftly away and mixing into the bulk of liquid. During the exposure of any portion of the liquid to air, transfer of oxygen occurs by molecular diffusion. The rate of production of fresh eddies was a function of the disc rotational speed. Deglon et al. (1998) stated that intermediate and high frequency eddies are better able to cause bubble breakup. They found that spinning nonperforated discs tend to generate low frequency eddies and recommended that spinning discs should be modified by adding grooves or cuts to the edges of discs to improve bubble breakup. In this study, the larger hole diameter and higher speed created high frequency eddies with improved bubble breakup and higher oxygen transfer. Oxygen transfer, from the atmosphere to the liquid body, may have also taken place at the liquid surface in the ditch due to the movement of water. The dissolved oxygen concentration of the surface layer would be higher than that of the bottom layer so that oxygen was transferred downwards. Eckenfelder (1959) found that surface aeration is the result of bubble breakup and the velocity gradients present at the liquid air interface. Increasing the disc speed increased water velocity at the surface layer and improved the oxygen transfer rate.
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Structural analysis of a variable-span wing-box

Structural analysis of a variable-span wing-box

Blondeau et. al. [21] designed and fabricated a three segmented telescopic wing for a UAV. Hollow fiberglass shells were used to preserve the span-wise aerofoil geometry and insure com- pact storage and deployment of the telescopic wing. To reduce the weight, they replaced the wing spars with inflatable actuators that could support the aerodynamic loads on the wing. Their telescopic spar design consisted of three concentric circular aluminium tubes of decreas- ing diameter and increasing length, connected by ceramic linear bearings, and deployed and retracted using input pressure. In a further development, Blondeau and Pines [22] adopted two identical telescopic spars instead of one mechanically coupled by the ribs, to prevent wing twist and fluttering. The new prototype could undergo a 230% change in aspect ratio, and seam heights were reduced giving less parasitic drag. In its fully deployed condition, the telescopic wing could achieve lift-to-drag ratios as high as 16, which was similar to its solid foam-core wing counterpart.
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Induce Drag Reduction of an Airplane Wing

Induce Drag Reduction of an Airplane Wing

Wind tunnel measurements using the constructed wing model without winglet and with winglet were done. The coefficient of lift and the coefficient of drag have been calculated from the experimental results. Also various graphs have been drawn to examine the measured and calculated data nature. The lift coefficient characteristics of the aircraft wing model under test are shown in Fig.5. The lift increases with increase in angle of attack to a maximum value and thereby decreases with further increase in angle of attack. The initial value of lift coefficient at zero angle of attack for a chord based Reynolds number 1.36 × 10 5 is 0.0185 instead of 0 because of inaccuracy during constructing the wing. The maximum value of the lift coefficient is 1.542 and this maximum values occur at an angle of attack of 10 degree. The experiments have been done up to an angle of attack of 16 degree. At the maximum angle of attack of 16 degree the lift coefficient is 0.931. The reason for a drop in lift coefficient beyond a certain angle of attack e.g. 10 degree is probably due to the flow separation, which occurs over the wing surface instead of having a streamlined laminar flow there. This condition is called stalling condition and the corresponding angle of attack is called stalling angle. The stalling angle happens to be approximately 10 degree. The lift coefficient data for slotted winglet for the three configurations i.e. configuration 1(winglet inclination 30 o ), configuration 2 (winglet inclination 60 o ), and configuration (winglet inclination 70˚) are given in Fig.5. In the case of the winglet for all configurations 1, 2, and 3 a similar pattern is observed. For the Reynolds number of 1.36x10 5 the maximum
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Avaliação comparativa entre valvoplastia percutânea e comissurotomia a céu aberto na estenose mitral.

Avaliação comparativa entre valvoplastia percutânea e comissurotomia a céu aberto na estenose mitral.

5 - Evolução do grau de insuficiência mitral no grupo valvoplastia no pré-procedimento (PRÉ), imediatamente após (POI) e após 12 meses de acompanhamento (PO12M). AUS- ausente; DISC- disc[r]

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