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Caatinga Tree Wood Anatomy: Perspectives on Use and Conservation

Caatinga Tree Wood Anatomy: Perspectives on Use and Conservation

From the perspective wood use determined herein by the anatomical characters, it was possible to observe that the four species have mainly civil construction and energy use purposes, except for T. aurea, which presented quantitative characteristics (such as RI) in carpentry and paper production, but qualitatively had this last purpose discarded given the high presence of parenchyma structures (Runkel, 1952; Foelkel & Barrichelo, 1975; Longui et al., 2009). The use of these species by human communities established in Caatinga areas has extrapolated the limits of their purposes (Silva et al., 2014), contributed to the reduction of vegetated areas (Araújo et al., 2007; Albuquerque et al., 2012) or stagnation in intermediate succession stages of the forests, as observed in Site 1 (Ferraz et al., 2013). However, there is a need for actions focused on detailed research in Caatinga areas (Albuquerque et al., 2012), mainly in relation to the use of the resources coming from this vegetation (Araújo et al., 2007; Araújo, 2011), as well as the adequate management of timber resources, which may have its quality compromised by the climatic conditions, in addition to anthropic action (cutting regime) (Figueirôa et al., 2006; Brand et al., 2016).
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UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE USE FOR WOOD CHIPS PILE VOLUME ESTIMATION

UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE USE FOR WOOD CHIPS PILE VOLUME ESTIMATION

In this work we are focusing on drone use in forestry but for one of the last stages of processing wood. Which is wood chips storing. Wood chips piles stored at the warehouse are constantly changing their volume and also the placement in the storage area. It is crucial to have information about the current volume and placement of the wood chips piles. We decided to verify the drone use to monitor the real state of the wood chips pile as an alternative to the currently used GNSS.

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EVALUATION OF THE Peltophorum vogelianum Benth. WOOD SPECIES FOR STRUCTURAL USE

EVALUATION OF THE Peltophorum vogelianum Benth. WOOD SPECIES FOR STRUCTURAL USE

Wood is a material used for various purposes since ancient times and is mainly used in civil and rural construction and industry. Due to the predatory exploitation of known trees, it is necessary to characterize new species for use in urban and rural structures as alternatives of species commonly used. This study aimed to determine the physical and mechanical properties of Guarucaia wood (Peltophorum vogelianum Benth.) based on the Brazilian standard ABNT NBR 7190 (1997) and estimate the strength and stiffness as a function of apparent density using the analysis of variance and also estimate stiffness as a function of its strength. The mechanical properties of P. vogelianum were considered compatible for structural use when compared with others used for the same purpose, being classified in the class C50 of dicotyledon species and evidencing the possibility of its use for structural purposes. According to the results of the poor quality in the fit of regression models in the statistical analysis, the strength and stiffness could not be estimated as a function of apparent density nor stiffness properties as a function of their respective strengths.
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Contexto para a utilização da madeira como sistema estrutural em edifícios habitacionais / Context for the use of wood as a structural system in housing buildings

Contexto para a utilização da madeira como sistema estrutural em edifícios habitacionais / Context for the use of wood as a structural system in housing buildings

Braz. J. of Develop., Curitiba, v. 6, n. 3, p. 9760-9775 mar. 2020. ISSN 2525-8761 structural element, in multi-storey buildings, for housing, in urban centers, as an alternative to the use of construction materials from non-renewable raw material sources, such as like concrete and steel. It seeks to demonstrate that the use of wood can positively impact the environment, local economies and the culture of civil construction, as it is a raw material from a renewable source and of unlimited supply, as long as its growth, harvest and production are managed. in a sustainable way. For this purpose, technical information about the behavior of this material is presented, which indicate, for example, great structural resistance and a high degree of efficiency and precision in the industrial process of prefabrication of elements, which enables lighter, faster and cleaner constructions, reducing waste.
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Development of Briquettes from Waste Wood (Sawdust) for Use in Low-income Households in Piura, Peru

Development of Briquettes from Waste Wood (Sawdust) for Use in Low-income Households in Piura, Peru

Another important piece of information reveals that 20.5% of the families go to the field to cut wood and 33.9% purchase and chop wood. They consider logging a risky activity that demands effort and long journeys. 45.7% of those who purchase firewood spend about 31% of their monthly income. Among them, 58.3% consider the ease of use and custom as the main benefit of using firewood or charcoal, while 33% consider performance as the main benefit. It should be noted that people are aware of the disadvantages caused by the use of firewood and charcoal to health (74%) and pollution (48%), with 36% expressing a degree of satisfaction with their use and 37% expressing a degree of indifference.
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WOOD RESOURCE BALANCE FOR PLANTATION FORESTS IN BRAZIL: RESOURCES, CONSUMPTION AND CASCADING USE

WOOD RESOURCE BALANCE FOR PLANTATION FORESTS IN BRAZIL: RESOURCES, CONSUMPTION AND CASCADING USE

According to the primary survey, the major part of WPR was sold for energy uses and supplied essentially “industry & farming” demand for heat and power. Even though major part of the available WPR was consumed for energy use, the survey also unveiled other material uses, e.g. on livestock. According to (Ceratto, 2016) for 1,000 poults 4.03 m³ of wood shavings are demanded for bedding purposes in Brazil. The reported poultry stock of 14.7 million animals in 2018 (IBGE, 2018c) could had figured as a relevant consumer of WPR for material use. However, the resource balance took into consideration only the hens stock of 246 million animals. Therefore, it was assumed that the hens’ population consumed around 1 million m³ of wood shavings in 2018, volume 18 % higher than for 2008.
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Elemental chemical composition of wood and charcoal from Coffea arabica for bioenergy use

Elemental chemical composition of wood and charcoal from Coffea arabica for bioenergy use

ABSTRACT: Coffee has a prominent position in Brazilian economy, especially in southern Minas Gerais, the main producing state. Despite extensive research involving coffee plantations, there is a lack in literature concerning wood and charcoal from Coffea arabica. There are currently 5.6 billion coffee trees in a 2.3 million hectare area, generating residues, such as fruit bark and wood, which have potential as renewable fuels. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the energetic potential of wood and charcoal from Coffea arabica in three cropping systems (organic, natural agroforestry and conventional) and two cultivars (Catuaí and Mundo Novo), by elemental chemical analysis. Carbonizations were carried out in an electric oven (muffle) with a final temperature of 450°C. The bioenergy use of wood from Coffea arabica, as well as of the charcoal from this plant, proved satisfactory based on inferences made from the elemental chemical composition of these fuels. In general, cultivation systems and cultivars little influenced the levels of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and sulfur of wood and charcoal, as well as the ratios N/C, H/C and O/C.
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Use of additives in the wood biodegradation by the fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora: effect in the manganese peroxidase-dependent lipid peroxidation.

Use of additives in the wood biodegradation by the fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora: effect in the manganese peroxidase-dependent lipid peroxidation.

USE OF ADDITIVES IN THE WOOD BIODEGRADATION BY THE FUNGUS Ceriporiopsis subvermispora: EFFECT IN THE MANGANESE PEROXIDASE-DEPENDENT LIPID PEROXIDATION. Ceriporiopsis subvermispora is a selective fungus in the wood delignification and the most promising in biopulping. Through the lipid peroxidation initiated by manganese peroxidase (MnP), free radicals can be generated, which can act in the degradation of lignin nonphenolic structures. This work evaluated the prooxidant activity (based in lipid peroxidation) of enzymatic extracts from wood biodegradation by this fungus in cultures containing exogenous calcium, oxalic acid or soybean oil. It was observed that MnP significant activity is required to promote lipid peroxidation and wood delignification. Positive correlation between prooxidant activity x MnP was observed up to 300 IU kg -1 of wood.
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Quality of charcoal produced from coffee wood for bioenergy use

Quality of charcoal produced from coffee wood for bioenergy use

ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of charcoal from Coffea arabica L., for bioenergy purposes, using three existing cultivation systems in the South of Minas Gerais (natural agroforestry, organic and conventional) and two cultivars (Mundo Novo and Catuaí). Univariate and multivariate statistical techniques were used, besides the identification of mineral components for the selection and evaluation of the quality from coffee charcoal. The following properties were quantified in charcoal: apparent relative density, actual relative density, immediate chemical composition (volatiles, ash and fixed carbon), fixed carbon stock, energy densities, porosity, heating values; besides carbonization yields. The charcoal of the cultivar Catuaí, with organic and conventional systems, stood out for steel and energy use, mainly by the higher values of apparent relative density, energy densities, fixed carbon stock and yields in charcoal and in fixed carbon. The effect of cultivar on apparent relative density was responsible for the formation of a similar group between the wood charcoal from organic and conventional systems for cultivar Catuaí. Coffee charcoal from the conventional system showed the best K/Ca ratio. It is therefore best suited to be used as fuel in boilers, gasifiers and other energy conversion systems.
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USE OF WOOD FROM Pinus caribaea var. caribaea AND Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis FOR PRODUCTION OF PARTICLEBOARD PANELS

USE OF WOOD FROM Pinus caribaea var. caribaea AND Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis FOR PRODUCTION OF PARTICLEBOARD PANELS

Wood density is a basic requirement to meet when selecting species for particleboard production, as it directly influences the compaction ratio of panels. According to Moslemi (1974), compaction ratio is the relationship between panel density and wood density, and it should be at least 1.3 to ensure sufficient compaction for panel formation. Kelly (1977) argues that, with finished panels of the same density, those produced with lower density wood, while having less dimensional stability, will have superior mechanical properties than those produced with higher density wood. According to the author, panels with a higher compaction ratio contain a larger amount of wood particles and consequently present greater compaction, resulting in improved hygroscopic swell of the wood and better release of the compression tension generated during the pressing process.
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NANOPARTICLES-BASED WOOD PRESERVATIVES: THE NEXT GENERATION OF WOOD PROTECTION?

NANOPARTICLES-BASED WOOD PRESERVATIVES: THE NEXT GENERATION OF WOOD PROTECTION?

Solid wood is a naturally created polymer composite, that results of the combination of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin naturally arranged into tubular structures that eventually forms a cylindrically layered composite (Csanády et al., 2015). Wood is a renewable material that has sustainable credentials. According to Food and Agriculture Organization of the United States (FAO, 2016), greater wood use can make a significant contribution to society’s desire for a more sustainable future. Using wood reduces carbon emissions, due to carbon dioxide stored in the timber products. Nowadays, carbon credits are traded as part of a voluntary market in the U.S., while Europe, which ratified the Kyoto Protocol, has a regulated carbon market (Ryan et al., 2010).
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Water use and wood productivity of Eucalyptus grandis plantations: effects of management, water supply and soil texture

Water use and wood productivity of Eucalyptus grandis plantations: effects of management, water supply and soil texture

Stand water use was highest for all K fertilized application in forest manage for coppice. However, water use was less than forest stand seedling measured in the previous study. Water use efficiency for stemwood was similar on the initial growth phase of forest manage for coppice. The difference above water use among forest management is due to tree diameter and stock density on forest manage for coppice. Not all stumps regenerated even in K fertilized plot. The dominate sprout on the stump was left to regrowth. In addition to this, the sprouts was not uniform for all plot. Forest manage for coppice use less water than seedling forest stands, approximately 18% less water use than seedling forest stand. Our estimation of transpiration might be understimate due to electrical problems. Hence, the first hypothese of this study was not confirmed.
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Quality of Wood and Charcoal from Eucalyptus Clones for Metallurgical Use

Quality of Wood and Charcoal from Eucalyptus Clones for Metallurgical Use

The objectives of the present work were to determine the properties of wood and charcoal from Eucalyptus clones and assess impacts of charcoal features on the CO 2 gasification reactivity and to compare with coke reactivity. Gasification reactivity was performed using charcoal particles in a furnace setup at 820 °C, under CO 2 atmosphere. The results show that there is wood variability among evaluated clones and strong correlations between wood and charcoal properties. All charcoals had higher reactivity in comparison to coke. The decrease in porosity and increase in apparent density in Eucalyptus wood led to a slight decrease of CO2 gasification reactivity. In addition, strong positive correlation between charcoal reactivity and potassium concentration (K) was found.
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Wood potential use of Acacia melanoxylon growing in pure or mixed stands with Pinus pinaster by the portuguese forest industry

Wood potential use of Acacia melanoxylon growing in pure or mixed stands with Pinus pinaster by the portuguese forest industry

Wood growth of Mechanical Properties Papermaking evaluation Pinus pinaster Eucalyptus globulus Acacia melanoxylon Pinus pinaster Acacia melanoxylon Eucalyptus globulus Acacia melanox[r]

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Neanderthal use of fish, mammals, birds, starchy plants and wood 125-250,000 years ago.

Neanderthal use of fish, mammals, birds, starchy plants and wood 125-250,000 years ago.

The occupations at Payre all occur at the beginning of interglacial cycles. The climate was therefore temperate through the entire archaeological sequence. The location of the site on a promontory above the Rhone and Payre valleys would have provided easy access to a diverse range of resources. The topography of the area would have allowed access to multiple ecological zones, including plateau, slope terraces, valley floor, streams and rivers. While there is some variation in the range of resources exploited (starchy plants first appear in level Gb and fish in level Fb, bird confined to level Ga), all activities attested to by the functional analysis of stone tools at Payre appear in end of MIS 8/beginning of MIS 7. Occupations in both MIS 8/7 and MIS 6/ 5 show a similar pattern of use of a broad range of resources. However, it is unclear from the present data whether this pattern of resource exploitation was characteristic of all Neanderthal populations or whether it is unique to Payre. Some have suggested that a broader resource base could be tied to temperate conditions and that during colder conditions resources may have been more limited and subsistence more focused on large herbivores [6]. However, even during colder conditions, some plant foods remain available [5] and it is likely that Neanderthal diet varied according to what was available [73]. Nonetheless, the broad range of resources exploited at Payre certainly demonstrates that Nean- derthals had the ability to access them.
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Alternative vibro-dynamic compression processing of wood-cement composites using Amazonian wood

Alternative vibro-dynamic compression processing of wood-cement composites using Amazonian wood

(NCL Industries 2011). However, this method requires a high initial investment, once it is necessary to purchase expensive equipments, such as a hydraulic plate press. Seeking a more economically viable alternative, Parchen et al. (2016) suggested the use of vibro-dynamic compression. The vibro-compaction process is already employed for the construction of buildings with reinforced concrete structures (Neville and Brooks 2010). The WCC densification is based on an eccentric load on a rotating axis that creates a dynamic vibration. The load can be produced by a cheap and easy-to-purchase electric vibrator, that can be assembled in a vibrating table made of plywood, a simple piece of equipment that is easy to install and operate (Neville and Brooks 2010). Thus, this new process has a great potential to be used in small production units attached to already functional small sawmills, as are found in the Amazonian region, allowing for in loco processing of wood as raw material for local social housing.
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Repair of composite and wood structures

Repair of composite and wood structures

Adhesively-bonded repairs in engineering applications are gaining acceptance over the traditional repair techniques, such as riveting or mechanical fastening. Several authors addressed adhesively-bonded repair techniques on composite structures (Myhre 1981, Myhre and Kiger 1981, Stone 1985, Deaton 1987, Hall et al. 1988, Ong and Shen 1991, Ahn et al. 1996, Hu and Soutis 2000, Campilho et al. 2005, Chu and Ahn 2005, Campilho et al. 2007a, Liu and Wang 2007, Campilho et al. 2008b). Such repairs benefit from a reduction of weight, easy conformance to complex shapes, capability of fluid sealing and joining of dissimilar materials, prevention of corrosion, less stress concentrations, preservation of the fibres continuity (FRP adherends), improved fatigue behaviour, vibration damping, enhanced electrical insulation capabilities, easier inspection using non destructive techniques, in situ application and reduction of the maintenance costs (Vinson and Sierakowski 1987, Mallick 1988, Tsai et al. 1995, Olia and Rossettos 1996, Zimmerman and Liu 1996, Mehrkam and Cochran 1997, Davis and Bond 1999, Fredell et al. 1999, Ashcroft et al. 2000, Bahei-El-Din and Dvorak 2001, Reis et al. 2005, Papanikos et al. 2005, Radice and Vinson 2006, Savage 2007, Campilho et al. 2008a). On the other hand, bonded components cannot be separated easily or without damage, added to the prospect of residual stresses arising from different thermal expansion coefficients between the adherends and adhesive. In addition, the lower resistance to high temperature or fire and higher susceptibility to degrade in severe environments than steel rivets or fasteners should not be disregarded (Ferreira et al. 2005). Moreover, in most cases, moderate fatigue stress levels in bonded assemblies lead to failure initiation in the adhesive (Renton and Vinson 1975b, Renton and Vinson 1975c). There are mainly two repair techniques for composite structures, referred to as strap (SS or DS) and scarf repairs (Ahn and Springer 1998a). The SS repair technique consists on drilling a hole in the laminate to remove the damaged material, followed by bonding of a circular patch on one of the laminate faces, concentric with the hole. DS repairs use two patches (on both laminate faces). Scarf repairs are executed drilling a conical hole in the laminate to remove the damage, and adhesively-bonding a patch with the complementary shape.
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DISPLACEMENT MEASUREMENT IN SAWN WOOD AND WOOD PANEL BEAMS USING PARTICLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY

DISPLACEMENT MEASUREMENT IN SAWN WOOD AND WOOD PANEL BEAMS USING PARTICLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY

Initially, the static bending test apparatus of the Universal Testing Machine was fitted with dial indicators (one at the center of the sample and two at half the distance between the supports and the point of application of the load) for measuring the displacement values of the beams. A professional digital camera (CANON EOS Rebel t3) was positioned perpendicular to the sample surface (0.25 m away) for image capturing. The camera was equipped with a set of lenses to better adjust the focus to the surface of the specimen. The capturing of the images occurred with the use of a remote control to avoid any camera disturbance. Considering that the specimens were made with exact dimensions and the application of the load occurred exactly in the center of gravity of the cross section, it is understood that no deformation occurred out of the plane of the camera.
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Outodoor wood weathering and protection

Outodoor wood weathering and protection

If to date, reducing carbon emissions and sustaining resource use have been the environmental factors that have most driven the increase in the use of wood, climate change has emerged today as another issue of recognized implications. Faced with this growing aggressiveness, wood protection technologies are increasingly seen as an essential development object. So, this scientific study aims at the study and development of methodologies of surface protection of wood based on the application of products that enhance an effective defense against the most severe environmental actions felt in the south of Portugal [4]. The environmental factors to be considered are of physical, chemical and biological nature, together with duration, intensity and frequency of action. Twenty sets of test pieces will be treated with four protection products with distinct characteristics and exposed to the following typified environments: maritime (MAR), industrial (IND), rural (RUR) and soil (SOIL) (Figure1). The analysis of results has the objective to maximize the efficiency and to adjust the treatment to the preponderant aggressions. This text refers to a study ongoing. Part of the results presented are preliminary and obtained by [4] in a master work guided by the authors.
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DROUGHT EFFECTS ON WOOD SPECIES

DROUGHT EFFECTS ON WOOD SPECIES

The natural variability among wood species in terms of their water-stress-induced changes in stem moisture content is large. Plants have evolved different strategies in facing the potential risks of drought-induced hydraulic failure. Some species tend to take a conservative water-use strategy, while others are inclined to exhibit an adventurous strategy for more prodigal water use and high growth rates (HAO et al., 2010, 2013). The physiological responses of plants to water deficit and their relative importance for crop productivity vary with species, soil type, nutrients and climate.
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