Abstract—The particle cardinality-balanced multi-target multi-Bernoulli (CBMeMBer) filter developed recently is an effective multi-target tracking (MTT) algorithm for nonlinear tracking models. However, the main drawback of this filter is that a significant amount of time is required to compute measurement-updated tracks in the update step, and discard particles with low weights and reproduce particles with high weights in the resampling step. To overcome such a drawback, a high-speedalgorithm for particleCBMeMBerfilter is proposed in this paper, which modifies the particleCBMeMBer recursion equations by taking the predicted state estimations and measurement likelihoods into consideration. The performance of the presented algorithm has been verified by numerical simulation experiments.
FIR digital filter can change its amplitude frequency randomly and can guarantee accurate linear phase at the same time, accordingly it has bright research prospect. FIR digital filter is a basic computing unit of digital signal processingand plays an important role in communication field and in the processing of digital signal. The design core of the FIR digital filtercenters on the optimization of multidimensional variable. The design method of FIR digital filters are mainly: window function method, Chebyshev and frequency sampling method etc. However, the window function method cannot properly handle transition band. The Frequency Sampling Method results in the fluctuation on the edge of passband and the sampling frequency is restricted to integral number of 2 π / N which cannot be sure the value of the cut-off frequency. N should be taken into consideration if need choose any value of the cut-off frequency, but this increases the amount of calculation. The newly emerged methods such as Genetic Algorithm(GA), neural network method and Particle Swarm Optimization(PSO) algorithm, although those methods do have its inspiring effects but still have serious shortcomings such as high complexity and slow convergence rate etc.
The robustness and speed of image classification is still a challenging task in satellite image processing. This paper introduces a novel image classification technique that uses the particlefilter framework (PFF) –based optimisation technique for satellite image classification. The framework uses a template-matching algorithm, comprising fast marching algorithm (FMA) and level set method (LSM) –based segmentation which assists in creating the initial templates for comparison with other test images. The created templates are trained and used as inputs for the optimisation. The optimisation technique used in this proposed work is multikernel sparse representation (MKSR). The combined execution of FMA, LSM, PFF and MKSR approaches has resulted in a substantial reduction in processing time for various classes in a satellite image which is small when compared with Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Independent Component Discrimination Analysis (ICDA)based image classifications obtained for comparison purposes. This study aims to improve the robustness of image classification based on overall accuracy (OA) and kappa coefficient. The variation of OA with this technique, between different classes of a satellite image, is only10%, whereas that with the SVM and ICDA techniques is more than 50%.
In order to create FPGA design , a designer has several options for algorithm implementation. Originally intended as a simulation language, VHDL (Very highspeed integrated circuit Hardware description Language) represents a formerly proprietary hardware design language. VHDL was chosen as a target design language in this work because of its familiarity and wide-ranging support, both in terms of software development tools and vendor support. In the first stage, a design is created using VHDL, in the next stage syntax of the code is verified and the design is synthesized or compiled into a library. Then the design is simulated to check its functionality. Finally the design is processed with vendor-specific place-and-route tools and mapped onto a specific FPGA in software.
This paper, presents a novel idea for analog current comparison which compares input signal current and reference currents with highspeed, low power and well controlled hysteresis. Proposed circuit is based on current mirror and voltage latching techniques which produces rail to rail output voltage as a result of current comparison. The same design can be extended to a simple current comparator without hysteresis (or very less hysteresis), where comparator gives high accuracy (less than 50nA) and speed at the cost of moderate power consumption. The comparators are designed optimally and studied at 180nm CMOS process technology for a supply voltage of 3V.
The remainder of the paper proceeds as follows. The state estimation problem is introduced next. After that, Sect. 3 de- scribes the mixture-based implicit particle smoother (MIPS) in a general form. This method is applied to a high- dimensional example with a linear model and Gaussian statistics in Sect. 4 and to multi-dimensional generalizations of the double-well problem in Sect. 5. Both sections include comparisons with BPF, EnKF, and the implicit particle fil- ter. The final section summarizes the results and conclusions from these examples. Throughout, vectors are written in bold italics, matrices in regular bold, random variables in capital letters and their realizations in lowercase letters.
Abstract- Routing tables of all the routers needs frequent updates due topology changes resulting because of link failures or link metric modifications. Each of those updates may cause transient routing loops. These loops pose significant stability problems in Wireless Networks. Distributed routing algorithms capable of avoiding such transient loops in network path are deemed efficient. Some earlier approaches like Shortest path routing (Dijkstra) etc. have problems maintaining the balance between node delays and link delays. Besides an earlier algorithm, Distributed Path Computation with Intermediate Variables (DIV) guarantees steady-state, with no transient loops. It’s ability to operate with existing distributed routing algorithms to guarantee that the directed graph induced by the routing decisions stays acyclic by implementing an update mechanism using simple message exchanges between neighboring nodes that guarantees loop freedom at all times. It outperforms existing loop prevention algorithms in several key metrics such as frequency of synchronous updates and the ability to maintain paths during transitions. But still frequency of updates is still an open issue and we address that problem specifically by implementing and using proactive source routing (PSR) protocol. Compared to existing routing protocols,It requires no timestamp for routing updates. In PSR the update messages are easily integrated into the tree structure, so that the computation overhead can be significantly reduced.
The work towards achieving the highspeed for he point operation is successfully completed and he results are compared for various field order for different target device Thus a novel architecture for point addition and point doubling with the parallel architecture in projective coordinates is implemented on FPGA.
Also related is Pimentel et al. (2007), with a HSR investment valuation model using the real options framework, when only HSR demand faces uncertainty. We extend their model in order to allow positive or negative chocks in HSR demand level. In financial literature, ROA appears mostly in natural resources investments. Transportation investment analysis rarely incorporates real option theory. When does, use discrete time frameworks. As a result, this paper will introduce the transportation investment analysis of the HSR investment valuation in continuous time with stochastic demand facing random shocks, providing some closed form solutions. Our aim is to fill in this gap in the literature. Although Pereira et al. (2006) studied these issues, their work focused on airport construction. Our ROA framework will support the utility balance for the user between different rail speed services.
The present paper investigates the process of decision making regarding the optimal timing to invest in the highspeed rail (HSR) project, under uncertainty, using the real options analysis (ROA) framework. It’s developed a continuous time framework that allows a solution to the problem concerning the optimal timing to invest and to value the impact of the option to defer in the overall valuation of the project, with multiple uncertainty factors. Besides considering a stochastic demand, the effect of uncertainty in the investment’s expenditure and over the benefit per user is incorporated in a model with three stochastic variables. The modelling approach used is based on the differential utility provided to railway users by the HSR service.
In this paper, the level of knowledge about the structure and interactions of matter has been evaluated, according to whether or not this knowledge shows an updated view of the topic. The knowledge of students adjusts globally to a mid-low level, i.e., to the classical models. However, the variability of answers is high. Ideas from new models appear, meaning that students some- how know updated concepts. Nonetheless, these ideas are very tentative and show confusions with both new and classical models. Our results show that students are highly interested towards particle physics and they are curious about the social implications of the topic. The whole picture justifies the need of a teaching intervention strategy to integrate the new concepts in the learning process; so that the classical models can be correctly understood and the topic about matter turns out to be unbiased and completed. Given the social impact of modern phys- ics, this necessity is reinforced. However, how this can be done in an effective manner has been barely investigated (see  and references therein). Our goal for a further study is to present a teaching intervention strategy. It is based on interactive engagement  and modelling tech- niques with embodiment . Using embodiment, students perform as the active agents of the model, which greatly facilitates the understanding and learning process.
Abstract . In this work the local equations governing the dynamics of fluidized beds are written in terms of averaged variables and constitutive relations based on physical arguments are proposed. The averaged equations are perturbed with small disturbances from the homogeneous fluidization state, and linearized with respect to the perturbations. A stability analysis is carried out and shows that the particle pressure term has a stabilizing effect and that the particle viscosity acts as a short wave filter. The behavior of the primary instabilities described by the proposed model is in qualitative agreement with experimental observations.
The simplest conversion from notch to bandpass response or vice versa is achieved when the filtered output is subtracted from the input. Thus, a filter structure shown in Fig. 2 is easily obtained. Note that difference-summing-summing node sequence in Fig. 1 is changed to summing-difference-difference sequence in Fig. 2.
Artificial Immune System inspired by natural immune system in which the human beings and animals are protected (using antibodies) from intrusions by substance (antigens). Clonal Selection is a type of adaptive immune system which is directed against specific antigen and consists of two major types of lymphocytes; B-cells (white blood cells which are responsible for producing antibodies) and T-cells (white blood cells also called cells- receptors, they are responsible for detecting antigens) which are involved in process of identify and removing antigen. The basic idea of Clonal Selection as shown in Fig. (1) (De Castro and Timmis, 2002) based on the proliferation of activated B-cells that have better matching with specific antigen. Those B-cells can be changed in order to achieve a better matching. Clonal selection algorithm take into consideration, the memory set maintenance, death of cells that can’t recognize antigen or have a bad matching and the ratio between re-selection of the clones and their affinity. The main features of the Clonal Selection theory are (Burnet, 1978):
collision), or not transmit because it will not find enough packets in the train before its own. Both events prevent all stations to the right of the faulty one to transmit in the current train. The same thing happens if the station issues a reservation and then dose not transmit the packet. If instead, a station transmits a packet without transmitting the corresponding reservation, a collision may take place id some station to the right transmits a packet, but other stations can still board the train. Otherwise, if no collision occurs, then the train maybe larger than expected. All above faults conditions only influence next cycle. Other faults concerning either token losses or failures of the end station must be reserved through a system reinitializing. Quantatively, when we show the impact of the constraint on the minimum distance between adjustment stations, we see that for a 100 Mbps transmission speed, assuming that the sum (t d +t b ) is
Resonant tunneling diode (RTD) integration with photo detector (PD) from epi-layer design shows great potential for combining terahertz (THz) RTD electronic source with highspeed optical modulation. With an optimized layer structure, the RTD-PD presented in the paper shows high stationary responsivity of 5 A/W at 1310 nm wavelength. High power microwave/mm-wave RTD-PD optoelectronic oscillators are proposed. The circuitry employs two RTD-PD devices in parallel. The oscillation frequencies range from 20-44 GHz with maximum attainable power about 1 mW at 34/37/44GHz. Keywords: resonant tunneling diode, photo diode, oscillator, photodetector
From Equation (2) the second pole, when using indirect compensation, is located at − while the second pole for Miller (or direct) compensation was located at − . By comparing the two expressions, we can observe that the second pole, p2, has moved further away from the dominant pole by a factor of approximately .This implies that we can achieve pole splitting with a much lower value of compensation capacitor (Cc) and lower value of second stage transconductance ( ). Lower value of translates into low power design as the bias current in second stage can be much lower. Alternatively, we can set higher value of unity-gain frequency for the op- amp without affecting stability and hence achieving higher bandwidth and speed. Moreover, the load capacitor can be allowed to be much larger for a given phase margin. Also, unity gain frequency is given by 
To date there are only a few reports of direct measure- ments of the chemical composition of atmospheric nucle- ation mode particles (see e.g. Smith et al., 2005, 2008). Be- cause of the experimental challenges, various indirect meth- ods to reveal the details of nucleation and initial growth have been designed. Analysis of growth is one important such tool. First of all, magnitudes of growth rates can be used to estimate condensable vapour concentrations (Kulmala et al., 2005). Similarly, if concentrations of vapours are mea- sured, a detailed growth rate analysis will reveal the fractions by which the vapours participate in particle growth (Sihto et al., 2006) – thus giving also indirect information of chemi- cal composition. Finally, for global modelling purposes, if semi-empirical particle formation rates are sought after, ac- curate and consistent ways to estimate growth rates and times are crucial since formation rates depend strongly on growth rates (Lehtinen et al., 2007).
In this paper, a new MAC architecture to execute the multiplication-accumulation operation, which is the key operation for digital signal processing and multimedia information processing ef®ciently, was proposed. By removing the independent accumulation process that has the largest delay and merging it to the compression process of the partial products, the overall MAC performance has been improved almost twice as much as in the previous work. extending of this is, proposed highspeed low power multiplier adopting the new SPST implementing approach. This multiplier is designed by equipping the Spurious Power Suppression Technique (SPST) on a modified Booth encoder which is controlled by a Simulation detection unit using an AND gate. The modified booth encoder will reduce the number of partial products generated by a factor of 2 .The SPST adder will avoid the unwanted addition and thus minimize the switching power dissipation. This facilitates the robustness of SPST can attain 30% speed improvement and 22% power reduction in the modified booth encoder when compared with the conventional tree multipliers.
The increased use of nonlinear loads, such as switch mode power supply in computers, rectifier devices in TVs, ovens and telecommunication power supplies and commercial lighting systems cause excessive neutral currents, harmonic injection and reactive power burden in the power system. They result in poor power factor, lower efficiency and interference to adjacent communication systems. In the past L-C filters were employed to reduce harmonics and power capacitors were used to improve the power factor of the AC mains, however, they have the demerits of fixed compensation level, large size and resonance. In the last two decades, a device generally named as active power filter (APF) has been investigated to provide an appropriate solution to most of these problems. Elimination of current harmonics, reactive power compensation and voltage regulation are the main functions of active power filters for the improvement of power quality. T. C. Author is with the Electrical Engineering Department, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 USA, on leave from the National Research Institute for Metals, Tsukuba, Japan (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).