component that makes **the** **performance** deviations and re- biasing it without changing other parts **of** **the** circuit. This is done by using **the** tool op-amp fixator. Hashemian [4] proposed a **method** **to** modify/tune **amplifiers** for a desirable **performance** and in that **method**, he uses partial local biasing (PLB). PLB allows us **to** locally modifying **the** Q-points **of** nonlinear components without affecting other parts **of** **the** circuit. It results in larger number **of** scattered DC sources. Voltage dividing, current mirroring and other source transformation techniques are used **to** reduce their number **to** one or two sources, but it is a time consuming and tedious task. Later, Hashemian [5] introduced a new technique **to** cut down **the** number **of** steps for a targeted biasing and it uses Fixator-Norator pairs. Fixators and norators are theoretical two terminal devices and are used in pairs. Circuit simulators like SPICE cannot directly model **the** pairs; therefore, ideal controlled sources with very high gain are used **to** model **the** pairs. **The** proposed **method** uses op-amp fixators. It doesnot ______________________________

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Finding an optimal solution **of** forest management scheduling problems with even flow constraints while addressing spatial concerns is not an easy task. Solving these combinatorial problems exactly with mixed-integer programming (MIP) methods may be infeasible or else involve exces- sive computational costs. This has prompted **the** use **of** heuristics. In this paper we analyze **the** **performance** **of** different implementations **of** **the** Simulated Annealing (SA) heuristic algorithm for solving three typical harvest scheduling problems. Typically SA consists **of** searching a better solution by changing one decision choice in each iteration. In forest planning this means that one treatment schedule in a single stand is changed in each iteration (i.e. one-opt move). We present a comparison **of** **the** **performance** **of** **the** typical implementation **of** SA with **the** implementation where up **to** three decision choices are changed simultaneously in each iteration (i.e. treatment schedules are changed in more than one stand). This may allow avoiding local optimal. In addi- tion, **the** impact **of** SA – parameters (i.e. cooling schedule and initial temperature) are tested. We compare our heuristic results with a MIP formulation. **The** study case is tested in a real forest with 1000 stands and a total **of** 213116 decision choices. **The** study shows that when **the** combinatorial problem is very large, changing simultaneously **the** treatment schedule in more than one stand does not improve **the** **performance** **of** SA. Contrarily, if we reduce **the** size **of** **the** problem (i.e. reduce considerably **the** number **of** alternatives per stand) **the** two-opt moves approach performs better.

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In **the** proposed CNT based COTAs, **the** effect **of** variation **of** **the** number **of** CNTs (N) on various **performance** measuring parameters have been studied. It has been seen that N changes **performance** significantly and its optimum value will result in an optimum **performance**. **The** effect **of** N on **the** DC gain **of** both PMOS-NCNT-COTA and NMOS-PCNT-COTA circuits is shown in Figure 6. It is clear from Figure 6 that with **the** increase in N, DC gain remains more or less constant (just around 2% variation in gain with 600% variation in N in NMOS-PCNT-COTA and less than 1% variation PMOS-NCNT-COTA). Though DC gain must increase with **the** increase in N due **to** increase in drive current/transconductance, however, reduction in output resistance and increase in screening effect with increase in N appears dominating always, and prevents **the** increase in gain. Further, **the** DC gain in PMOS-NCNT- COTA is more in comparison **to** NMOS-PCNT-COTA. This can be attributed **to** more number **of** N CNTFETS (ten) in PMOS-NCNT-COTA in comparison **to** just eight P CNTFETs in NMOS-PCNT-COTA. More CNTFETs will

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In **the** last years, cooperative diversity has emerged as a promising technology for wireless communication systems due **to** its ability **to** exploit spatial diversity without **the** need **of** multiple antennas. Co- operative diversity systems emulate an antenna array in a distributed manner, allowing one or more mobile units **to** relay **the** information data from a source node **to** **the** destination node [1]. **The** main ob- jective is **to** extend coverage, spectral efﬁciency and capacity while keeping **the** advantages **of** multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. Several cooperative relaying protocols have been proposed in **the** literature such as **the** amplify-and-forward (AF), ﬁxed decode- and-forward and selective decode-and-forward [2]. In **the** present paper, we are interested in **the** AF protocol due **to** **the** fact that it avoids decoding at **the** relays and, therefore, it is often preferable when complexity or latency issues are **of** importance.

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Lee et al. [12]–[14] have experimentally compared **the** **performance** **of** hybrid Raman+EDFA **amplifiers**, in which **the** Raman gain is provided in a dispersion compensating fiber (DCF) section **of** fiber. In their works **the** residual Raman pump power is recycled **to** pump **the** EDFA stage. Several different configurations based on a single pump laser over DCFs were studied. They found that by recycling **the** residual Raman pump in a cascaded erbium-doped fiber (EDF) section, as a secondary signal amplification stage, pump conversion efficiency can be increased. **The** amplifier characterization has been calculated in terms **of** global gain, and noise figure (NF). However, it has been restricted **to** **the** single channel characterization only, disregarding **the** ripple parameter within **the** amplifier effective gain bandwidth, which is a very important issue in WDM optical communication systems.

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Abstract: This research is aimed **to** test and identify empirical evidence regarding **the** effect **of** capital structure and loan **to** financial **performance** **of** cooperative, where **the** relationship between loan and financial **performance** is moderated by non-performing loan. **The** population **of** this research is 257 Financial Service Cooperative (hereinafter referred **to** as “KJK”, as **the** abbreviation for Koperasi Jasa Keuangan) **of** Urban Village Community Economic Empowerment (hereinafter referred **to** as “PEMK”, as **the** abbreviation for Pemberdayaan Ekonomi Masyarakat Kelurahan) in Jakarta, 2011 **to** 2013. Sample is determined by using purposive sampling **method**. **The** data is secondary data which is obtained from **the** Revolving Fund Management Unit (hereinafter referred **to** as “UPDB”, as **the** abbreviation for Unit Pengelola Dana Bergulir) Jakarta. Hypothesis is tested by using multiple linear regression analysis with SPSS 20.00. **The** number **of** sample used in this research is 120. Research findings explain that (1) Capital Structure (hereinafter referred **to** as “SM”, as **the** abbreviation for Struktur Modal) has positive and significant impact on financial **performance** (hereinafter referred **to** as “KIN” as **the** abbreviation for Kinerja Keuangan), because **the** probability value **of** 0,000 is smaller than α 0.05. Calculation shows that if **the** capital structure rises 1%, assuming that **the** loan and non-performing loan variables remain **the** same, then **the** financial **performance** will increase 0.017%. (2) Loans (hereinafter referred **to** as "PIN", as **the** abbreviation for Pinjaman) given has positive and significant impact on KIN, because **the** probability value **of** 0,001 is smaller than α 0.05. If **the** loan rises 1%, assuming that **the** capital structure and non-performing loan variables remain **the** same, then **the** KIN will increase 0.013%. (3) Non-performing loan has negative and significant effect on KIN, because **the** probability value **of** 0,000 is smaller than α 0.05. PBR varible increase 1%, assuming that **the** loan and capital structure variables remain **the** same, KIN would fall 0.001%. It can be concluded that **the** level **of** KIN in KJK PEMK Jakarta is determined by **the** relationship or interaction between **the** capital structure, loan, and non-performing loans.

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Such studies have emphasized a probabilistic approach analyzing human factors, organizational fac- tors and other factors associated with **the** environment and/or local infrastructure. Greenberg (2007) developed a general model **of** quantitative analysis related **to** aviation accidents using Bayesian net- works, but only factors that increase **the** threats **of** an accident. Roelen et al. (2011) developed a hybrid model for risk analysis jointly by Eurocontrol and **the** Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). In sum- mary **the** model shows **the** conjunction **of** **the** technical fault tree and event tree **to** **the** **method** **of** Bayes- ian networks. Martins and Maturana (2013) analyzed **the** human error contribution for ship collision taking into consideration **the** activities performed by **the** crew and is focused on **the** operation **of** an oil tanker in **the** Brazilian coast. **The** authors searched evidence related **to** **the** occurrences **of** **the** possible human errors (not found in literature) according **to** **the** routine **of** **the** ship thus obtaining **the** necessary data **to** build **the** network.

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There are various techniques for determination **of** glyphosate in environmental samples; however, its high solubility in water, insolubility in organic solvents and low volatility present analytical challenges (Hsu and Whang, 2009). Glyphosate also has high polarity and lacks a chromophore. Detection methods thus require adaptations utilizing derivatization reactions or alteration **of** some physical property that can be correlated **to** **the** amount **of** glyphosate in **the** sample (See et al., 2010).

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Over **the** years Vale S.A. has developed a methodology for scaling industrial comminution circuit that is being constantly improved and implemented in developing new routes and process optimization **of** circuits in operation. This work will be given a focus on **the** methodology **of** simplified balls mill Work Index (WI Anaconda) in **performance** prediction **of** Sossego Plant ball mill. **The** great advantage **of** this methodology is **to** reduce **the** time and weight **to** determine **the** energy consumption in ball mills, whose values can be used in studies **of** variability, geometallurgy and design and control **of** industrial grinding circuits.

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In this paper, we implemented **the** adjoint equations **method** for **the** inverse pressure design and **the** constrained drag minimization problems. In **the** inverse design problem, surface points, parameters **of** **the** NACA 4-digit airfoil series (Airfoil camber (m) and its thickness (t)) and **the** Hicks-Henne bump functions are used as **the** design variables. In this problem, values **of** design variables were obtained successfully. **The** results **of** **the** test case show that we can use **the** adjoint approach as an efficient tool in airfoil inverse design problem. **To** evaluate **the** **performance** **of** **the** adjoint **method** in design problems with numerous design variables and also **to** evaluate **the** effects **of** **the** adoption **of** **the** design vector on **the** optimization results in **the** drag minimization problem, **the** minimization was performed using two different design vectors. It was shown that **the** mechanism and **the** trend **of** drag reduction during **the** optimization process were strongly affected by **the** type **of** design vector. By using **the** adjoint equations **method**, we can design high lift or low drag airfoils according **to** **the** desired surface pressure.

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Abstract — This paper presents a modification for **the** already consolidated analytical model that calculates **the** gain and ripple in multi-pump Raman **amplifiers** by considering energy conservation. **The** original analytical model precisely computes **the** pump-pump interaction **to** **the** C- and L-band for a WDM input signal. However, when this **method** is used **to** amplify a large bandwidth, as **the** entire C and a part **of** **the** L band, **the** increase in **the** number **of** pump lasers impacts **the** obtained results. **The** error, if compared with results obtained by a numerical **method**, becomes significant. An analysis in terms **of** energy is proposed **to** minimize **the** discrepancy between analytical and numerical results. An improvement is observed **to** **the** gain results.

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Table 6 shows **the** results **of** estimating equation (3) **to** obtain **the** effect **of** **the** introduction **of** BVJ on school enrollment. It shows that **the** estimated effect **of** **the** interaction between treatment and time is positive and significant at **the** 5 per cent level, regardless **of** whether **the** control variables are included (column 1) or not (column 2). **The** estimated effects evinces that **the** expansion **of** **the** PBF for young people **of** 16 years **of** age increased **the** probability attending school by approximately 4 percentage points with respect **to** 15-year-olds. This result is noteworthy because, in addition **to** **the** immediate relief **of** poverty, one **of** **the** main purposes **of** **the** PBF is **to** reduce **the** transmission **of** poverty in **the** medium and long terms by increasing school enrollment among **the** poorest households. **The** results suggest that **the** expansion **of** **the** PBF **to** 16-year-olds has contributed **to** that goal.

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This approach indicates that regardless **of** **the** considered boundary condition, at **the** end we always receive **the** approximate solution. **The** same effect will be achieved if we assume that **the** function (t ) , describing position **of** **the** freezing front, will be approximated with **the** aid **of** **the** broken line (see Figure 2), it means

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outside staff and lecture rooms, send and receive emails and communicate on social networks. This Polytechnic in particular, was one **of** **the** first institutions **to** install **the** wireless access points that accessed internet through **the** main fibre backbone. In 2009 it went on **to** procure laptops for staff members, starting with senior management, **the** Heads **of** departments and finally lectures. Students were then allowed **to** bring their own devices which could be configured **to** be able **to** access institutional WIFI (**The** Polytechnic ICT policy document, 2010). This was **the** beginning **of** mobile computing at **the** Polytechnic. Since then further strides were made in such areas as installation **of** applications that run on mobile devices through wireless connections, increasing internet bandwidth **to** improve speed as demand for internet went up, upgrading wireless access points **to** improve strength **of** connectivity, upgrading **of** servers **to** handle **the** demand and volumes and expansion **of** campus area network **to** cover **the** whole Polytechnic, procurement **of** more mobile devices. And **the** institution now boasts **of** such things as e-learning, m- learning, m-education, among other technologies that are giving it a competitive advantage over sister Polytechnics.

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decoration in Airtam "**the** sculpture with **the** busts **of** musicians, gift-bearers was subjected **to** **the** unified principle **of** division **of** **the** entire space into rhythmic segments" [47, 86].As an example, one may consider **the** case when **the** sculpture had a religious or symbolic significance, and was a crucial element in resolving **the** entire interior ("Hall **of** Warriors" in Toprak-kale). But on **the** whole, in contrast **to** a more constrained medieval sculpture, antique one differed in realistic nature (right arrangement **of** **the** figures), expressiveness (**the** types **of** faces and their emotions), naturalness (in different curves **of** **the** body), through which **the** aesthetic sides **of** **the** structures were emphasized. Monumental characters **of** **the** structures, their ideological concepts (for example, **the** idea **of** greatness) were emphasized by means **of** sculpture. And, **the** most important aspect, **the** sculpture differed in architectonic manner (Buddhas - under **the** arches, gandharvas– between **the** acanthuses), as **the** determinant factor was still **the** scale **of** **the** monument, **the** height **of** **the** walls, **the** conditions **of** observation, **the** very architectonics **of** **the** interior. A high quality **performance**, especially in **the** Greco-Bactrian period, testified **to** **the** high skills **of** **the** artists, in **the** best traditions **of** Hellenic arts. "**The** artist could be acourt master from Seleucid accompanying **the** king **to** a distant Bactria" [30, 190]. It is assumed that in Bactria existed at least three sculptural schools; their students were familiar with Asia Minor sculpture schools [48, 125p]. Smooth walls **of** buildings were divided not only horizontally –by friezes, zofors, but also vertically - through door and window openings, columns and pilasters. **The** synthesis **of** architecture and decorative plastic forms, generally typical for later Hellenistic states, could be seen in **the** ancient Bactrian capitals - Corinthian and composite ones, representing a complete architectural form. Professional masters "were widely using **the** approach **of** architectonic

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Routine collection, analysis, and strategic use **of** data gathered throughout **the** delivery **of** PMTCT services is essential for reducing **the** incidence **of** HIV infections in children and improving **the** health **of** HIV-positive mothers [8]. Despite this need, recent reports demon- strate that there are limited data on which **to** base decisions related **to** improving access and adherence **to** PMTCT regimens or defining or evaluating contextual factors that affecting **the** program’s efficacy [22, 23]. In particular, longitudinal data with long follow-up are lacking **to** investigate **the** sustainability **of** programs and their potential ability **to** improve over time. While current strategies for PMTCT have evolved **to** include more complex ARV regimens, longitudinal analysis **of** **the** **performance** **of** PTMCT programs that used sd-NVP may be useful in identifying programmatic approaches and innovations that correlate with improved pro- gram **performance** [24]. Lessons learned from **the** experiences **of** large programs that include long-term follow-up may be useful for defining **the** parameters **of** future efforts **to** expand and improve PMTCT services in low- and middle-income countries.

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