629 effectively [14,15] . This should come as no surprise since traditional lecture or textbook generated learning is at the core of education from elementary school through many graduate level programs. Subsequently, students are forced to learn by trial and error how they personally work best in a group setting. Their communication and group interaction habits are developed over two decades of formal education. These habits, however, differ from student to student. Some may try to take control of the group, others will become passive, and still others will become overly verbose, while others will shy away from commenting. Observers of student group interaction often find that students do not work productively, waste time, repeat old information, or become confrontational  . Regardless of the problem posed to a group of students, learning is proportional to the ability of that group to work effectively together [17,18] . Faculty, too, may lack the ability to utilize problem-based learning effectively because of a lack of training in small-group management  . In some instances, they may find themselves in small groups that actually harm individuals and the learning climate  .
Human-Computer Interaction , the HCI focuses on interaction and specifically on interaction between one or more humans and one or more computational machines and on the phenomena affecting the digital communication model at the base of the HCI process. Analyzing in details the ACM definition, it is possible to highlight different interrelated aspects that need to be taken into account when designing e- learning multimedia systems: students and teachers characteristics, computer systems and interface architecture design strategies of the educational environment and of its learning material, and the nature of the interaction style also in presence of students with special needs. On the human side, these aspects concern the human information processing and communication, physical and cognitive characteristics of each community of users involved in e-learning systems. On the machine side, a variety of technologies developed for supporting interaction with humans should be used in the design process, e.g. interface’s metaphor to be designed to favor the accessibility of the learning material to different categories of users. Finally, it is important to study the nature of the interaction between the human and the machine, that is the communication model at the base of the messages exchanged by each community of users and systems and the context of use in which the interaction takes place. Specifically, the needs of teachers should be considered in an environment where they can share their knowledge, while preserving their own work. The inter-relationships among these aspects characterizing the HCI process highlight several phenomena. In particular in this paper we focus on two phenomena called “Cultures of participation” and “User’s diversity” characterizing learning material produced by teachers and accessed and used by students. These phenomena have been observed and studied in current literature [2, 3].
In order to accurately evaluate the possibilities of an e-learning platform, it is important to pay attention to the Learning Management System (LMS) and the Learning Objects (LO). These two components have to meet certain quality criteria based on e-learning standards. An efficient e-learning system must be able to meet these quality criteria. Of course that with the development of new standards, quality criteria list should be updated. The proposed mathematical model determine the probability that a student uses an e-learning platform based on the factors that determine the quality of the platform (the time to download a page even if a large number of users are simultaneously connected to the platform, tools for communication with the teacher and/or other users, adapting educational material to each user ’s learning
Critical thinking is often considered an essential learning outcome of institutions in higher education. Previous work has proposed three pedagogical strategies to address this goal: more active, student-centered in-class instruction, assessments which contain higher-order cognitive questions, and greater alignment within a classroom (i.e., high agreement of the cognitive level of learning objectives, assessments, and in-class instruction). Our goals were to determine which of these factors, individually or the interactions therein, contributed most to improvements in university students’ critical thinking. We assessed students’ higher-order cognitive skills in introductory non-majors biology courses the first and last week of instruction. For each of the fifteen sections observed, we also measured the cogni- tive level of assessments and learning objectives, evaluated the learner-centeredness of each classroom, and calculated an alignment score for each class. The best model to explain improvements in students’ high-order cognitive skills contained the measure of learner-centeredness of the class and pre-quiz scores as a covariate. The cognitive level of assessments, learning objectives, nor alignment explained improvements in students’ criti- cal thinking. In accordance with much of the current literature, our findings support that more student-centered classes had greater improvements in studentlearning. However, more research is needed to clarify the role of assessment and alignment in studentlearning.
This work introduced an automatic student modeling approach for identifying learning skills based on LMS. The proposed model used behavior of students during they are learning in order to gather hints about their learning skills. By applying a simple rule-based mechanism, learning skills are calculated based on the gathered indications. By comparing different types of materials as online courses, online activities, and online educational games, this work can deduce the most suitable section which students can specialize on it. Improving educational games would be one of the main points for improving educational process. Compared with statistical analysis methods, this model is more effective, the process is more intelligent, and the result is more accurate. It shows that by using suggested model, teachers can understand the students better in interest, material and other information. Educational games not only improve educational process but also improve evaluation process through calculating different parameters which will be used in the future as access duration, material type and access level. The evaluation of the approach demonstrated good results and showed that the approach is suitable for identifying learning skills with respect to the new model.
During the last decade, Information Technology (IT) has been the primary force driving the transforma- tion of roles in the education industry. More specifically, the World Wide Web (WWW) and associated technologies provided a new playground with new rules and tools to conduct instruction and create novel approaches to learning. We have seen the application of IT in education in the form of CD-ROMs. With the evolution of the WWW we saw education marketed as long distance learning, web based learner centered environments, internet based learning environments, and self instructed learning. With all the different models used on the web, few have studied their acceptance and their effectiveness on learning. Many educational institutions today have embarked in the development of web based courses. However, they face enormous difficulty in achieving successful strategies including the delivery, effec- tiveness, and acceptance of the courses. This is mainly due to the fact that the problem of developing a successful web based course involves multiple inter-related dimensions ranging from technology related issues to pedagogical considerations.
As can be seen, from the responses of the students, they discuss the problems collectively at the group level, they model the problem, which consists of organizing the data of a given problem and transforming that data into the mathematical symbolic language. They solve the exercises given by the teacher, thus consolidating the subject together. However, it is up to each one, individually and depending on the level of assimilation, to exercise the material. Exercise makes learning more effective. This process is in line with the idea of Mwamwenda (2005): “the longer the student is in contact with the material to be learned, the better his / her ability to perceive, interpret and judge” (p. 237).
Vaughan has long been a proponent of blended learning and active researcher in the field (Vaughan, Cleveland-Innes, & Garrison, 2013). As a professor of Education at Mount Royal University, he was responsible for the introduction of a blended four year degree program. Vaughan’s research (2014, 2017) has focused on the role of blended learning models to improve and enhance student engagement, which translates into better performance. Vaughan also sees blended learning providing an opportunity to interrogate existing curriculum and redesign with clearer outcomes, enabling stu- dents to engage with the content differently. It provides a space for faculty members to think differently about teaching and learning and think differently about assess- ment- all essential to HER. Vaughan and Cloutier (2017) in a student-faculty partner- ship longitudinal research study evaluated the effectiveness of a blended four-year education program delivered at a Canadian university. Using the NSSE framework, students completed surveys and were focus group participants at the end of their first and fourth year respectively. Students were positive about the blended learningmodel and recommended expanding online activities with the introduction of virtual office hours and social media for peer mentoring assignments.
Zayed University, based in the United Arab Emirates, has adopted a new educational concept in the re- gion, which is an Outcome -Based learning approach. This new Academic Program Model (APM) is de- signed to continuously improve the curriculum and provide students with the knowledge and skills to succeed in a rapidly changing world. The APM is driven by five critical components: the outcome based curriculum, the e-portfolios, the learning communities, the use of information technology, and the sup- port of the center for teaching and learning assessment. The paper by Bouslama, Lansari, Al-Rawi, & Abonamah introduces a new hybrid APM that is both outcome and grade point average (GPA) based. It shows how assessment is effectively used to make the learning outcomes component work. Also, it dis- cusses how technology can facilitate the learning and assessment processes and describes how learning outcomes are used in the development of an information systems curriculum.
Patients learn and build knowledge from the information they retrieved. Patients are educated by learning from information or from others. Patients are able to share this knowledge with other participant (expert, patient, community or physician) because of the common information model. Learning curves are represented by comparing different versions of the knowledge base. By providing transparent access to the patients knowledge base other participants are able to assess the level of knowledge and health literacy of the individual patient.
approach allows a simultaneous estimation of all constructs, therefore avoiding interpretation misguidance. The main justification for using this approach is that it is considered the most adequate for reflective-reflective type models (J.-M. Becker et al., 2012; Ringle, Sarstedt, & Straub, 2012). CI measures the extent to which a student pursues or changes interest, and PE measures the learners’ stamina (Duckworth & Quinn, 2009). System Quality (SysQ) can be measured in terms of the ease of navigation through the e-learning platform. If the platforms have their contents well-structured and if students quickly find what they are looking for, this is also a consistent way of measuring the e- learning system quality. The information quality (IQ) construct can be measured in terms of the usefulness and reliability of the information and if students find that contents are understandable and interesting. The perceived service quality (SerQ) reveals it and when students experience problems with the platform and the responsible staff provides personal attention with sufficient knowledge and answers their questions in the expected time. The constructs information quality, system quality, service quality, and individual impacts were measured using tested scales from Urbach et al. (2010). Use was measured according to the e-learning systems use frequency. User satisfaction (US) perceived by students is determined by the adequacy of the system in providing support to the area of study. Students’ satisfaction is also measured by the effectiveness and the efficiency of the e-learning system (Sun et al., 2008). Students reveal their individual impacts (II) of e- learning systems use if they perceive that e-learning is useful for their job, or if it helps in their productivity as a learner or even if they accomplish tasks more efficiently. Appendix A contains measurement the items used in the research model testing.
The ethnographic research had two parts: participatory observation with ethnographic in-depth interviews followed by self-observation with online diaries. The observation aimed at understanding students’ daily routines and different learning situations in order to identify latent, unmet or newly emerging needs and problems. Researchers participated in lectures and seminars, accompanied the students to study groups or library visits. The observations usually took two to three hours and were followed by a three-hour semi-structured interview in the student’s familiar environment, usually their home. The interviews were designed to explore students’ motivation, their social interactions, their learning behavior and strategies, the digital and analogue tools they used and student life in general. The second research part consisted of a five-day online diary. Students were asked to describe their learning activities, the use of digital and analogue tools, and potential problems and challenges. They were also encouraged to describe their motivation, dreams and ambitions by using pictures and short texts. The self-descriptive data helped to enrich and put into perspective the insights gained during field research.
D. The elaboration of some subject records focused on the students’ practice, on the development of some skills coming from the concept – learning by doing. The simulations and management projects subject from the management study programme as well as the simulations and marketing projects subject from the marketing study programme are relevant examples. These school subjects encourage and support the students to think and act as managers, marketers, respectively. Not only do they have to elaborate a project on a certain topic but they also have to implement it. Their evaluation is according to the level of their project objectives and also according to the efficiency of their accomplishment.
What is this student-centered classroom like? Jones (2007) proposes a classroom where students work mostly in cooperation with each other. Based on the activity proposed, the teacher can divide the classroom in pairs or small groups, giving the students the opportunity to socialize and exchange knowledge and experiences, but it is not always easy to convince students that they have to be responsible for their own learning. All over the world students are accustomed to having lectures from their teachers, and they want to receive “ready-to-go” knowledge. So, it is up to the teacher to find ways to convince their students that, in the long run, knowledge will be more meaningful if they think critically about what they learn. In the book The StudentCentered-Classroom Jones gives lots of ideas of how to deal with different kinds of problems a teacher can face.
Data analysis invokes a hermeneutical model in order to identify textual data because its basic question is: what is the meaning of such text? (Radnitzky, 1970) Besides, Tan, Wilson and Olver (2009) advocate that a systematic and continuous process (feedback amongst the parts and the whole) enables an interpretive and detailed analysis. For this achievement, the authors enabled seven analytical procedures (Mayring, 2003): (i) proper communication model (empirical results); (ii) systematic and rule-based analysis (content units); (iii) interpretive categories reviewed through feedback loops (two reviews); (iv) reference to subject instead of technique (open-code structure); (v) verification of instruments (pilot analysis— Kikot et al., 2013); (vi) theory-guided analysis (GBL literature); and (vii) trustworthiness (authors’ procedures). The open-code structure was ID section_ID query_ID subject_code body. As a final note, translation was avoided to minimise the loss of sensitive meanings.
To face these challenges, universities might rely on faculty deve- lopment units, also called Centers for Teaching and Learning (CTL). When designing a program, the Faculty Developers (FD) need to consider their context, their knowledge, the aims they want to achieve and factors that in- crease their chance of success. It is possible to rely on the literature to guide the actions of the CTL. Regarding organization of CTL actions, Biggs (2001) proposes that a theory of teaching and learning should be adopted by the center and the programs should not focus only on teaching tips. Moreover, this author recommends that the CTL should foster a learning environment in the whole institution and have a formal relationship with each teaching department or academic unit. Regarding the programs themselves, Nóvoa (2013) and Zabalza (2004) consider that professional development takes pla- ce in a personal and also collective perspective, without forgetting the im- portance of preparing the professor to deal with the emotional aspect of his profession, not only in the relationship with the student, but with the whole community. Therefore, although the individual aspects are important when designing faculty development actions, the collaboration is highly valued by professors, who appreciate the opportunity of exchanging experiences with their colleagues.
This article uses an anonymous 2014 –15 school year dataset from the Directorate-General for Statistics of Education and Science (DGEEC) of the Portuguese Ministry of Education as a means to carry out a predictive power comparison between the classic multilinear regression model and a chosen set of machine learning algorithms. A multilinear regression model is used in parallel with random forest, support vector machine, artificial neural network and extreme gradient boosting machine stacking ensemble implementations. Designing a hybrid analysis is intended where classical statistical analysis and artificial intelligence algorithms are blended to augment the ability to retain valuable conclusions and well-supported results. The machine learning algo- rithms attain a higher level of predictive ability. In addition, the stacking appropriateness increases as the base learner output correlation matrix determi- nant increases and the random forest feature importance empirical distributions are correlated with the structure of p-values and the statistical significance test ascertains of the multiple linear model. An information system that supports the nationwide education system should be designed and further structured to collect meaningful and precise data about the full range of academic achieve- ment antecedents. The article concludes that no evidence is found in favour of smaller classes.
Many authors remind us that the importance of interaction is not a new discovery and that education theory has always emphasized its contribution. Ideas from Vygotzky and Bloom indicate our learning is shaped by social interaction and iterative development. How these concepts are supported and shaped by Web-based learning has been examined in several studies. Yang examined how online asynchronous communication such as discussion forums can enhance critical thinking which is essential for learning. Tang and Byrne completed quantitative analysis comparing online, traditional and blended delivery, noting that students preferred blended over traditional and completely online learning environments.
Abstract – This article is about the communicative action and information model for social networking in digital environments, a transdisciplinary articulation of knowledge and learning that guides the collective and collaborative construction of inclusive communication strategies and ongoing development of competencies to promote understanding between the players, members of a social network. Information Science, Communication itself and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) promote this articulation in transdisciplinary mode. This model is the basis for the diagnosis and action planning herein: for the collective construction of communication relationships negotiated between participants of the network; for the creation of digital environments that provide spaces for learning to cope with information and communication; so that public communication experts may promote transparency of information as stated in the Constitution and the Law on Access to Information in Brazil. The model articulates methodologies for analyses of the individual and the network (Users Study, Social Network Analysis, multivoicedness) to obtain diagnosis and elaborate communication and information action planning.