The primitive skyline query processing algorithms are D&C  and BNL . In D&C algorithm it considers the whole data space and makes m-way partition. For each partition it identifies the points that are not dominated by any other points and compute the skyline result by merging the result together. In BNL algorithm it iteratively checks each record with the main memory to find out the dominating point and return the skyline result to a temporary file.BNL and D&C are non-index based algorithms that scan the whole data iteratively. Sorting based algorithm such as SFS which sort the data based on the input monotonic function. The algorithms can be categorized mainly into two groups index-based and non-index based algorithm. The index based algorithms which include bitmap, R-tree, B-tree, NN etc and non-index based algorithm which include D&C, BNL etc. Index based algorithms which progressively return the result without scanning all data set. BBS which is based on iterative call of NN algorithm and it overcome the disadvantage of NN in terms of I/O cost and CPU.FAST- SKY  algorithm that improve skyline query processing with high dimensional data. A Stratification Technique which is used to index data on PODs and use two index structures (i) Stratified R-tree(SR-tree) for low dimensional data (ii) Stratified MinMax treaps(SM-treaps) for high dimensional data. FAST-SKY algorithm which helps to achieve IO optimality and progressives inskyline computation with both TODs and PODs, it is faster than all other existing algorithms.
Listeria monocytogenes is a cause of concern to food industries, mainly for those producing ready-to-eat (RTE) products. This microorganism can survive processing steps such as curing and cold smoking and is capable of growing under refrigeration temperatures. Its presence in RTE fish products with extended shelf life may be a risk to the susceptible population. One example of such a product is gravlax salmon; a refrigerated fish product not exposed to listericidal processes and was the subject of this study. In order to evaluate the incidence and dissemination of L. monocytogenes 415 samples were collected at different steps of a gravlax salmon processing line in São Paulo state, Brazil. L. monocytogenes was confirmed in salmon samples (41%), food contact surfaces (32%), non-food contact surfaces (43%) and of food handlers’ samples (34%), but could not be detected in any ingredient. 179 L. monocytogenes isolates randomly selected were serogrouped and typed by PFGE. Most of L. monocytogenes strains belonged to serogroup 1 (73%). 61 combined pulsotypes were found and a dendrogram identified six clusters: most of the strains (120) belonged to cluster A. It was suggested that strains arriving into the plant via raw material could establish themselves in the processingenvironment contaminating the final product. The wide dissemination of L. monocytogenes in this plant indicates that a great effort has to be taken to eliminate the microorganism from these premises, even though it was not observed multiplication of the microorganism in the final product stored at 4°C up to 90 days.
However, it should be noted that the term «dam- age» in economic science has still not received a clear deinition. In this case, the whole set of meth- ods developed to assess damage caused to the en- vironment by anthropogenic inluence, does not have suficient theoretical justiication, since the generally accepted approach to treatment of dam- age as a fundamental category is missing. Invarious sources, damage is deined as a synonym to harm, a kind of loss, the totality of the adverse effects of any impacts, the evaluation of injuries incurred, etc. Comprehensive Dictionary of Economics  gives the following deinition of damage: «1) losses, un- foreseen costs, loss of property and money, beneit shortfalls; 2) the harm caused by the activities of one economic entity to other entities or nature, en- vironment, people». Much of the normative docu- ments regulating the so-called environmental law in Russia, the concept of harm and damage to the environment are used as identical (for example, in the Federal Law «On Environmental Protection», in Forest, Land and Water Code). This also conirms the lack of clear universally accepted concept of damage.
Abstract—In modern sciences and technologies, images gain much broader scopes due to the ever growing importance of scientific visualization (of often large-scale complex scientific/experimental data) like microarray data in genetic research, or real-time multi-asset portfolio trading in finance etc. In this paper, a proposal has been presented to implement a Graphical User Interface (GUI) consisting ofvarious MATLAB functions related to image processing and using the same to create a basic image processing editor having different features like, viewing the red, green and blue components of a color image separately, color detection and various other features like noise addition and removal, edge detection, cropping, resizing, rotation, histogram adjust, brightness control that is used in a basic image editor along with object detection and tracking. This has been further extended to provide reliable and a more natural technique for the user to navigate a robot in the natural environment using gestures based on color tracking. Additionally, Voice control technique has been employed to navigate the robot invarious directions in the Cartesian plane employing normal Speech recognition techniques available in Microsoft Visual Basic.
Remote sensing is a common thing invarious fields of science and engineering. For instance, it is especially useful to sense surfaces by means of an airplane or a satellite. One of the most powerful tools for this type of sensing is the spectroscopy, better known as multi/hyperspectral remote sensing. The literature shows some methods focused to this. To classify regions as land, forest and water, a MLP with weights as Gaussian activation functions (GSBP) is used in ; to serve the same purpose, a combination of a BPNN and a SOM is used in , while a Mixture Model ARTMAP (ART-MMAP)  and an edge-based region segmentation using a CNN  and a PCNN  are also used. Both GSBP and ART-MMAP yielded good results in terms of the region segmentation, since GSBP had a performance of 88%, while ART-MMAP showed better results than ARTMAP and Regression Tree in error measurements. The CNN yielded good results at enclosing regions compared to classic edge detection methods. Another important application is dust storm detection, for which Rivas uses a PNN and the Maximum Likelihood Classifier (ML), the PNN obtained better results than the ML in this task . Christodoulou and Michaelides propose in  an algorithm in which K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) and a SOFM group pixels into classes of clouds, where SOFM yielded a performance of 61% and KNN of 64%. Finally, Dominguez developed an algorithm to track wastes for NASA, in which a PNN and a Genetic Algorithm (GA) are used to classify regions that are considered anomalous .
concluded that information expose by user is prerequisite for personalized systems, and strategies with disclosure can improve personalization system (Knijnenburg & Kobsa, 2013). In the presented paper we have conducted a Questionnaire based survey for understanding user perspective that who performs specific actions online are aware of the context behind their action or are they aware of that how their information can be used for some other purposes for instance by third party. For this purpose, the questionnaire has been distributed to the undergraduate, postgraduate students and Faculty Members. Nowadays mostly people uses smartphone, we through our questionnaire have also analyzed that either they know detailed context of their mobile phone or not.
OBJECTIVES: Despite the recent success regarding the transplantation of tissue-engineered airways, the mechanical properties of these grafts are not well understood. Mechanical assessment of a tissue-engineered airway graft before implantation may be used in the future as a predictor of function. The aim of this preliminary work was to develop a noninvasive image-processingenvironment for the assessment of airway mechanics. METHOD: Decellularized, recellularized and normal tracheas (groups DECEL, RECEL, and CONTROL, respectively) immersed in Krebs-Henseleit solution were ventilated by a small-animal ventilator connected to a Fleisch pneumotachograph and two pressure transducers (differential and gauge). A camera connected to a stereomicroscope captured images of the pulsation of the trachea before instillation of saline solution and after instillation of Krebs-Henseleit solution, followed by instillation with Krebs-Henseleit with methacholine 0.1 M (protocols A, K and KMCh, respectively). The data were post-processed with computer software and statistical comparisons between groups and protocols were performed.
This matter looks different in the case of plaster moulds. Casting plaster are very fine-grained, and the characteristic setting mechanism causes the creation of smooth skin inside the cavity .It can be inferred from this, that type of plaster slightly influences the casting surface roughness.
We mixed moulding mixtures with individual bentonites in sand mill mixer about this compounds: 93 weight portions of siliceous opening material , 7 weight portions of bentonite and water. Mixing time was 5 minutes. Has been mixed moulding mixtures with individual bentonites by the two different humidities – 3 % and 10 % . The following technological properties were measured: wet compression strength ,tensile strength, strength in condensation zone ,baked strength, venting property (permeability).
Hartals were available and pervasive in most countries in South Asia during post-colonial period. The phenomenon is also known as bandhs in some areas. Hartals are considered as a perpetual part of political culture in South Asia. Strikes, hartals, and student unrest spread out in India over the first three successive decades. During the period of 1952 to 1963, under Nehru regime, work days lost to strikes and hartals amounted to 5.26 million a year. During the rule of Shastri and Indhira Gandhi, strikes and bandhs were increased dramatically. Thus, about 18.16 million days were considered as workdays lost per year during this period. This figure dipped a little to 17.35 million days per year during two years of emergency rule under Indira Gandhi, but total amount of lost workdays increased into double, to 33.06 million days each year on average during the eight years period of Desai and Indira Gandhi. In recent years, comparable data are not available, but bandhs are still an important characteristic of Indian political life which is found from various reports. In West Bengal, Left Front called hartal frequently. In 2002, three bandhs were called in the province within the first six months of this year (Bandh Blues, 2002). Bandhs are “spreading like wildlife”, pointed out in a report in 2002. In recent times, the state-sponsored bandh is being increased which is considered as an inauspicious development. If the trend does not prevent for political well-being, we must have to fall in serious trouble (Nadkarni, 2002). The police of India did not free from calling bandhs. Myron Weiner, an authoritative source in Indian politics, described the best situation of bandh in India: “Indians have the perfect art of protest, and as one journalist wrote, there are many similar vocabularies of protest for Indians as Eskimos have for snow. These similar words can be Satyagraha, or civil disobedience; gherao, or forcibly locking an official in his office, dharna, or general strike, morcha, or march, and there can be fasts, black flag demonstrations, work stoppages across the state...” (Weiner, 1987:53, Cited in Islam, 2005). According to Kathmandu post (2000), about 50 bandhs were observed in Nepal over the period of 1990 and 2000 (Kathandu Post, 2000)
Richardson with SOR, Chebyshev with Gauss-Seidel and Chebyshev with SOR. The iterative schemes were applied to Banded system, Tridiagonal systems and SPD system with varying dimensions. The Krylov subspace methods: GMRES, QMR, MINRES and BiCGSTAB converged to an approximate solutions less than or equal to the dimension of the coefficient matrix for each identified systems of linear equations. Again, Chebyshev and Richardson acceleration methods were the fastest convergence methods in terms of number of iterations. Again, Residual smoothing and the accelerated gradient schemes should be used for large and sparse systems of linear equations. The acceleration processes were very efficient when solving large and sparse systems of linear equation and therefore useful especially for systems resulting from the solution of partial differential equations.
The average yield per plant in the spring was 731.7 g representing more than twice the productivity obtained in the autumn, which was 331.54 g (Table 1). Lower average productivity of tubers in the autumn season was also observed by Andreu (2005). The yield of tubers has a strong relation with the cycle length in days and the highest yields are obtained in cropping of late winter and early spring, which is the recommended period for the main potato season (Matielo et al., 2005). The control treatment SMIJ461- 1 presented the best performance in the two cropping seasons. However, this treatment presented significant difference in comparison to ‘Macaca’ only in the autumn and in comparison to ‘Baronesa’ only in the spring. The families did not present significant differences among each other in the two cropping seasons. This difficulty to detect statistical differences between the families was probably due to genetic variability within families, which in many cases may be higher than the variability among families. This is due to the tetrasomy segregation of the tetraploid potato. In addition, the families were composed of few clones, mostly half-sib progenies.
In last few decades, many researchers have been devoted for the query processingin grid environment [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. In this context, design and implementation of an efficient query optimization technique for grid environment is utmost important. Taking into account the constraints of the grid, a cost model for calculating the query execution cost, was introduced in . In order to optimize the cost of query processing considering the constraints in grid environment, a linear programming optimization problem (LPP) is formulated based on the cost model., and they also deal a constraint-based query optimization technique using the linear programming optimization problem. In , another cost model is defined for dynamic grid database environment, and also gives the dynamic query optimization algorithm used for the query plan to make adaptive evolvement along with the fluctuation of gird environment. The authors of  propose a new model for distributed query optimization that integrates three distinct phases namely, (1) creation of single node plan, (2) generation of parallel plan, and (3) optimal site selection for plan execution. They also present different heuristic approaches for solving the proposed integrated distributed query processing problem. In , a semantic query optimizer for a grid environment is proposed; it mainly implements optimization of the following three modules: semantic extension of the user query, resources selection, and parallel processing. In , the Hameurlain team defined an execution model based on mobile agents to the distributed dynamic query optimization in large-scale systems. The idea is to execute each relational operator using a mobile agent, which allows decentralizing the decisions taken by the optimizer and adapting dynamically to estimation errors on the profile of relations.
Abstract: Analysis of vertical (greenery) landscape, an alternative to our historical horizontal landscape which lost its control due to urbanization and deforestation. Urban cites are increasingly expanding upwards and spreading horizontal which is now a direct negative impact on landscape and health. As Population increase there is demand of land for shelter and health also. This paper seeks to analysis if vertical landscape helps to link this gap which is increasingly expanding – (shortages of clean air, natural environment, exposed to direct light etc.).The paper sorely use three case studies which are in three different climates so as to give wider decision when applying vertical landscaping. The selection of case studies is based on their role as pioneers of vertical landscape and the benefit which is now at stake. This is achieved through research and literature reviews on those case studies. This paper seeks to provide better alternative when design building with vertical landscape, and tries to lay out some of the critical principles to consider when design a green façade (vertical landscape). Finally the writer define the benefit of using vertical landscape to natural environment, manmade environment and users as well.
automatic reactivity in the context of negative cues (Goldin & Gross, 2010). Still concerning distraction, it has been found that even though its regulatory impact on negative stimuli takes effect faster than reappraisal, people who use distraction are more reactive to these stimuli when subsequently presented to them (Thiruchselvam et al., 2011). This was interpreted as indicating that distraction may only be useful as a momentary regulation without lasting effects. A reasonable expectation because meditation seems to foster nonavoidance of stimuli, but acceptance without engagement in its processing, is that it probably produces long-term results, irrespective of whether the stimulus is being presented for the irst time or repeatedly. Finally, meditation may differ from reappraisal and distraction because practitioners learn to interrupt or diminish these appraisals in the irst place, precluding the need for reinterpretation or of avoiding the stimulus by a momentary distraction technique. Noteworthy, such skills may be particularly relevant for coping with automatic biased cognitions that characterize different disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder, phobias, obsessive compulsive disorder, and depression, among others.
Abstract: Queues are common sight of many banks in Ghana. The obvious implication of customers waiting in long and winding queues could result to prolonged discomfort and economic cost to them; however increasing the service rate will require additional number of tellers which implies extra cost to management. This study therefore attempts to find the trade-off between minimizing the total economic cost (waiting cost and service cost) and the provision of a satisfactory and reasonably shortest possible time of service to customers, in order to assist management of the bank in deciding the optimal number of tellers needed. Data for this study was collected at the Ghana Commercial Bank Ltd, Kumasi Main Branch for one month through observations, interviews and by administering of questionnaire and was formulated as multi-server single line queuing model. The data was analyzed using TORA optimization Software as well as using descriptive method of analysis. The performance measures of different queuing systems were evaluated and analyzed. The results of the analysis showed using a five teller system was better than a four or a six-teller system in terms of average waiting time and thetotal economic cost, hence the study recommends that, the management should adopt a five teller model to reduce total economic costs and increase customer satisfaction.
Women also provide most of the labour for harvesting and post-harvest activities (FAO, 1996). Cassava is important, not only as a food crop but even more as a major source of income for rural households (Davies et al., 2008). As a cash crop, cassava generates cash income for the largest number of households in comparison with other staples. However the sustainability of this staple crop depends on the enormous availability of land for its cultivation. Land is the foundation of all human, social and economic activities that lie at the heart of social, political, or economic life of most nations especially African nations. Land is recognized as a primary source of wealth, social status and power, the basis for shelter, food, and economic activities and significantly provides employment opportunities in the rural areas. Land is fundamental to agriculture, yet the different challenges women face in accessing them are rarely fully addressed. For women, it is often particularly difficult to access, own or control land due to legal or cultural restrictions ( Emeasoba, 2012). This problem is widespread; women hold title to approximately two percent of land globally and are frequently denied the right to inherit property (World Bank, 2005). The wealth obtainable from cassava production, processing and marketing as a result of gender inequality remains under serious threat if nothing is done to improve the operating environmental and socio- economic conditions of the farmers in terms of asset holding, welfare and credit availability. The broad objective of the study is to analyze male and female access to land for cassava production in Abia state and specifically to describe the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and the difference in quantity of cassava produced by both male and female respondents.
The characteristics of the institutional environmentof the host country affect MNEs' entry strategies. A host country's institutional environment is composed of rules, norms, and traditions, some of which are explicitly stated or recorded, while others are not (Meyer & Rowan, 1977). In a well-developed institutional environment, collective sanctions exerted upon norm-violators are severe because the norms are widely accepted and there are effective institutions that either prevent violations or coercively enforce the prevailing norms. Such institutions are necessary for forming successful strategic alliances and joint ventures. Therefore, when the host country encompasses well-developed institutions that guarantee the enforceability of contracts and reduce transaction hazards and opportunism (Williamson, 1985; Meyer, 2001; Henisz, 2000), the MNE is more likely to favor collaborative entry strategies such as strategic alliances and joint ventures. Acquiring better knowledge about the local institutional environment can be realized by finding a local partner (e.g., constituting a joint venture with local partners) and/or by transforming local firms into subsidiaries (i.e., by acquiring an incumbent firm). Entering well-institutionalized markets through partnerships allows the MNE to establish bonds with local agents familiar with local norms, thus increasing the subsidiary's survival prospects. Similarly, an acquisition involves acquiring a firm already embedded in the market and already holding social and business ties to surrounding agents. Conversely, both exports and greenfield investment entry strategies involve bringing "foreignness" into the market, and are more likely to face opposition.
In the region of almost flat topography within the Taquari river flood plain where access by road or by boat is not possible, an aircraft was used taking advantage of landing facilities in major farms. The first line started and ended in Cáceres city, where 11 stations were set along a circuit of 200 km. A second line started and ended in Corumbá city, where 22 gravity stations were occupied along 500 km of flown distance. Because of very smooth topographic gradient (< 0.2 m/km) the altitude for these stations was estimated from the topographic maps and the stations are shown as full triangles in Fig. 1.
The solid residue was separated from the leachate by filtration under vacuum. It was washed with water until pH 5.5. The washings were added to the leachate. The washed solid was dried at 150 ºC for 3 h, cooled down in a desiccator and weighed. The dried solids were then placed in ceramic crucibles and went through an oxidation step in air (600 °C, 3 h) in a furnace in order to eliminate carbon and other volatile components present. The gaseous effluent of the furnace was passed through distilled water at 25 o C. The roasted mass was cooled