Abstract: Thisarticleseekstodiscusstherelationshipbetweenthe counterculture movement of the 1960s in the United States of America and popular music as fundamental for the establishment of the spiritual practice propagated by the Hare Krishna Movement. The cultural and political scene in which the Movement emerges in the United States of America is characterised by an openness to Hindu philosophy and a search for new lifestyles among young people. The social and cultural movements of the 1960s and the counterculture movement created the ideal context for the launch of the Hare Krishna spiritual practice, as well as other proposals for spirituality and religiosity from India. The involvement of the ISKCON (International Society for Krishna Consciousness) leader with bands such as The Beatles and counterculture icons such as Allen Ginsberg was instrumental in spreading its spiritual practice and alternative life proposal at that time. This involvement culminated in the organisation of a festival called Mantra Rock Dance, in San Francisco, a significant milestone both in the propagation of practice and in the
the evolution of the profile of psychiatric admis- sions via the Unified Health System in psychiat- ric hospitals of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, between 2001 and 2013. Data were obtained from the Information Technology Department of the Unified Health System. The analyses of trends were conducted by regression procedures, in which the independent variable was the year, and the dependent variables were the patients (sex, age, diagnosis) and admission characteris- tics (city, hospital administrative status, length of internment). A total of 202,188 admissions to 25 hospitals were appraised. There were significant changes in the diagnostic profiles of psychiatric admissions during the period under scrutiny, no- tably an increase in the proportion of admissions for substance abuse-related disorders and a reduc- tion for psychotic disorders. This study is in tune with the context of the reform of mental health- care in Minas Gerais, providing relevant input to support the mental health policies towards uni- versalization, humanization and the overcoming of inequalities in access to health services.
questions relating to SUS at 30 and to dialogue with other studies, presents an overview of the positive drivers, the obstacles and the threats to Brazil’s Unified Health System. It points to a lack of prioritizing the SUS on the part of the govern- ment, underfunding and attacks on the system made by capital’s policies. Thearticle also suggests that one of the most significant threats to SUS is the financialization of health, linked tothe fi- nancial dominance. It concludes by arguing that the SUS is not consolidated, justifying alliances between democratic, popular and socialist forces, with new strategies, tactics and forms of organi- zation to face up tothe power of capital and its representatives in society and in the State. Kew words Unified Health System, Health poli- cy, Brazilian health reform
A variável infraestrutura, para as unidades de federação com crescimen- to econômico baixo, médio e alto, quantis 0,25, 0,50 e 0,75, apresentou signifi cância estatística em nível de 5%. Além disso, em todos os casos, houve relação positiva entre esta variável e o crescimento econômico, conforme as expectativas, mas de forma diferente dos resultados obtidos no modelo de painel dinâmico. Na literatura, como Ferreira (1996), com frequência é citado que investimentos em infraestrutura são essenciais para aumentar as oportunidades econômicas em regiões mais pobres e diminuir as desigualdades regionais. Rodovias adequadas, notadamente nos estados com menor renda, poderiam proporcionar maior acesso às escolas, hospitais e centros comerciais, o que, por conseguinte, acarretaria melhoria na educação, saúde e maior consumo de bens e serviços, promo- vendo o crescimento econômico.
AbstractThe scope of thisarticle is to describe the food consumption and eating behavior of qui- lombola and non-quilombola adolescents from the rural area of Southwest Bahia. A cross-sec- tional study with 390 adolescents aged 10 to 19 years was conducted in 2015, using an adapted PeNSE and PNS questionnaire. Food consump- tion was assessed by the frequency of healthy and unhealthy food markers in the previous 7 days. Eating breakfast was used as a marker of healthy eating behavior and having meals while watch- ing TV as being unhealthy. Frequency distribu- tion was carried out and the differences between quilombola and non-quilombola groups were assessed using the chi-square test. The prevalence ratio (PR) estimated the association of food con- sumption and eating behavior and the variables of interest. Low fruit consumption (30.8%), veg- etables (44.3%) and milk (24.4%) was observed. Comparison betweenthe groups revealed lower consumption of vegetables (PR = 0.73), fruit (PR = 0.67) and milk (PR = 0.68) among quilombola than among non-quilombola adolescents. Public policies targeted at nutritional assistance specific to rural adolescents are recommended, since bad eating habits can prevail throughout life and lead to poor health conditions.
AbstractThe scope of thisarticle is to investi- gate the association betweenthe source of snacks consumed in schools, their nutritional value and overweight/obesity. It involved a cross-sectional study with 3,930 schoolchildren aged between 7 and10 in the state of Santa Catarina. Food con- sumption in the school was assessed with an il- lustrated 24-hour dietary recall and the source of snacks was investigated by structured inter- view. Soft drinks and artificial fruit juices, fried and processed snacks, ready-to-eat or sweetened snacks, delicacies and stuffed biscuits were classi- fied as “low nutritional value foods,” while fruit, natural fruit juices, vegetables, and vegetable soup were the “high nutritional value foods.” Univari- ate and multiple logistic regression was conduct- ed. Overweight/obesity was significantly associat- ed with higher food consumption from the school canteen (OR = 1.34; CI = 1.07-1.68) in private schools. Bringing food from home was significant- ly associated with increased consumption of low nutritional foods, both in public (OR = 1.56; CI = 1.32-1.83) and private (OR = 2.64; CI = 1.76- 3.97) schools. The results highlight the need for tightening of norms to reduce the availability of low nutritional value food in canteens, and ac- tions to promote nutritional education involving the school community.
AbstractThisarticle analyses the main charac- teristics of federalism in Brazil and its institution- al relations with health policy. It discusses feder- alism from a classical perspective highlighting the essentially centralized nature of Brazil’s system and the prevalence of decentralizing health pol- icies underpinned by the principles enshrined by the 1988 Constitution.We used primary data obtained from an electronic questionnaire re- sponded by secretaries of health sitting on the governing bodies of the country’s health region and secondary data Ministry of Health databases covering the current health regions. The findings show that significant progress has been made in the implementation of regional governing bodies, yet without any significant impact on the reduc- tion of deep regional inequalities in primary and hospital care. It concludes by suggesting that the persistence of inequalities is down to weak cen- tral coordination capacity and an inappropriate trade-off between a centralized federal system and competition between entities, thus undermining cooperative regionalization of the public health system as envisaged by the 1988 Constitution. Key words Federalism, Regional inequalities, Unified Health System
national and international actors in Pharmaceu- tical Services (PS) in Mozambique from 2007 to 2012, focusing on the public provision of HIV/ Aids, malaria and tuberculosis medicines. It de- scribes how PS functions in the country, what actors are involved in this area and the relations among them, pursuing salient issues in the modus operandi of partners in cooperation. The method- ology combines literature review, document sur- vey and analysis and interviews. The theoretical and analytical framework was given by the policy analysis approach, focusing on the role of the State and its interrelations with other actors in foreign aid in PS, and also by the networks approach. It was concluded that the interactions among the actors involved is complex and characterised by operational fragmentation and overlapping of ac- tivities between entities, centralised medicine pro- curement in the hands of few agents, bypassing of national structures and disregard for the strength- ening needed to bolster national health system autonomy. Despite some advances in the provision and availability of medicines for these diseases, ex- ternal dependence is strong, which undermines the sustainability of PS in Mozambique.
that the RAS created in universal health systems are built on important clinical care coordination mechanisms, protocols, and articulation between professionals across various levels of care, while those set up in market systems are centered on competition. Thus, one of the pillars of an ef- fective RAS is effective coordination of care. In other words, PHC should be robust and capable of coordinating the navigation of service users through different points of entry, ensuring care is provided at the right place and right time. Giv- en the economic context and population size of the majority of Brazilian municipalities, it is im- possible to provide this type of service without regional scale. It is also important to mention the major presence of the private sector, including both profit and non-profit organizations, and groups that take advantage of the privatization of healthcare, which sell services tothe SUS across the country, particularly diagnostic services. Their market logic and frequent monopoly make it difficult for the majority of local governments to compete on their own.
government, the decision-making process results from successive public consultations and institu- tionally mediated agreements between minority and majority groups (circumstantial, regional or traditional). These arrangements afford better social and economic outcomes. Although de- centralization and social protection can occur in unitary states (in the United Kingdom for exam- ple), consensus democracies are typical in federal systems (such as Germany and Belgium), where they display a proliferation of decision-making bodies (such as sectoral chambers and various multipartite bodies) that cut across the formal federal system. In such systems it is common to find different rules for protecting cultural mi- norities or regions which, despite sometimes lengthening decision-making processes, afford political sustainability and are redistributive.
the fact that the Bank is part of the infrastruc- ture of the global power of the US forged in the post-war period does not mean that the institu- tion is a mere US instrument; as a bureaucratic complex, it possesses its own corporate interests and the means to ease US pressure. What is im- portant here is to highlight that even US policy tothe Bank was never monolithic or uniform. Actually, it was and continues to be the object of disputes and bargains among various political and economic interests about the role of multi- lateral cooperation and development aid, oscil- lating between two extremes: on the one hand, support for the construction of the World Bank and the international aid industry as a less po- liticized and more neutral means than bilateral cooperation to promote a global economy open to capital; on the other hand, the direct instru- mentalization of the Bank for immediate pur- poses linked to national security or economic liberalization, going against any preaching about
AbstractThe scope of thisarticle is to analyze the digital preference for the "age" variable in the database of cases of adverse drug events reported between 2008 and 2013 in the pharmacovigilance system in Brazil. The database was analyzed in three stages: 1) Initial exploration; 2) standard- ization of variables; and 3) duplicate records management. The digital preference for the "age" variable according to sex and grouped regions of the country, was determined using the Whipple and Myers methods and also measured by the adhesion test based on statistical χ 2 at 5% signif-
This paper aims todiscusstherelationshipbetween chronic stress, hypothalamus-pituitary- adrenocortical axis activity and temporomandibular dysfunction, using articles that analyze cortisol and stress levels in groups of patients with temporomandibular disorders. The literature indicates that the cortisol level is influenced by the duration of the stress stimulus and that the longer the individual is exposed tothis stimulus, the higher the risk of hormonal dysregulation. From a total of 355 articles found through PubMed that relate tothe topic, twenty-four articles were selected for full reading of which, eight studies were selected todiscusstherelationshipbetween stress, cortisol level and temporomandibular disorder. A positive correlation was found between stress and temporomandibular dysfunction in 6 studies. Also, a positive correlation was found between cortisol level and temporomandibular dysfunction in 3 studies while 5 found no association.
Abstract: The purpose of thisarticle is to reflect on the relation between pathogenic factors in work organization and the development of psychosomatic illness in workers, as well as the theoretical and methodological limits on the subject. It presents the case of a worker in the telemarketing sector who, in Labor Court, received a diagnostic hypothesis of depressive episode associated to a somatization disorder with the development of autoimmune disease, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The methodology is a case study, based on the biographical method. Through an interlocution with the specific literature on the subject, it is proposed a reflection about the consequences of the experience of work stress on the workers’ physical and mental health, especially on their repercussion in the immune system. It was concluded that there is a possible relation betweenthe illness presented by the worker in question and the demands of the work performed by her. Also, the need to further studies to deepen the understanding of the passage between a life experience and the emergence of an specific pathology.
AbstractThisarticle discusses the influence of environmental conditions on the prevalence of systemic hypertension in two riverine commu- nities in the Sustainable Development Reserve of Tupé, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, through an ecological study of multiple groups and contextu- al analysis carried out with the local inhabitants. To identify the environmental etiology describing the risk of disease development, the study com- pares demographics, incidence rates and common daily practices in these communities, using data collected in the field, between 2012 and 2014, as well as values provided by IBGE, originally from National Health Survey, 2013. The results suggest that social and environmental determinants, such as general living conditions, occupation and ac- cess to protective health care, in the investigated communities, are relevant factors in explaining the observed variability in systemic arterial hy- pertension (SAH) incidence rates. The study con- cludes by pointing out the importance and need to consider socio-environmental vulnerability in the elaboration of public health policies and in the management of environmentally protected areas. Key words Society, Environment, Systemic ar- terial hypertension, Health vulnerability, Health management
Regarding children’s food consumption, we verified a significant association between can- dy consumption greater than or equal to seven times a week and HDL. This result reflects inad- equate food consumption, as these children who are likely to consume excessively candy do not have a nutritionally adequate diet. Studies with children demonstrate an increase in the con- sumption of low-nutrient foods rich in calories, sugars and fats, as well as the low consumption of Table 1. Socio-demographic characteristics, birth,
AbstractThisarticle provides an overview of the profound changes in the more advanced welfare states in Europe and Latin America over the past 35 years. Deindustrialization, informalization, and the rise of unstable employment, combined with aging populations rendered traditional em- ployment-based models of social protection less ef- fective and at the same time increased demands on the welfare state. The two main responses to these challenges were efforts at cost containment and inclusion in non-contributory social protection schemes and health services of those in marginal labor market positions. The mix of these two re- sponses and the depth of the changes were shaped by the intensity of the economic and demographic pressures, policy legacies, the partisan preferences of governing parties and coalitional constraints, the strength of groups in civil society, the presence of veto points in the political system, and in Lat- in America the process of democratization, along with the international context. A broad compari- son between Latin America and Europe highlights the importance of the international context in the form of a relentless pursuit of neoliberal models by the International Financial Institutions in Latin America in contrast tothe model of Social Europe promoted by the European Union.
showed association between polymedication and morbidity. However, the statistical significance was not maintained in the multivariate model, and polymedication was not considered a factor for the development of MRM. From the cases an- alyzed, it appears that the type of medication used has a greater influence than the quantity of items, since the so-called PD and LTI medications, also in the multivariate analysis, were significantly involved in the demand for emergency services, increasing the chance of development of MRM by 2.01 and 3.09 times, respectively. This result is important since the increase in life expectancy and the complexity of some treatments contrib- ute tothe increase in the number of polymedicat- ed patients. These factors are also involved in the increase in the demand for health services, which increasingly demand that health professionals es- tablish strategies to optimize their work.