Top PDF Abstract This article briefly analyses the central

Abstract This article briefly analyses the central

Abstract This article briefly analyses the central

Abstract This article briefly analyses the central points of the World Bank’s agenda for the reform of national states in Latin America, between 1980 and 2017. The text is based on World Bank doc- uments and specialized literature. Initially some relevant aspects of the history of the World Bank and its configuration as a multilateral organiza- tion are presented. Next, it discusses the role of the institution in the encouragement of structural adjustment programs for the economies of the re- gion during the 1980s, based on a hyper-market oriented agenda. Afterwards, the process of the renewal and expansion process of the Bank’s po- litical agenda from the end of the 1990s is looked at, which was based on the maintenance of the macroeconomic adjustment, the encouragement of institutional reforms, and combatting extreme poverty. Finally, the principal lines in the Bank’s social policy reform agenda are discussed, includ- ing health.
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Abstract This article briefly analyses the central

Abstract This article briefly analyses the central

means that the relationship of the Bank with the state also involves and implies social classes and groups, since it is the dispute and agreements of power between them which creates state policy. From this results the second aspect, related to the fact that the relationship of the Bank with states is not limited to state agencies, but also involves civil society organizations and private corpora- tions. In third place, it is necessary to take into account that states have very asymmetrical con- ditions of negotiation, depending on the size of their economies and their level of external de- pendency. For example, highly indebted poor countries avidly depend on external funding and have bargaining conditions that are absolutely distinct from countries such as China and Brazil, which count on large international reserves and national development banks with much larger portfolios than the World Bank. Finally, it should not be forgotten that the Bank is a social actor in the middle of an extensive network of relations of public, private, non-governmental, philan- thropic, business, and financial agents which dis- pute the directions, means, and the meanings of development at a national and global scale. Even differing profoundly from each other in relation to the resources of power which they possess, these agents interact with the Bank in the sense of adapting, negotiating, and spreading the ideas and prescriptions of the institutions, translating them in accordance with their own interests and priorities. In this sense, governments frequently use the Bank’s recommendations or the condi- tions it imposes to support the implementation of unpopular reforms. The same occurs with the various national rankings that the Bank estab- lishes about the ‘quality of the institutional en- vironment’ or the ‘facility to do business,’ which function as certificates of the good or bad be- haviour of governments and institutions in gen- eral. Furthermore, since the action of the Bank is multiscale, the emphasis of its operations can oscillate between the Union, states, and munic- ipalities, according to the political orientation and the priorities of those in government. For this reason, the effectiveness of the Bank’s actions needs a combination of coercion with persuasion, through which are constructed, outside and inside the national spaces, visions of the world, and the mutual interests, both in civil society and in the state apparatus.
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Abstract This article discusses the influence of

Abstract This article discusses the influence of

Situada no extremo sudeste da RDS do Tupé, a comunidade Nossa Senhora do Livramento teve seu início em 1973, por ação de um grupo de trabalhadores, ligados ao Sindicato dos Tra- balhadores Rurais, que procurava regularizar a posse da terra de onde extraíam carvão para o mercado consumidor de Manaus. Consolidou- se fortemente influenciada pela proximidade de Manaus. Ao longo dos anos foi se expandindo para o interior da reserva, formando núcleos di- ferenciados de moradores. Os mais antigos e eco- nomicamente mais bem situados ficaram no nú- cleo central da comunidade, contando com fácil acesso a escolas, posto de saúde, comércio e linha regular de barcos para Manaus. Circundando este núcleo, formaram-se pelo menos outros dois aglomerados, caracterizados por se constituir de lotes residenciais precários e, às vezes, dedicados à atividade agrícola familiar.
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Abstract This article, which aims to explore

Abstract This article, which aims to explore

This highly relevant question requires re- flection: it is certainly one of the most difficult questions to answer. Firstly, because not every individual or actor is capable of defining a stra- tegic design. This praxis – thought and action – requires not only the legitimacy of those who indicate strategies and tactics, but also, specif- ically, the ability to carry out concrete analyses of situations and political insight regarding the most appropriate moment for the organization of, and intervention in, reality. Accumulated ex- perience and skills are fundamental to achieve effectiveness of action. Secondly, because isolated individuals or intellectuals are unable to answer this question, only collective individuals such as political parties or other organizations that have historical precedence and the ability to initiate action. It is the latter who deal with the dialectic of transparency/opacity 7 and are able to choose
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Abstract This article examines the activities of

Abstract This article examines the activities of

Em relação à AF foram criados vários órgãos a partir da independência: em 1975, a Central de Medicamento e Artigos Médicos (CMAM); em 1977, a FARMAC, empresa pública para naciona- lizar as farmácias privadas oriundas do período colonial; em 1977 a MEDIMOC, empresa estatal de importação, integrando companhias privadas já existentes; e, em 1975, a Comissão Técnica de Terapêutica e Farmácia. Aprovaram-se legisla- ções e protocolos, entre os quais destaca-se o For- mulário Nacional de Medicamentos (FNM), que define a lista de medicamentos a serem utilizados nos serviços público e privado, revista nos anos 2007 e 2010 e utilizada até hoje. Essas medidas evidenciam a vanguarda da AF no setor público em Moçambique na década de 1970, comparado com outros países da região subsaariana − FNM moçambicano foi publicado meses antes da Lista de Medicamentos Essenciais da OMS, documen- to de referência mundial 15 .
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Abstract This article examines the activities of

Abstract This article examines the activities of

After independence, a number of bodies were also set up in relation to PS: in 1975, the Medicines and Medical Articles Centre (Central de Medicamentose Artigos Médicos, CMAM); in 1977, FARMAC, a public enterprise to nationalise private pharmacies dating from the colonial pe- riod; in 1977, MEDIMOC, a State import enter- prise, which integrated existing private compa- nies; and, in 1975, the Technical Commission on Therapeutics and Pharmacy (Comissão Técnica de Terapêutica e Farmácia).Legislation and pro- tocols were sanctioned, prominent among them the National Medicines Formulary (Formulário Nacional de Medicamentos, FNM), which speci- fies a list of medicines to be used in public and private services, which was revised in 2007 and 2010and is used to this day. These measures are evidence that Mozambique’s public sector took the lead in PS in the 1970s, as compared with other countries of the sub-Saharan region (Mo- zambique’s FNM was published months before the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, a document that is a world reference) 15 .
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Abstract: This article seeks to discuss the relationship between the

Abstract: This article seeks to discuss the relationship between the

A relação dos "gurus orientais", mais especificamente de Prabhuphada, com o cenário cultural, em especial a música popular, e com ícones como a banda The Beatles, foi central para a propagação da filosofia hindu e o sucesso do Movimento Hare Krishna na época. Esta associação com a música popular não é característica somente do início do Movimento, mas permanece até hoje como importante estratégia de propagação do Movimento Hare Krishna. Alguns estudos centrados na relação da música e da religião, como o de Robin Sylvan (2002), afirmam o potencial da música para a experiência religiosa por conta de sua atuação em diferentes níveis como o psicológico, sociocultural, semiológico, ritual e espiritual. Esta característica da música, em especial a popular, não é, de nenhuma forma, ignorada por líderes religiosos. Neste sentido, assim como Oppenheimer (2003), proponho que a associação da prática religiosa com elementos da cultura popular, em especial a música, é uma característica central no sucesso de novas religiões e no desenvolvimento de seu carisma, como é o caso do Movimento Hare Krishna desenvolvido a partir dos Estados Unidos da América.
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Abstract The scope of this article is to analyze the

Abstract The scope of this article is to analyze the

padrão) e inferenciais (teste qui-quadrado de Pearson ou teste exato de Fisher; p < 0,05). Nas perguntas em que as variáveis explicativas (inde- pendentes) ofereciam mais de duas categoriza- ções, para avaliar e localizar a diferença entre os grupos foi utilizado o qui-quadrado de partição. As respostas às perguntas abertas foram ca- tegorizadas, a partir do conceito central contido na resposta, e analisadas por meio de frequência simples. Além disso, como foi permitido ao alu- no fazer referência a mais de uma resposta, foi considerada a frequência com que cada resposta foi citada e, por conseguinte, criada uma nova variável-resposta.
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Abstract The scope of this article is to analyze

Abstract The scope of this article is to analyze

the evolution of the profile of psychiatric admis- sions via the Unified Health System in psychiat- ric hospitals of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, between 2001 and 2013. Data were obtained from the Information Technology Department of the Unified Health System. The analyses of trends were conducted by regression procedures, in which the independent variable was the year, and the dependent variables were the patients (sex, age, diagnosis) and admission characteris- tics (city, hospital administrative status, length of internment). A total of 202,188 admissions to 25 hospitals were appraised. There were significant changes in the diagnostic profiles of psychiatric admissions during the period under scrutiny, no- tably an increase in the proportion of admissions for substance abuse-related disorders and a reduc- tion for psychotic disorders. This study is in tune with the context of the reform of mental health- care in Minas Gerais, providing relevant input to support the mental health policies towards uni- versalization, humanization and the overcoming of inequalities in access to health services.
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Abstract: This article considers how Portuguese cinema questions the

Abstract: This article considers how Portuguese cinema questions the

Para Badiou, muitos cineastas contemporâneos, entre os quais justamente Manoel de Oliveira (1908-2015), são protagonistas de uma “doutrina da Arte do cinema” que reenvia para o “carácter impuro desta arte” (223). Retomada a partir da proposição homónima de André Bazin (1918-1958) de um “cinema impuro,” a proposta central de Badiou é que a ideia principal de um filme supõe um jogo complexo de convocação das outras artes (teatro, romance, música, pintura, etc.), bem como a décalage (deslocamento) da própria obra cinematográfica em relação às mesmas, pela contaminação da realidade e respetivos quotidianos. Em consequência, o cinema puro só existiria numa certa visão do formalismo vanguardista que, para Badiou, não teria qualquer hipótese de saída e continuação. Ele sugere, por isso mesmo, o alargamento do conceito de “cinema impuro” através da enunciação: “o cinema é um lugar de indiscernibilidade intrínseca entre arte e não-arte,” o que implica que, no limite, nenhum filme é, na verdade, controlado por um pensamento artístico, na medida em que comporta “elementos” impuros que relevam da imagética ambiente, resíduos (por vezes no sentido mais negativo) das outras artes, convenções transitórias, etc. (223). O que parece ainda mais relevante neste contexto é que a ideia de uma atividade artística seria marcada no âmbito do cinema por um gesto de “depuração do seu carácter não-artístico imanente,” sendo que o processo de purificação constituir-se-ia apenas como aproximação a um horizonte jamais alcançado (223). Deste modo, o objetivo pretendido e
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Abstract This article discusses the processes of de-

Abstract This article discusses the processes of de-

saúde definidas a partir de um planejamento re- gional que considera as necessidades de saúde da população e a capacidade de oferta de serviços. O modelo federativo condiciona o modelo institu- cional do SUS, apontando para uma configura- ção pautada na gestão compartilhada. Nesse sen- tido, cabe destacar que, se por um lado, o balanço de poder consequente ao arranjo federativo indi- ca menor autonomia dos governos subnacionais; por outro, tal arranjo favorece a coordenação in- tergovernamental, dimensão importante para a gestão da política de saúde em uma realidade tão diversa quanto à brasileira. Além disso, ainda que as três esferas de governo estejam definidas como autoridades sanitárias no SUS, o Ministério da Saúde se configura como o ator que detém um papel central na coordenação da política, com ca- pacidade de influenciar a decisão dos seus rumos no âmbito subnacional. Na configuração recente do SUS, o financiamento é tripartite, contudo, o maior desafio está na sua estabilidade, visto que o gasto privado já supera o gasto público (como % do PIB) e que há perspectivas de que o orçamen- to federal da saúde seja reduzido nos próximos anos.
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Abstract The scope of this article is to analyze

Abstract The scope of this article is to analyze

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é analisar os cri- térios de acreditação dos estudos que avaliaram as ações de promoção da saúde e prevenção de fatores de risco das Escolas Promotoras de Saúde (EPSs). Realizou-se uma revisão sistemática con- duzida a partir das recomendações propostas no guia Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviewsand Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) dos ar- tigos que avaliaram as EPSs nas bases de dados: SciELO, Lilacs, Medline, PubMed e Portal Capes. A partir da análise dos três eixos para acreditação das EPS, três dos estudos analisados não contem- plaram todos os critérios para serem certificadas como EPS nos eixos “Processo de Planejamento” e “Atividades de Promoção de Saúde desenvolvi- das”. As escolas citadas nestes estudos apresentam atividades de educação em saúde, prevenção e/ ou promoção da saúde, no entanto, é equivocado se autodenominarem EPS. Identificou-se como principais desafios enfrentados para a implanta- ção, o desenvolvimento e a continuidade das EPS, a intersetorialidade e a insuficiência de recursos financeiros e humanos capacitados. As EPSs pre- cisam ser certificadas e submetidas a um processo avaliativo contínuo. Sugere-se ainda a inclusão do tema promoção de saúde nos currículos dos cursos de formação dos professores e outros profissionais da educação e da saúde.
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Abstract This article presents a historical anal-

Abstract This article presents a historical anal-

On the other hand, by means of their profes- sional councils, health professions have increas- ingly resorted to judicial decisions in jurisdic- tional disputes with other health professions. The corporatist apparatus, including the education system, plays a decisive role in defining the level of supply of specialized labor and in setting pro- fessional quality standards. The control of sup- ply ends up being more of a power play between those who supply their labor power and those who demand it. Also on the topic of regulation, professional ethics has become a central theme in the sphere of disputes and jurisdictional com- petition.
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Abstract This article analyses the main charac-

Abstract This article analyses the main charac-

Abstract This article analyses the main charac- teristics of federalism in Brazil and its institution- al relations with health policy. It discusses feder- alism from a classical perspective highlighting the essentially centralized nature of Brazil’s system and the prevalence of decentralizing health pol- icies underpinned by the principles enshrined by the 1988 Constitution.We used primary data obtained from an electronic questionnaire re- sponded by secretaries of health sitting on the governing bodies of the country’s health region and secondary data Ministry of Health databases covering the current health regions. The findings show that significant progress has been made in the implementation of regional governing bodies, yet without any significant impact on the reduc- tion of deep regional inequalities in primary and hospital care. It concludes by suggesting that the persistence of inequalities is down to weak cen- tral coordination capacity and an inappropriate trade-off between a centralized federal system and competition between entities, thus undermining cooperative regionalization of the public health system as envisaged by the 1988 Constitution. Key words Federalism, Regional inequalities, Unified Health System
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Abstract This article analyses the main charac-

Abstract This article analyses the main charac-

ção para as desigualdades regionais preexistentes e incidentes ao longo da construção do pacto federativo, tendo as instituições brasileiras sido moldadas por tais divisões regionais e pelo recur- so à União para garantir o equilíbrio político no âmbito de jurisdições ricas e pobres. Quanto às relações central-local, as federações dotadas de maior concentração regulatória na União favo- receriam a redução das desigualdades, enquanto que a combinação desta fórmula com a autono- mia local na execução das políticas seria a me- lhor alternativa para o caso brasileiro 3 . As falhas
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Abstract This article analyses the process of con-

Abstract This article analyses the process of con-

lished the main guidelines for the construction of the National System of Epidemiological Surveil- lance in the SUS, which was intended to be de- centralized and comprehensive, i.e. not limited to communicable diseases, whilst at the same time not devaluing this component of traditional pub- lic health. The suggested strategy was to establish links with the National Council of State Secretar- ies of Health (Conass) and the National Council of Municipal Health Secretaries (Conasems) to construct an intergovernmental strategy involv- ing the three SUS management spheres in order to rapidly decentralize the prevention and control of diseases already existent in Brazil, ensuring that there was no interruption in actions or pos- sible damage to the health of the population, as well as expanding the scope of HS activities. The idea was to reduce the fragmentation of surveil- lance activities, which were largely organized in the form of special programs in the SES and the regional directorates of Funasa, and to construct a new surveillance. It was also proposed to inte- grate the health care network, particularly prima- ry health care, in order to provide greater connec- tivity and better quality for the system.
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Abstract This article presents a historical anal-

Abstract This article presents a historical anal-

ysis of work management and education in the healthcare field over the three decades since the creation of Brazil’s Unified Health System (SUS, acronym in Portuguese). Using the sociology of professions as a frame of reference, it address- es the following topics: the health labor market; trends in healthcare employment; the healthcare workforce; and the regulation and dynamics of undergraduate programs in the health field. It an- alyzes each of the moments that characterize the area, from the pre-SUS period to the present day. The period has witnessed the following: a boom in health schools, largely in the private sector; an overall increase in the level of education of health professionals , an increase in regional inequity; an alarming increase in distance learning programs; an imbalance between labor supply and demand; the expansion of installed capacity; the munici- palization of health employment; an increased focus on multiprofessional teams; and an increase in precarious work and informal contractual rela- tionships and deterioration of pay levels. Key words Unified Health System, Work man- agement, Education, Labor market
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Abstract This article presents a careful comparative

Abstract This article presents a careful comparative

Abstract This article presents a careful comparative evaluation of two techniques for numerical curvature estimation of 2D closed contours (more specifically closed, regular and simple parametric curves). The considered methods are: (a) a 1-D Fourier-based approach; and (b) a 2-D Fourier-based approach involving the embedding of the contour into a 2-D regular surface (presented for the first time in this article). Both these techniques employ Gaussian smoothing as a regularizing condition in order to estimate the first and second derivatives needed for curvature estimation. These methods are considered according to a multiresolution approach, where the standard deviation of the Gaussians are used as scale parameters. The methods are applied to a standard set of curves whose analytical curvatures are known in order to estimate and compare the errors of the numerical approaches. Three kinds of parametric curves are considered: (i) curves with analytical description; (ii) curves synthesized in terms of Fourier components of curvature; and (iii) curves obtained by splines. A precise comparison methodology is devised which includes the adoption of a common spatial quantization approach (namely square box quantization) and the explicit consideration of the influence of the related smoothing parameters. The obtained results indicate that the 1- D approach is not only faster, but also more accurate. However, the 2-D approach is still interesting and reasonably accurate for applications in situations where the curvature along the whole 2-D domains is needed.
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Abstract The scope of this article is to describe

Abstract The scope of this article is to describe

Abstract The scope of this article is to describe the food consumption and eating behavior of qui- lombola and non-quilombola adolescents from the rural area of Southwest Bahia. A cross-sec- tional study with 390 adolescents aged 10 to 19 years was conducted in 2015, using an adapted PeNSE and PNS questionnaire. Food consump- tion was assessed by the frequency of healthy and unhealthy food markers in the previous 7 days. Eating breakfast was used as a marker of healthy eating behavior and having meals while watch- ing TV as being unhealthy. Frequency distribu- tion was carried out and the differences between quilombola and non-quilombola groups were assessed using the chi-square test. The prevalence ratio (PR) estimated the association of food con- sumption and eating behavior and the variables of interest. Low fruit consumption (30.8%), veg- etables (44.3%) and milk (24.4%) was observed. Comparison between the groups revealed lower consumption of vegetables (PR = 0.73), fruit (PR = 0.67) and milk (PR = 0.68) among quilombola than among non-quilombola adolescents. Public policies targeted at nutritional assistance specific to rural adolescents are recommended, since bad eating habits can prevail throughout life and lead to poor health conditions.
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Abstract The scope of this article is to investi-

Abstract The scope of this article is to investi-

Abstract The scope of this article is to investi- gate the association between the source of snacks consumed in schools, their nutritional value and overweight/obesity. It involved a cross-sectional study with 3,930 schoolchildren aged between 7 and10 in the state of Santa Catarina. Food con- sumption in the school was assessed with an il- lustrated 24-hour dietary recall and the source of snacks was investigated by structured inter- view. Soft drinks and artificial fruit juices, fried and processed snacks, ready-to-eat or sweetened snacks, delicacies and stuffed biscuits were classi- fied as “low nutritional value foods,” while fruit, natural fruit juices, vegetables, and vegetable soup were the “high nutritional value foods.” Univari- ate and multiple logistic regression was conduct- ed. Overweight/obesity was significantly associat- ed with higher food consumption from the school canteen (OR = 1.34; CI = 1.07-1.68) in private schools. Bringing food from home was significant- ly associated with increased consumption of low nutritional foods, both in public (OR = 1.56; CI = 1.32-1.83) and private (OR = 2.64; CI = 1.76- 3.97) schools. The results highlight the need for tightening of norms to reduce the availability of low nutritional value food in canteens, and ac- tions to promote nutritional education involving the school community.
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