Top PDF Adaptive mechanisms of mitochondria in response to exercise

Adaptive mechanisms of mitochondria in response to exercise

Adaptive mechanisms of mitochondria in response to exercise

showed an increased mitochondrial function, reflected by an increased activity of mitochondrial enzymes and the maxi- mum speed of ATP synthesis in isolated mitochondria 14 . The physiological meaning of mitochondrial adaptation in muscle is reflected in metabolic changes, which are ex- pressed more in the metabolism of lipids compared to carbo- hydrates. For example, the formation of lactic acid is re- duced, glycogen loss is smaller, the utilization of high- energy phosphates is reduced, as well as muscle fatigue 15 . These mitochondrial adaptations in response to exercise are generally referred to as mitochondrial biogenesis, as a syno- nym for metabolic plasticity. It is a complex process that in- volves increasing in the mitochondrial content per gram of tissue and changes in the mitochondrial composition, with an alteration in mitochondrial protein-to-lipid ratio. This se- quence of molecular events that initiate mitochondrial bio- genesis begins with an increase in intracellular Ca² + , which is a mediator of interaction actin and myosin, which then acti- vates the kinase, for example, Ca² + calmodulin kinase (CaMK) and phosphatase, which trigger a signaling cascade and increase gene expression of transcription factors. Spe- cifically, muscle contraction leads to an increase in the maximum capacity of muscle to generate ATP via oxidative phosphorylation. Repeated muscle contractions lead to re- ducing the concentration of ATP and increasing the concen- tration of free ADP, thus causing activation of creatine phos- phokinase (CPK), formation of ATP and creatine. ADP is also a substrate and allosteric activator of the glycolytic pathway and control mitochondrial respiration. These adap- tations, along with increased activities of mitochondrial ȕ- oxidation enzymes, lead to a greater lipid and less carbohy- drate oxidation during exercise and enhance endurance per- formance. As a result of increased mitochondria, oxygen consumption and ATP production per mitochondrion are less at the same submaximal work rate in trained compared to untrained muscle. This means that with more mitochondrial respiratory chains, the rate of electron transport per respira- tory chain will be “turned on” to a lower level to achieve the same rates of oxygen utilization and ATP production per gram of muscle at the same work rate in the trained com- pared to the untrained state. Consequently, the concentration of ATP and PC decreases less, and ADP, AMP and inorganic P increase to lower "steady state" levels, while glycogenoly- sis and glycolysis are turned on to a lower degree in the trained compared to the untrained state in response to the same submaximal work 16 .
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Cardiac molecular-acclimation mechanisms in response to swimming-induced exercise in Atlantic salmon.

Cardiac molecular-acclimation mechanisms in response to swimming-induced exercise in Atlantic salmon.

Cardiac muscle of high performance fish such as tunas and salmonids, like humans, prefers lipids as a fuel under normal conditions [35,36]. Further, lipid use increases during aerobic swimming while the use of glucose remains limited [37]. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)a is a key cardiac transcription factor regulating lipid catabolism pathways by inducing the transcription of genes such as carnitine palmitoyl- transferase 1 (CPT1) [38]. PPARc co-activator (PGC)1a is a cardiac- enriched PPAR coactivator that directly activates PPARa, boosting its effects at the same time of co-activating other transcription factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. Exer- cise-induced myokine regulation, a set of cytokines, may be another important molecular acclimation mechanism affecting cardiac performance because regular exercise training in mam- mals induces skeletal muscle myokine production and release [39]. A modulation in cardiac myokines production in response to training was recently shown for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) [40]. In view of the above, we hypothesized that the many pathways involved in strengthening the cardiovascular capacity are con- served among fishes and terrestrial vertebrates. Further, we hypothesized that exercise-induced activation of underlying gene transcription mechanisms must be dependent on the cardiac workload. To test our hypotheses, we trained Atlantic salmon pre- smolts at three different exercise intensities for 10 weeks and then analyzed key markers of pathways affecting the traits known to be involved in cardiomyocyte growth and proliferation, contractility, capillarization, oxygen transport, myokine production, energy metabolism and fuel preference.
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Iron status and the acute post-exercise hepcidin response in athletes.

Iron status and the acute post-exercise hepcidin response in athletes.

Recently, the mechanisms relating to iron deficiency in athletes has been increasingly investigated, with a shift in focus from the more traditionally accepted avenues of exercise-induced iron loss such as hemolysis, sweating and gastrointestinal bleeding (for review see [1]), to the influence of the iron regulatory hormone known as hepcidin [2–4]. Recently, factors that may affect the activity of this hormone such as training frequency, exercise modality and nutritional practices have been established [5–7]. Hepcidin is a liver produced peptide, which acts to regulate iron absorption from the intestine and recycling from the macrophage via its interaction (internalisation and degradation) with the body’s only known cellular iron exporter, ferroportin [8]. Increases in hepcidin levels usually occur as a homeostatic response to inflammatory stimuli (namely the inflammatory cytokine interleu- kin-6: IL-6) or elevated iron levels [9], ultimately reducing dietary iron absorption from the small intestine, and reducing the ability of macrophages to recycle iron from senescent erythrocytes [10]. However, research investigating the time-course of exercise- induced hepcidin response shows that the levels of this hormone seem to peak some 3–6 h subsequent to the peak in IL-6 elevation after an exercise bout [3]. No doubt, such timing is synonymous
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Adaptive evolution of a stress response protein.

Adaptive evolution of a stress response protein.

Background. Some cancers are mediated by an interplay between tissue damage, pathogens and localised innate immune responses, but the mechanisms that underlie these linkages are only beginning to be unravelled. Methods and Principal Findings. Here we identify a strong signature of adaptive evolution on the DNA sequence of the mammalian stress response gene SEP53, a member of the epidermal differentiation complex fused-gene family known for its role in suppressing cancers. The SEP53 gene appears to have been subject to adaptive evolution of a type that is commonly (though not exclusively) associated with coevolutionary arms races. A similar pattern of molecular evolution was not evident in the p53 cancer- suppressing gene. Conclusions. Our data thus raises the possibility that SEP53 is a component of the mucosal/epithelial innate immune response engaged in an ongoing interaction with a pathogen. Although the pathogenic stress mediating adaptive evolution of SEP53 is not known, there are a number of well-known candidates, in particular viruses with established links to carcinoma.
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Intensity of swimming exercise in fluences aortic reactivity in rats

Intensity of swimming exercise in fluences aortic reactivity in rats

pressure during high-intensity exercise (33). However, it is difficult to investigate the mechanisms in detail in humans, and the current study provides valuable information to help explain the increase in blood pressure during high-intensity exercise through an increase in the vasoconstrictor response. In addition to increased blood pressure caused by vasoconstriction, our hypothesis suggests that increased oxidative stress during high-intensity exercise (20) may also help to minimize blood pressure reduction after exercise. This was supported by the fact that vasoconstriction associated with high-intensity exercise was accompanied by increased MDA production. Increased vasoconstrictor activity is activated by a reduction in nitric oxide bioavail- ability as a result of increased ROS production through NADPH oxidase activity. This in turn is associated with local release of angiotensin II and vasoconstrictor prostanoids, which contribute to the increase in peripheral resistance, vascular damage caused by endothelial oxidative stress, and increased blood pressure (20).
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Heart rate response to graded exercise test of elderly subjects in different ranges of TSH levels

Heart rate response to graded exercise test of elderly subjects in different ranges of TSH levels

Healthy elderly subjects of both genders, aged 65 or more years old without known thyroid dysfunctions and with serum TSH in the normal reference range (0.4–4.0 mUl/mL) were included in this cross- sectional study. The exclusion criteria were: individuals who were athletes (defined as regular physical activity > 150 minutes/week, higher than 10 METs of intensity), any previous thyroid disease, hypothalamic-pituitary disease, congestive heart failure, chronic renal disease, acute respiratory disease, diabetes mellitus, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, cancer, cirrhosis, aortic disease, pulmonary disease, peripheral vascular disease, and coronary artery disease. Subjects using corticosteroids, amiodarone, dopamine, or any drug that interferes with the levels of thyroid hormones and/or thyroid function were excluded. Subjects taking drugs that could interfere with autonomic adjustment mechanisms (beta blockers, calcium-channel blockers, and levodopa) were also excluded. Moreover, subjects who were bedridden, wheelchair users, and those who had any physical limitation that could affect the graded exercise testing were excluded.
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From flapping wings to underactuated fingers and beyond: a broad look to self-adaptive mechanisms

From flapping wings to underactuated fingers and beyond: a broad look to self-adaptive mechanisms

This restriction itself can be lifted with other types of self- adaptive mechanisms, closely related to the principle of con- tinuously variable transmission. The latter is defined as a technological solution to compensate a variation in the load driven by an actuator axis. Namely, the ability of a mechan- ical system to continuously change the reduction ratio of its actuator in response to a load variation. These systems are in fact self-adaptive mechanisms too although they have gener- ally only one output, namely the actuator axis. Several mech- anisms have been proposed to achieve this capability, mostly based on gears (Hirose et al., 2004; Ishikawa et al., 2000; Fujushima et al., 2001; Takaki and Omata, 2004) (notice that one of these references is from none other than Prof. Hirose again). This principle has yet to be extended to multi-DOF systems but, provided that the actuation distribution condi- tion is satisfied, nothing prevents it. An example of such a mechanism is presented in Fig. 10 where a two-DOF self- adaptive mechanism (the same that was illustrated in Fig. 9) is used to drive two slider-crank linkages. The mechanism is completely symmetrical in order to allow complete revolu- tions of the joints corresponding to τ 1 and τ 2 . The actuation
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Systems-level comparison of host-responses elicited by avian H5N1 and seasonal H1N1 influenza viruses in primary human macrophages.

Systems-level comparison of host-responses elicited by avian H5N1 and seasonal H1N1 influenza viruses in primary human macrophages.

TNF-a signaling can exert both pro-apoptotic effects and anti- apoptotic NFkB-dependent mechanisms that trigger cell survival, with the anti-apoptotic activities of TNF-a regarded to be its dominant effect. The apoptotic signaling pathway is mediated by TNF receptor I (TNFR1) via the intermediate adapter TNF receptor-associated death domain protein (TRADD), which activates caspase 8 and triggers the downstream caspase cascade via mitochondria-dependent and independent mechanisms. The inflammatory arm of TNFR1 signaling is also mediated via TRADD, which recruits TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2). The association of TRAF2 and RIPK1 activates MAPK pathways, which in turn lead to the activation of NFkB, a key transcription factor inducing many target genes, including many components of the inflammatory and cell survival responses [37]. From the microarray data in the present study, we have identified that PMAIP1, (also named APR or NOXA) was differentially induced in response to H5N1 compared with H1N1 as early as at 3 h post-infection. PMAIP1 is a Bcl-2 homolog 3 (BH3) containing member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins [38]. PMAIP1 has been reported to be induced by p53 [38], UV radiation [39], IFN, dsRNA and viral stimulation [40] and is proposed to mediate apoptosis by interacting with other pro- or anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members (such as Bax and Bak) in a direct and indirect manner to promote mitochondrial membrane changes, leading to membrane permeabilization and efflux of apoptogenic proteins, thus promoting apoptosis [41,42]. However the exact mechanisms of PMAIP1-regulated apoptosis are still not yet well-defined.
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Lactobacillus acidophilus-Rutin Interplay Investigated by Proteomics.

Lactobacillus acidophilus-Rutin Interplay Investigated by Proteomics.

Dietary polyphenols are bioactive molecules that beneficially affect human health, due to their anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardio-protective and chemopreventive properties. They are absorbed in a very low percentage in the small intestine and reach intact the colon, where they are metabolized by the gut microbiota. Although it is well documented a key role of microbial metabolism in the absorption of polyphenols and modulation of their biological activity, molecular mechanisms at the basis of the bacteria-polyphenols interplay are still poorly understood. In this context, differential proteomics was applied to reveal adaptive response mechanisms that enabled a potential probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus strain to survive in the presence of the dietary polyphenol rutin. The response to rutin mainly modulated the expression level of proteins involved in general stress response mechanisms and, in particular, induced the activation of protein quality control systems, and affected car- bohydrate and amino acid metabolism, protein synthesis and cell wall integrity. Moreover, rutin triggered the expression of proteins involved in oxidation-reduction processes.This study provides a first general view of the impact of dietary polyphenols on metabolic and biological processes of L. acidophilus.
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Molecular mechanisms of the adaptive response

Molecular mechanisms of the adaptive response

Sakamoto-Hojo et al. (2003) showed that the cell re- sponses to ionizing radiation in lymphocytes of radiation workers involved altered expression of genes associated with cell cycle regulation, DNA repair, signal transduction, apoptosis induction/tumorigenesis and damage response/ maintenance of genetic stability (P53-related functions). Similar results were obtained for human lymphoblastoid cells in vitro and the authors proposed that certain low dose-induced alterations in cellular functions could be pre- dictive of the subsequent genomic damage risk (Coleman et al., 2005). Other recent molecular studies suggested that al- ternative dose-specific pathways of radioadaptive response could exist in mammalian cells: one response activated at low doses by the protein kinase C through p38 MAP kinase resulting in P53 activation and another activated at higher doses resulting in activation of ERK and JNK kinases and WIP phosphatase (Lanza et al., 2005). AR is known to re- quire a certain minimal dose for activation (Leonard, 2007). Low levels of damage could be triggering events that signal the activation of DNA repair systems (Boreham and Mitchel, 1991; Wolff, 1998; Matsumoto et al., 2004). For example, the persistence of DNA strand discontinuities could serve as a triggering signal for the adaptation of hu- man lymphocytes against ionizing radiation exposure (Stoilov et al., 2007). The magnitude of the AR has been shown to increase with the dose of radiation up to a certain threshold (Bryant, 1976). A specific dose of UVB was re- quired to induce AR in Euglena (Takahashi et al., 2006). Induction of AR by methylating agents has been reported in eukaryotic cells as well. For example, Mahmood et al. (1996) reported that in murine cells the AR was induced by the methylating agent methyl methanesulfonate and was stronger than that induced by the ethylating agent ethyl methanesulfonate. Schlade-Bartusiak et al. (2002) showed a more pronounced AR in human lymphocytes after treat- ment with bleomycin, which generates DNA breaks, than with the alkylating agent mitomycin.
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Adaptive cycles of floodplain vegetation response to flooding and drying

Adaptive cycles of floodplain vegetation response to flooding and drying

The environmental processes influencing vegetation pro- ductivity response through the wetting, wet, drying and dry adaptive-cycle phases in the Narran floodplain can only be hypothesised at present. Nonetheless, understanding patterns at multiple levels of organisation is an essential first step in deciphering the relationships between ecosystem pattern and process (Turner, 1989). The new philosophy of science (Pickett at al., 1994) emphasised the explanation of struc- tures and patterns rather than focusing solely on proving causality using a falsification approach. Experiments can be conducted on plant ecophysiology and inundation interac- tions to understand the causal mechanisms driving floodplain vegetation productivity responses through the adaptive-cycle phases. However, floodplains are complex systems and veg- etation responses to inundation may have multicausal, self- emergent and hierarchically organised properties that can never be fully deciphered with a reductionist approach. Inter- disciplinary floodplain research requires information on both the complexity of patterns on multiple scales and detailed ex- perimental studies to increase understanding about the nature of change and the potential influence of multiple drivers on patterns of change.
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Impact of the lectin chaperone calnexin on the stress response, virulence and proteolytic secretome of the fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus.

Impact of the lectin chaperone calnexin on the stress response, virulence and proteolytic secretome of the fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus.

Calnexin is a membrane-bound lectin chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that is part of a quality control system that promotes the accurate folding of glycoproteins entering the secretory pathway. We have previously shown that ER homeostasis is important for virulence of the human fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, but the contribution of calnexin has not been explored. Here, we determined the extent to which A. fumigatus relies on calnexin for growth under conditions of environmental stress and for virulence. The calnexin gene, clxA, was deleted from A. fumigatus and complemented by reconstitution with the wild type gene. Loss of clxA altered the proteolytic secretome of the fungus, but had no impact on growth rates in either minimal or complex media at 37uC. However, the DclxA mutant was growth impaired at temperatures above 42uC and was hypersensitive to acute ER stress caused by the reducing agent dithiothreitol. In contrast to wild type A. fumigatus, DclxA hyphae were unable to grow when transferred to starvation medium. In addition, depleting the medium of cations by chelation prevented DclxA from sustaining polarized hyphal growth, resulting in blunted hyphae with irregular morphology. Despite these abnormal stress responses, the DclxA mutant remained virulent in two immunologically distinct models of invasive aspergillosis. These findings demonstrate that calnexin functions are needed for growth under conditions of thermal, ER and nutrient stress, but are dispensable for surviving the stresses encountered in the host environment.
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An Advancement To The Security Level Through Galois Field In The Existing Password Based Technique Of Hiding Classified Information In Images

An Advancement To The Security Level Through Galois Field In The Existing Password Based Technique Of Hiding Classified Information In Images

Galois Field refers to a field in which there exists finitely many elements. It is particularly useful in translating computer data as they are represented in binary forms. Galois operations match those of regular maths. Addition, multiplication and logarithms are common Galois operations. Using the multiplication property of the Galois field an algorithm can be implemented to design an encoder. Mathematically 4 bit multiplication results in the 8 bit of the result but the Galois technique multiplication will result 4 bit resultant for 4 bit multiplication. As for the case of n bit multiplication it will result in n bit result.[13] In the information age, sharing and transfer of data has increased tremendously and usually the information exchange is done using open channels which can make it vulnerable to interception. The threat of an intruder accessing secret information has been a continuing concern for data communication experts [1]. Steganography (SG) is one of many techniques used to overcome this threat. It is a technique in which communication between two parties is done in a covert fashion using a cover object. SG is a very old practice for secret communication and can be traced back to techniques like invisible ink and microdots used by spies [2]. In general, the embedding operation in SG requires a digital medium to carry the data. Images and multimedia components, such as video and audio files, are widely used and exchanged through the internet.
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Arq. NeuroPsiquiatr.  vol.74 número7

Arq. NeuroPsiquiatr. vol.74 número7

Post-polio syndrome (PPS) is a condition that affects polio survivors years after recovery from an initial acute attack of the poliomyelitis virus. Most often, polio survivors experience a gradual new weakening in muscles that were previously affected by the polio infection. The actual incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in individuals suffering from PPS is not known. However, there is a reason to suspect that individuals with PPS might be at increased risk. Method: A search for papers was made in the databases Bireme, Scielo and Pubmed with the following keywords: post polio syndrome, cardiorespiratory and rehabilitation in English, French and Spanish languages. Although we targeted only seek current studies on the topic in question, only the relevant (double-blind, randomized-controlled and consensus articles) were considered. Results and Discussion: Certain features of PPS such as generalized fatigue, generalized and specific muscle weakness, joint and/or muscle pain may result in physical inactivity deconditioning obesity and dyslipidemia. Respiratory difficulties are common and may result in hypoxemia. Conclusion: Only when evaluated and treated promptly, somE patients can obtain the full benefits of the use of respiratory muscles aids as far as quality of life is concerned.
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PDF EN Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia 5 20 english

PDF EN Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia 5 20 english

5. Wibmer T, Rüdiger S, Heitner C, Kropf-Sanchen C, Blanta I, Stoiber KM, et al. Effects of nasal positive expiratory pressure on dynamic hyperinlation and 6-minute walk test in patients with COPD. Respir Care. 2014;59(5):699-708. http://dx.doi.org/10.4187/respcare.02668 J Bras Pneumol. 2016;42(5):397-398

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Rev Bras Med Esporte  vol.12 número6 en a17v12n6

Rev Bras Med Esporte vol.12 número6 en a17v12n6

during 15 min w ith load corresponding to 65% of the maximal one. The authors identified significant reduction in the SBP betw een 10 and 60 min after exercise, w ith more expressive reduction in the measurement taken 30 min after exertion (20 mmHg). It is w orth mentioning that there w as no control of the number of series and repetitions; how ever, w hen the duration of the activity w as ob- served, a reasonable amount of w ork is supposed. In this case, the exercise w as performed w ith one leg – w hen it w as in fatigue, the subject continued the exercise w ith the counterlateral limb. Although the used protocol is considered an activity w hich has the aim to improve the resistance strength, such strategy is not the most used in training centers, w hich decreases to a certain extent the external validation of the experiment. On the other hand, a single counter-resistance exercise (bilateral leg extension), per- formed in three series of 12 repetitions up to exhaustion, did not cause significant hypotension after the session. The authors sim- ply observed a reduction betw een 2 and 3% of the SBP betw een 10 and 20 min after the exercise ending (34) .
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CmWRKY1 Enhances the Dehydration Tolerance of Chrysanthemum through the Regulation of ABA-Associated Genes.

CmWRKY1 Enhances the Dehydration Tolerance of Chrysanthemum through the Regulation of ABA-Associated Genes.

Uniform cuttings were propagated in a pot using a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of soil and vermiculite and cultivated in a greenhouse (day/night temperatures of 25/18°C, a 14-h light/10-h dark pho- toperiod, a light intensity of 50 μmol m -2 s -1 and a relative humidity of 70%). Each treatment comprised 20 seedlings of each of the transgenic chrysanthemum and wild-type plants. After treatment, the plants were maintained in a greenhouse (day/night temperatures of 25/18°C, a light/dark photoperiod of 14/10 h, a light intensity of 50 μmol m -2 s -1 and a relative humidity of 70%). At 0 h, 4 h, 12 h and 36 h after exposure to PEG, we removed the third true leaf from three seedlings each of the W1-1, W1-2 and WT plants under each treatment. Each experiment included three biological replicates. Samples collected at defined time points from each treat- ment were used for measuring the relative water content (RWC). To obtain this measurement, the leaves were detached immediately and weighed to obtain the fresh weight (FW). The leaves were then incubated in distilled water for 24 h at room temperature under normal light, and the turgid weight (TW) was then recorded. The samples were then transferred into an oven at 80°C for 48 h, and the dry weights (DW) were recorded. The RWC was calculated according to Sun [10]: RWC (%) = [(FW—DW)/(TW- DW)] ×100%.
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Effect Of Shape And Plan Configuration On Seismic Response Of Structure

Effect Of Shape And Plan Configuration On Seismic Response Of Structure

Abstract: Earthquake is a very important aspect to be considered while designing structures. Lot of work has been reported by many researchers who worked to study the effect of structures with irregular plan and shape. Being inspired from the work contributed in the study on effects of earthquake on irregular shaped building in plan, this paper presents effects of plan and shape configuration on irregular shaped structures. Buildings with irregular geometry respond differently against seismic action. Plan geometry is the parameter which decides its performance against different loading conditions. The effect of irregularity (plan and shape) on structure have been carried out by using structural analysis software STAAD Pro. V8i. There are several factors which affect the behavior of building from which storey drift and lateral displacement play an important role in understanding the behaviour of structure. Results are expressed in form of graphs and bar charts. It has been observed from the research that simple plan and configuration must be adopted at the planning stage to minimize the effect of earthquake.
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Efeitos de um programa de treinamento físico em mulheres asmáticas.

Efeitos de um programa de treinamento físico em mulheres asmáticas.

Council on Physical Fitness and Sports Research Digest. Provas de função pulmonar limites e possibilidades. Adaptive strategies of respiratory muscles in response to endurance exercis[r]

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Acute cardiovascular response to pre-prandial and postprandial exercise in active men

Acute cardiovascular response to pre-prandial and postprandial exercise in active men

Assessments were carried out on three different days with an interval of 72 hours. Subjects were asked to refrain from physical activity and ergogenic resources from 48 hours before the start of the study until the end of the tests. On the first day, participants underwent anthropometric measurements, assessment of maximal oxygen consumption and BP at rest. The level of physical activity was assessed adopting a questionnaire designed by the researchers. Body mass was measured to the nearest 50g on a digital scale (Filizola, São Paulo, Brazil). Height was measured to the nearest 0.1cm on a stadiometer (Sanny, American Medical of Brazil, São Paulo, Brazil). Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as weight divided by height squared. Body fat percentage was estimated by skinfold method (Cescorf Sporting Equipment, Porto Alegre, Brazil) adopting a 7-fold protocol 19 .
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