In Textile industry, production is mostly key concern for Industry owner. This always has attracted researchers and machines manufacturers to make new developments in process and machines. Air-jet is one of the leading and successful highest productive weaving machines. However, it is now well established that due to add of charges of compressed air, manufacturing cost ofair-jetweaving machine is higher as compared with rapier and projectile weaving machines. This is why countries having energy issues do not prefer air-jetweaving machines comparing projectile weaving machines. In this regard, several researchers and machine manufacturers have continuously been working to improve the efficiency ofair-jet weft insertion. However, industry practice is as important as design made by researchers. The aim of this research is to investigate the airconsumptionofair-jetweaving on industrial scale practice. In this study, five weaving machine of same manufacturer and model were selected. It was observed that despite of manufacturing same quality of fabric, airconsumption was varying almost in all weaving machines. Conventionally, mill workers adopt hit and trial practice in weaving industry including air- pressure setting which leads to variation of nozzle pressure. Main reason of disparity ofairconsumption in air-jetweaving machines may be variation of distance from compressor to weaving machines, number of joints, un-necessary valve opening and pipes leakages cause an increase of compressed airconsumption.
The fuel feed-line connected the pressure vessel to the injector top, loading it in the vessel at atmospheric pressure. A high-pressure bottle of gaseous nitrogen pressurized this vessel, but a pressure regulator set between the two, reduced the 200 bar pressure in the bottle to the injection value of 3.2 bar. A rotameter between the vessel and the end of the feed-line controlled the fuel flow. An additional ball valve allowed for prompt closure, reducing the fuel consumption. This pressure reduction to injection values, coupled with injector head configuration, presented the higher losses, and allowed using the rotameter full scale when setting the fuel mass flow rate. Thus, the maximum value available in these conditions is 5.90 g/s.
Abrasive Jet Machining (AJM) is a non-conventional machining process where a high-pressure air stream with small abrasive particles to impinge the work surface through a nozzle. A model of AJM was designed by using CATIA. This model was implemented to design a workable AJM. In this paper drilling experiment was done on glass as the work piece and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) as abrasive powder on AJM. The air pressure and stand-off-distance (SOD) are considering control parameter. The effect of Overcut (OC) and Material Removal Rate (MRR) of glass material was finding by using L9 Orthogonal Array (OA) based on Taguchi design. And the influence of these controlling parameters is analyzed. Individual main effect ofair pressure and SOD are plotted and optimized. Analysisof variance (ANOVA) results were performed implementing Taguchi technique.
is associated with the variation of these parameters, which impact on the overall performance of the equipment is significant and differentiated as shown by Gaspar et al. (2010a, 2010b). The global demand for commercial refrigeration equipment is forecast to rise 4.7% per year through 2018 to $36.5 billion (Freedonia, 2014). The combined analysisof these data confirms the need to evaluate the influence of ambient air conditions on the stability of the air curtain of VORDC to develop methodologies and procedures that may promote the reduction of energy consumption, improve the thermal performance and consequently ensure the food safety. There is a world trend to retrofit the VORDC into vertical closed refrigerated display cabinets (VCRDC) by installing glass doors in order to reduce the thermal entrainment of ambient air and consequently to reduce the energy consumption. However, in countries of Latin America most equipment is open-type. In Brazil are manufactured about 30,000 refrigerated equipment, of these 30% is of closed type, 65% are open and 5% are combined (Nascimento et al., 2015; Heidinger et al., 2014a).
Open multideck display cabinets are widely used to expose perishable products in supermarkets and convenience stores. This paper reports the results of experimental tests performed according to ISO23953 in a open multideck refrigerated display cabinet to assess the impact on the thermal performance by varying the width of the discharge air grille and the perforation density of the back panel. The experimental laboratory tests were conducted for climate class n.° 3 (25° C and 60%). The results evaluation shows that the perforation density of the back panel and the width of discharge air grille alter significantly the thermal entrainment factor and the energy consumptionof the equipment. The best performance configuration showed a 10% reduction of the cooling load. The analysisof the results provides valuable information for the development of these equipments.
After spraying, the artificial targets were removed and placed in glass jars containing 0.02 l of nitric acid ex- tracting solution at 1.0 Mol/l of concentration and mixed a quarter of hour at 220 rpm. After that, there remained 24 hours stationary. Then, the solutions were taken to the spectrophotometer of atomic absorption, model AA-6300 SHIMADZU for quantification of copper ion (Cu) accord- ing to the method used by Chaim et al. (1999). The Petri dishes distributed inside and outside of the canopy were also washed with the same amount of solution and for cu- pric tracer quantification was used the same procedure. The data of tracer deposits was analyzed separately for abaxial and adaxial surfaces, in different parts of a plant (top and bottom). The data was submitted to variance analysis and the averages compared by the Tukey test, at 5% of probability.
nected to the nozzle. We made the speed measurements with a U-tube manometer connected to a Prandtl’s tube placed at the end of a glass tube, assuming that in the case of a tube, the speed of the air stream is constant in the axis of the stream. The weft enters the glass tube through the nozzle needle with tight cross section situated inside the nozzle. It is important that the weft should not get in contact with the side wall of the glass tube during the measurement, which can be checked visually.
Rainwater harvesting and collecting for household domestic needs is someting commonly found. Even in some countries in Africa and Asia,it has been known for a long time. Currently, the technology varies from the simple one like using a barrel up to the purification technology. Unfortunately the rainwater harvesting system commonly found now is rarely integrated as a planned building element. Indeed, the integration will bring good impact on both design and function. This article analyzes a two-story residential building that uses Rainwater harvesting and collecting system which is located in Bintaro, Jakarta, as one example of a planned architecture that uses the system.
broadest sense, kinetic and non-kinetic, lethal and non-lethal, shows that those available tools should be mixed and matched, providing a “cocktail” which can better support the national objectives. In this respect, airpower’s strategy and effectiveness will always be situational. In conclusion, to be effective, airpower does not need to win wars singlehandedly. It only needs to provide flexible options to be used by the decision makers when willing to use force to compel a change of adversary’s behavior. Therefore, this essay has shown that airpower’s effectiveness should be assessed against its ability to support the political objectives. Within this framework, it argued that such effectiveness has significantly improved since 1945. To support this claim a framework of limited objectives, adversary strategy, and airpower strategy was used, highlighting the contextual nature of airpower’s strategic utility. If one could provide a single example that synthesizes airpower’s effectiveness as a result of the convergence of these
Since the nudging does not guarantee small variance in the particles and, conse- quently, in the importance weights when many degrees of freedom are present, the extremely efficient particle filter can still become degenerative. Therefore, the model states are generally adjusted just before the calculation of the weights such that the weights do not differ substantially afterwards. We, however, leave out this part of “al-
The extratropical UTLS shows a layered and complex structure, consisting of different filaments that are at various stages of mixing. UTLS air parcels just around and above the primary tropopause and thereby closest to the troposphere are most obviously influenced by mixing with the tropo- spheric air. In general, the ExTL is formed approximately 1 km around the primary tropopause. It extends to about 2 km near the poleward (cyclonic) flank of the jet core. This struc- ture has been previously observed by in situ measurements that are limited to the flight track (Pan et al., 2007) and mod- elled (Konopka and Pan, 2012), but now it has been mapped out for the first time in a measured 2-D cross section. These new 2-D data reveal that the chemical air mass structure is very intricate and may often consist of multiple layers. The “high-stratospheric (red)” filament, consisting also of mixed air, extends up to 14 km altitude and more than 100 km north- wards into the UTLS. This suggests that the thermal and dy- namical tropopause exhibits breaks under the given meteoro- logical circumstances.
The measurements points, 29 in total were defined according to the layout of the area, available from the company archive (Figure 3.5). The technological and personnel subsystems as well as the activity’ process were also take into consideration, namely the location of ventilation areas such as doors and windows, as well as the locals were there are more movements from workers. Through the layout analysis and direct and indirect observations on the field, it was possible to identify the 18 ICBT twisters (colored with blue in Figure 3.5), the 4 Volkman twisters (colored with yellow in Figure 3.5) and the 3 winders (in the right side of Figure 3.5). It is important to notice that the ventilation system was removed in the past as the excess of humidity was associated with the breaking of the yarn. As workers were not fixed on a single workplace, several intermediate points were also defined (marked with crosses in Figure 3.5). These points were established to ensure that no major differences were presented on the 29 points’ surrounding areas.
El-Awad and Ahmed  conducted a laboratory test that assessed the effectiveness of a modified evaporative air-cooler for winter air-conditioning in Central Sudan. The conventional system was modified by placing a heat exchanger in the delivery duct of an ordinary 4000 ft 3 /min (110 m 3 /min) air- cooler. Hot water was passed through the heat exchanger. By adjusting the flow rate of the hot water, test showed that the system could bring the ambient air, initially at 20 o C and 30% humidity, to a more comfortable condition of 24.4 o C and 38% humidity. The present paper describes a theoretical model that is used to assess the adequacy and economic feasibility of residential-size solar water heaters for supplying the energy needed for the heating process. The model's estimates show that for air- conditioning a 500 ft 3 /min air flow rate for a minimum of four hours of operation at least a 150 litres per day (LPD) is needed. The maximum air-flow rate that can be heated by a single solar water-heater is about 900 cubic feet per minute (cfm), unless a solar water heater large than a 250-LPD heater is used. For a flow rate of 500 ft 3 /min, the paper shows that solar water-heaters of 150, 200 and 250 LPD can provide air-conditioning for 4, 6, 8 and 10 hours, respectively.
The short term “sea air” is used in this paper to refer to sys- tems composed of humid air and seawater, freshwater or ice in mutual thermodynamic equilibrium, e.g. modelling prop- erties of a system including the ocean surface mixed layer and the marine atmospheric boundary layer. In addition to the three thermodynamic potentials for fluid water, ice and seawater endorsed by IAPWS, potential functions for dry air and virial coefficients for air-vapour interaction are re- quired for the construction of a potential function for humid air. These formulas are available from the literature as dis- cussed later and are used here to construct the desired po- tential function. An IAPWS document on this formulation is in preparation (IAPWS, 2010). Combined, these four poten- tials permit the computation of thermodynamic properties of the atmosphere, the ocean, clouds, ice and lakes in a com- prehensive and consistent manner, valid over wide ranges in temperature, pressure and concentrations, from polar cirrus clouds at high altitudes to saline estuaries in the tropics, with the highest accuracy presently available. Rather than being a mere theoretical exercise, these four independent functions and numerous properties derived thereof are available from a numerical source-code library which has currently been developed, supporting the implementation of the intended new oceanographic TEOS-10 standard (Feistel et al., 2009; Wright et al., 2009). The library will be available in Fortran and Visual Basic/Excel for easy use on various platforms. Later, versions in Matlab and C/C++ are also planned.
A 45 year old woman had presented with jaundice and upper abdominal pain. Ultrasonography showed cholelithiasis and a dilated CBD. Patient had a duodenal injury while undergoing an ERCP procedure. An erect chest radiograph (CXR) shows dilated bowel loops with no evidence of pneumo-peritoneum (fig 1). Patient was managed conservatively. As the patient developed fever, a CT scan was done which revealed a heterogeneous retroperitoneal collection with multiple air pockets within it. The collection is located in a right perinephric location and is seen to tract along the right psoas muscle (fig 2).
There are two three-phase circuits Fig.1. for power supply: one compressor "a2" and one for electric resistance heating. Switch S3 is controlled by the heat pump through a controlled depending on the ambient temperature conditions of the building.
The object of this work is to determine the pressure drop and blade deflection under steady - state conditions. The blade will deform due to the flu id pressure. The deflection may be significant enough to affect the flow fie ld. By solving a structural analysis in the structural region, we obtain the blade displacements that you need to morph the region around the blade. We then use the morphed mesh in a subsequent fluid analysis. The fluid analysis uses null type elements for the blade and the structural analysis uses null type ele ments for the fluid.
Manipulator is a machine which is used to transfer heavy objects, to reduce human efforts in many industrial applications. Some of them are fully automated while some a re manually operated. It is difficu lt to work in cabin of man ipulator for the operator under hot conditions. So it is essential to provide co mfort to operator using air-conditioning system. For such applications standard air conditioners are not compatible, so we have to develop assembled system. In this paper we will be dea ling with design, selection and fa brication of co mponents like co mpressor, condenser, e xpansion device and evaporator. In order to do so, we have calculated heat load . Keywords: Heat load, Compressor, heat transfer coefficient, CFD.
O bjective: Acetaldehyde is the irst metabolite of ethanol and is produced in the epithelium by mucosal ALDH, while higher levels are derived from microbial oxidation of ethanol by oral microlora such as Candida species. However, it is uncertain whether acetaldehyde concentration in human breath is related to oral condition or local production of acetaldehyde by oral microlora. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the relationship between physiological acetaldehyde concentration and oral condition in healthy volunteers. Material and Methods: Sixty-ive volunteers (51 males and 14 females, aged from 20 to 87 years old) participated in the present study. Acetaldehyde concentration in mouth air was measured using a portable monitor. Oral examination, detection of oral Candida species and assessment of alcohol sensitivity were performed. Results: Acetaldehyde concentration [median (25%, 75%)] in mouth air was 170.7 (73.5, 306.3) ppb. Acetaldehyde concentration in participants with a tongue coating status score of 3 was signiicantly higher than in those with a score of 1 (p<0.017). After removing tongue coating, acetaldehyde concentration decreased signiicantly (p<0.05). Acetaldehyde concentration was not correlated with other clinical parameters, presence of Candida species, smoking status or alcohol sensitivity. Conclusion: Physiological acetaldehyde concentration in mouth air was associated with tongue coating volume.
The difference ofair pressure provides forces on the vanes, so the motor can rotate in either direction . For instance, if the one port on Chamber A connects to the air supply, another port opens to atmosphere. In that case, the air pressure in Chamber A (driving chamber) is greater than that in Chamber B (driven chambers), so the motor rotates in the way of anticlockwise and the rotor turns continuously. A schematic diagram of a vane-type air motor with eight vanes in anticlockwise rotation is illustrated in Figure 2. The force by compressed air due to the difference of pressures in the two chambers drives the rotor rotation. That means the potential energy of the compressed air is converted into the kinetic energy of the rotor and torques.