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ALOE VERA: A REVIEW OF ITS CLINICAL EFFECTIVENESS

ALOE VERA: A REVIEW OF ITS CLINICAL EFFECTIVENESS

antioxidant that slows down the aging process and makes cells stronger in the fight against the negative effects of oxygen and broad spectrum radiation, to which we are exposed daily. It constitutes a part of the enzyme superoxide dismutase, an allied anti-free radical of the pancreas, liver and kidneys. Copper is an oligoelement essential to health. Also a strong antioxidant, Copper greatly limits the damaging effects of free radicals, mainly through the protein ceruloplasmin, which oxidizes the reduced form of iron responsible for the formation of free radicals. Through the enzyme superoxide dismutase, the copper element, which is one of its constituents, prevents rancidity of polyunsaturated fatty acids and keeps the cellular membranes strong. Similarly, it also produces an anti-cancer property. Vitamin B12 actively takes part in complex cellular metabolic processes by being an indispensable regulator together with the enzyme glutathione reductase, as part of the process of maintaining stable levels of glutathione, a highly active anti- free radical. Riboflavin limits and inhibits, in part, the toxic by products of cellular respiration, a natural metabolic process which is highly oxidative. Vitamin B6 plays a role in the metabolism of the important essential amino acid, tryptophan, which is involved in protein synthesis and is a strong antioxidant. Vitamin C, another strong antioxidant, limits the damage caused by the oxidation of free radicals to the white blood cells. It is known that white blood cells are responsible for our immune defence, by which sickness or disease is overcome more easily. Vitamin E interacts in cellular energy production processes and is truly important to our health, especially during nervous system and immune system illnesses. Cysteine is also a member of Aloe’s antioxidant team. This non-essential amino acid is considered a guarantee to our health and longevity, by de-activating free radicals through its sulphurous function group, a good antioxidant, and, secondly, by protecting and strengthening cellular membranes from external attacks. Recent studies have demonstrated that cysteine, together with the B group of vitamins, can bind toxic molecules formed by disease processes and create inoffensive and harmless compounds. 13,22
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ALOE VERA IN SKIN BURNS: A NEW TREND OR AN EVIDENCE?

ALOE VERA IN SKIN BURNS: A NEW TREND OR AN EVIDENCE?

ABSTRACT – Introduction: Since ancient times, aloe vera is a plant used for medicinal and cosmetic purposes, due to its various properties. Currently, in many countries, the treatment of burns is one of the main indications for its use. However, the clinical evidence is still unclear. Objective: Review the existing evidence concerning the effectiveness of aloe vera in the treatment of skin burns. Data sources: Medline, evidence based medical sites (National Guideline Clearinghouse Guide- line Finder, Canadian Medical Association, The Cochrane Database, DARE and Bandolier), Portuguese Index of Medical Journal and references of selected articles. Methods Review: Bibliography search in these databases, using the following combination of MeSH terms: "burns" and "aloe", articles published up to June 2014, in Portuguese, English, French or Spa- nish. We used the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy scale for the allocation of levels of evidence and recommenda- tion strengths. Results: We found 236 articles and selected, as meeting the inclusion criteria, one systematic review with meta-analysis and 2 original articles. After analyzing the articles, generally it is verified a faster healing of burns using aloe vera, when compared to the control. Conclusion: The available evidence seems to support the effectiveness of aloe vera in the treatment of skin burns (SOR B). However, due to the heterogeneity of aloe vera formulations and control used in the various studies, it is not possible to draw a clear conclusion about this benefit. More studies with better quality are needed to prove the efficacy of aloe vera in the treatment of burns.
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Diffusion of hydroxyl ions from calcium hydroxide and Aloe vera pastes

Diffusion of hydroxyl ions from calcium hydroxide and Aloe vera pastes

Different vehicles are added to improve the qualities of CH, which may influence its diffusion and dissociation through the root canal system (5,6,10,11). The vehicle used for this association should allow efficient dissociation of hydroxyl ions for a satisfactory action of CH (2,4,12,13). Also, the vehicle may increase the antimicrobial capacity of the paste and aid the periapical repair process (12). Sterile distilled water, saline, propylene glycol, camphorated paramonochlorophenol, glycerin, anesthetic solutions, chlorhexidine, propolis and other substances have been frequently used as vehicles for CH pastes (1,2,5,6,10,12-17). Several combinations have been investigated to determine the effectiveness of CH pastes (2,10).
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RGO, Rev. Gaúch. Odontol.  vol.64 número1

RGO, Rev. Gaúch. Odontol. vol.64 número1

of brushing, the luoride dentifrice differs signiicantly from the Aloe vera tooth gel. Colgate Total 12 showed KHN values greater than baseline values, remaining these values without signiicant differences until 100,000 cycles. After 100,000 cycles of brushing, both dentifrice - Aloe vera and Colgate Total 12 - exhibited microhardness values as same as the baseline time, which showed the effectiveness of the both dentifrice in treatment of white spot lesion. In a previous clinical trials, Aloe vera toothpaste did not show any signiicant differences from luoridated dentifrices for the control and reduction of dental plaque and gingivitis 11 .
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Propriedades farmacológicas da Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f..

Propriedades farmacológicas da Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f..

ABSTRACT: Pharmacological activities of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. The Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. has been used for thousands of years in traditional medicine to treat various ailments. The aim of this study was to carry out a bibliographical review on the pharmacological activity of Aloe vera. This review included books and national and international journals indexed to MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO, in Portuguese, English and Spanish, using the key words mentioned. After the literature review, we found that several biological activities have been attributed to Aloe vera. Evidence suggests eficacy in the treatment of psoriasis, genital herpes, burns and hyperglycemia. Moreover, antineoplastic, antimicrobial, anti-inlammatory and immunomodulatory activities have also been demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo studies; however, in wound healing, the results were conlicting. In the treatment of radiation dermatitis and sunburn, its eficacy has not been proven, and cases of acute hepatitis from the consumption of oral preparations have been reported. Considering the various proven activities and the few reports about the contraindications of Aloe vera, we conclude that the use of this species conirms its wide popular usage.
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Enraizamento in vitro e aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas de Aloe vera L.

Enraizamento in vitro e aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas de Aloe vera L.

Mesmo existindo protocolos de micropropagação de espécies de Aloe (Aggarwal & Barna, 2004; Chukwujekwu et al., 2002; Abrie & Van Staden, 2001; Araujo et al.; 2002; Liao et al., 2004; Natali et al.; 1990; Meyer & Van Staden, 1991), poucos são aqueles que abordam os problemas relacionados ao enraizamento e à aclimatação. Ambas as etapas podem comprometer todo processo de micropropagação. Assim, o propósito da rizogênese é a formação de raízes adventícias nas hastes caulinares obtidas no estágio de multiplicação in vitro, permitindo a formação de uma planta completa, o que a princípio favoreceria a aclimatação em condições ex vitro.
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Análise da reação tecidual às inclusões subcutâneas de matriz de colágeno liofilizada no dorso de ratos Wistar tratados com Aloe vera

Análise da reação tecidual às inclusões subcutâneas de matriz de colágeno liofilizada no dorso de ratos Wistar tratados com Aloe vera

Os passos tomados a seguir foram: o aguardo do término do período anestésico, condução dos roedores às caixas de criatório e a aplicação tópica no primeiro grupo experimental de gel de Aloe vera e no segundo grupo de solução fisiológica a 0,9%. Os ratos passaram então a receber visitas diárias, sete vezes por semana, uma vez ao dia e sempre no mesmo horário. As aplicações eram realizadas com animais em estado de alerta, sendo os mesmos contidos manualmente enquanto o auxiliar realizava a aplicação, da mesma forma como foi realizado nos trabalhos de Pagnano (2005) e Semenoff-Segundo (2007). O gel de Aloe vera in natura foi aplicado sobre as suturas cutâneas com o auxílio de uma espátula plástica descartável, enquanto que a solução fisiológica foi aplicada com o uso de um conta gotas, preenchendo toda a superfície da sutura. O tratamento foi mantido até o término do experimento aos 45 dias.
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RESUMO Formulação à base de Aloe vera para aplicação como emoliente em casco de cavalos

RESUMO Formulação à base de Aloe vera para aplicação como emoliente em casco de cavalos

For Eustace (1994), four factors influence the quality of horses hooves: heredity, feed, handling and farriery. Good quality hooves are able to resist more easily to environmental changes. However, low quality ones are susceptible to a variety of problems. Therefore, hooves care may one of the determinant factors on the animal’s performance of the intended functions. A healthy hoof, adequately moistened, absorbs impact from the ground much more efficiently than a dry hoof. Every healthy hoof has a thin shiny cover of a material that covers its walls (external layer). The function of such substance is to delay humidity evaporation, a fundamental aspect for maintaining their hydration. The external layer (stratum externum) is lost during shoeing when hooves walls undergo trimming, leading to an increase in moisture loss and, consequently, their dryness (Fitovet, 2009), resulting in excessive flaking and cracking (McClure et al., 1975; Fitovet, 2009). In this case, good moisture is important to prevent such excessive dryness.
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Effect of Aloe vera extract on the improvement of the respiratory activity of leukocytes of matrinxã during the transport stress

Effect of Aloe vera extract on the improvement of the respiratory activity of leukocytes of matrinxã during the transport stress

substances to reduce the physiological stress in farmed fish, such as feeding high levels of vitamin C (Jaffa, 1989; Li et al., 1998) or using levamisole (Siwicki, 1989). In addition, feeding glucan at low doses several weeks before transportation of rainbow trout helped to prevent negative effects of stress (Jeney et al., 1997). High doses of vitamin C elevated the non-specific defense mechanisms of channel catfish (Li & Lovell, 1985; Hardie et al., 1991). Modulation of the immune response using medicinal plant products as a therapeutic measure has become the focus of extensive scientific investigation (Galina et al., 2009). A common theme running through recent research is the immunomodulatory properties of the gel polysaccharides, especially the acetylated mannans from Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis), a perennial succulent plant belonging to the Liliaceal family (Choi & Chung, 2003). However, there is little information on the use of Aloe vera in aquaculture (Kim et al., 1999) and no information focusing on its effects on the stress in farmed fish. In the present study, Aloe vera powder was added to the transport water to investigate whether the plant extract could minimize the transport stress and affect the respiratory activity of leukocytes of
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ALTERATIONS IN TOTAL PROTEIN CONCENTRATION, SERUM PROTEIN FRACTIONS AND ALBUMIN/GLOBULIN RATIO IN HEALTHY RABBITS

ALTERATIONS IN TOTAL PROTEIN CONCENTRATION, SERUM PROTEIN FRACTIONS AND ALBUMIN/GLOBULIN RATIO IN HEALTHY RABBITS

Liver has great capacity to synthesize and detoxify the drugs and other substances. Many of the toxic effects are associated with the use of herbal drugs. Excessive use of herbal drugs damages multiple organs, especially the liver and kidney. In various cases damaging of hepatocytes has ranged to mild increase in liver enzymes to the liver damage 1 . Low level of protein is the indicator of inflammatory bowel disease, liver problems and mal absorption etc. When albumin : globulin (A / G) ratio is low, which is associated with autoimmune diseases and nephrotic syndrome 2 . Traditional herbal medicines or folk medicines are widely used in almost all region of the world population. A variety of herbal drugs can cause cardiovascular abnormalities, renal and liver damage. Aloe vera (L) Burm. f. has transparent 3 colourless gel from fresh leaves. Major chemical constituents of leaf gel are polysaccharides 4 (hemicelluloses, pectins, mannose, glucomannan and acemannan derivatives) and tannins. It also contains water, enzymes, lipids, amino acids 5 , sterols such as β-sitosterol, lupeol, campesterol. The use of fresh Aloe vera gel is recommended because high temperature and humidity may alter the chemical composition of leaves of gel. Aloe vera gel has been used for the treatment of acute inflammation 6 via bradykinase activity and it may be due to plant sterol especially lupeol found in Alo vera, also effective in burns and is treated with Aloe vera gel. Synthesis of proteoglycan and collagen will increase by stimulation of macrophages and fibroblast activity. Aloe vera promotes the synthesis of both and plays an important role in wound healing. Aloe vera has been widely used in phytomedicine. The drug is widely used as a self-prescribed anti-aging drug 7 . It has anti-pruritic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti- proliferative, anti-aging effects, but several cases of Aloe vera -induced hepatotoxicity were also reported 8 . It increases the level of gamma-glutamyl tranferase, alkaline phosphatase when administered for two weeks daily 9 . Furthermore, the cytotoxic effect of Aloe vera may be due to different other chemicals and substances added during manufacturing process.
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Sao Paulo Med. J.  vol.132 número6

Sao Paulo Med. J. vol.132 número6

Selection criteria: We included all randomised controlled trials that evaluated the efectiveness of Aloe vera, aloe-derived products and a combination of Aloe vera and other dressings as a treatment for acute or chronic wounds. There was no restriction in terms of source, date of publication or language. An objective measure of wound healing (either proportion of completely healed wounds or time to complete healing) was the primary endpoint.

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A Review Of Fault Tolerant Scheduling In Multicore Systems

A Review Of Fault Tolerant Scheduling In Multicore Systems

assignments task on the cores and tolerate processing component failures which could either be rogeneous or heterogeneous. The heterogeneity of the processors implies that they have diverse velocities or transforming abilities. The transient flaw likelihood that may happen in transistors, entryways and even a bit, is called Architectural helplessness variable (AVF) [5]. By averaging over some time, this component can characterize the rate of soft errors that can show up on a core; while it runs a task. This algorithm when compared with other techniques we found that the proposed fault tolerant method outflanks both TMR and DMR methods about 35% in average. In computing most common topologies in N-Modulo Redundancy are TMR and DMR. TMR method is used when reliability of task is important as it can only mask the faults. The problem is that voter can also be faulty. The other method DMR includes two cores running parallel and checks for the similarity in the output thus only indicate the mismatch doesn’t tolerate the fault so have to use separate mechanism for fault recovery [5]. In software based fault tolerance based approach replica of process are used so it is necessary that replicas use same memory addresses. We also need to ensure that leader and follower use same replica copies. Replica can be created using fork system call in which process generates same process as follower process and it works same as leader process. If the result of both leader and follower process is same then we can say that there is no error. But if there is difference between leader and follower process then error is there. We can use check points for efficiency. If after execution of leader and follower process result is same then previous checkpoint is eliminated and if result
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Monitoring the modifications of Aloe vera by high performance liquid chromatography

Monitoring the modifications of Aloe vera by high performance liquid chromatography

In this study, the Aloe vera gel extracted from the leaf was evaluated and monitored by HPLC over 15 days. The Aloe vera compounds were firstly identified as reported by Okamura et al, [2], Saccù et al, [3], Zonta et al, [5] and Park et al, [11]. Saccù et al, [3] have characterized several Aloe barbadensis and Kenya aloe exudates by HPLC. Park et al, [11] used this method to identify and quantify over thirteen Aloe vera and Aloe arborescens phenolic compounds. Accordingly, they have used a water/methanol gradient as the mobil phase, at a flow rate of 0.7 ml/min, with readings at a wavelength of 293 nm. For comparison, we have carried out a complementary HPLC analysis followed at 220 nm, and using a water/acetonitrile gradient at a flow rate of 1ml/min.
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Chemical and physical properties of aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel stored after high hydrostatic pressure processing

Chemical and physical properties of aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel stored after high hydrostatic pressure processing

The use of aloe vera products often involves some type of processing such as heating, dehydration, and grinding. Unfortunately, as a result of improper processing procedures, many aloe products contain only very little or virtually no active ingredients, so that there is an imperative need to develop better methods of preservation, which would increase the shelf life of aloe vera gel simultaneously maintaining its high quality (CHANG  et  al., 2006; PISALKAR; JAIN; JAIN, 2011). High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is an innovative emerging technology with great potential for optimizing the intake of nutritive phytochemicals in human food (McINERNEY  et  al., 2007). Food processing using HHP involves the application of pressure on the product within a range of 50 to 1000 MPa. Through this technology, it is possible to obtain safe and wholesome food that maintain all the sensory qualities (FERRARI; MARESCA; CICCARONE, 2010; VÁSQUEZ-GUTIÉRREZ  et  al., 2011). Some of the advantages of high-pressure processing compared to thermal processing are: reduced process time; minimum heat damage problems; retention of freshness, flavor, texture, and color; reduced ice-crystal damage; and reduced alterations in functional properties (VEGA-GÁLVEZ et al., 2011a, b). It has been reported that pressure up to 350 MPa can be applied to plant systems without any major effect on texture and structure (KNORR, 1995). It is also generally assumed that the different published results of pressure effects on plant tissues are mainly due to product-specific pressure sensitivity and to specific stress response (SCHLÜTER et al., 2009). Therefore, in the present study the effect of high hydrostatic pressure, between 150 and 550 MPa, applied for 5 minutes, on the antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, color, rehydration characteristics, and firmness of aloe vera gel stored for 60 days at 4 °C was evaluated.
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M E IO A M B IE N T E S A U D E

M E IO A M B IE N T E S A U D E

Decocção e infusão de folhas frescas ou secas: gripe, tosse, rouquidão, bronquite, Maceração de folhas para uso externo: caspa e queda de cabelos.. Babosa - Aloe vera.[r]

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Rev. esc. enferm. USP  vol.44 número2

Rev. esc. enferm. USP vol.44 número2

Este estudio reporta el caso clínico de un paciente hipertenso, diabético, con una herida isquémica tratada con apósitos no convencionales de Aloe vera y colágeno, y forma parte de un proyecto de investiga- ción experimental coordinado por profeso- res y enfermeros que trabajan en proyec- tos de desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías para el tratamiento de heridas. El caso de referencia fue elegido entre muchos pa- cientes en seguimiento. Los datos fueron obtenidos por la anamnesis y el examen fí- sico del paciente, utilizándose un instru- mento con datos relativos a las condicio- nes del paciente y de la lesión, así como un registro fotográfico de la lesión. Las cura- ciones se realizaron diariamente, al cabo de aproximadamente diez semanas se obtuvo la curación total. No se observó incomodi- dad o cualquier otra complicación deriva- da de la utilización del producto, por lo que se concluye en que el tratamiento demos- tró una buena tolerabilidad y eficacia tera- péutica para este caso particular.
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NEO citerobacter freudii3

NEO citerobacter freudii3

The role of Citrobacter in Clinical disease of children: review Clinical infectious Diseases .1999;28:384-94.. Citrobacter freundii[r]

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Comparison of Medial and Lateral Meniscus Root Tears.

Comparison of Medial and Lateral Meniscus Root Tears.

Because the posterior horn is not easily visualized arthroscopically, these tears may be over- looked unless the examiner specifically searches for them. Therefore, an accurate MRI diagno- sis of a posterior root tear of the meniscus is clinically important. However, it can be difficult to diagnose a posterior root tear of the meniscus based on MRI due to the pulsation artifact from the popliteal artery, complex anatomy related to the origin of the meniscofemoral ligament, volume averaging and magic angle effect because of the slope of the meniscus on the tibial emi- nence [14, 15]. Therefore, the meniscal extrusion on MRI should be used as an additional clue for diagnosing a meniscal root tear, especially in the case of a medial meniscus root tear. Also, the lateral meniscus should be carefully evaluated when there is an ACL tear even though meniscal extrusion is rare in a lateral meniscus root tear. A different approach to reading MRI is recommended when diagnosing and evaluating medial and lateral meniscus root tears.
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Rev. esc. enferm. USP  vol.49 número6

Rev. esc. enferm. USP vol.49 número6

Objective: Determining which is the most efective solution (heparin lush compared to 0.9% saline lush) for reducing the risk of occlusions in central venous catheters (CVC) in adults. Method: he systematic review followed the principles proposed by the Cochrane Handbook; critical analysis, extraction and synthesis of data were performed by two independent researchers; statistical analysis was performed using the RevMan program 5.2.8. Results: Eight randomized controlled trials and one cohort study were included and the results of the meta-analysis showed no diference (RR=0.68, 95% CI=0.41-1.10; p=0.12). Analysis by subgroups showed that there was no diference in fully deployed CVC (RR=1.09, CI 95%=0.53-2.22; p=0.82); Multi-Lumen CVC showed beneicial efects in the heparin group (RR=0.53, CI 95%=0.29-0.95; p=0.03); in Double-Lumen CVC for hemodialysis (RR=1.18, CI 95%=0.08-17.82; p=0.90) and Peripherally inserted CVC (RR=0.14, CI 95%=0.01-2.60; p=0.19) also showed no diference. Conclusion: Saline solution is suicient for maintaining patency of the central venous catheter, preventing the risks associated with heparin administration.
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Braz. J. Cardiovasc. Surg.  vol.30 número4

Braz. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. vol.30 número4

A 26 years old woman with morbid obesity was admitted for bariatric surgery (laparoscopic adjustable gastric band- ing). The patient was released from the hospital after three days. After about four months she was admitted again, with an initial diagnosis of superior digestive hemorrhage and sta- tus post gastric banding. Clinically, the patient was conscious, cooperative, without signs of peritoneal irritation, with an ar- terial pressure of 110/60 mmHg. Radiological examination revealed an anteriorly malrotated ring, intraparietal illing with a radiopaque material, and a small retro-parietal istula in the gastric fundus. As the patient presented superior diges- tive hemorrhage and ring malrotation a surgical intervention was performed, whose aim was to extract the band. Lapa- roscopy was performed with the trocars located above the umbilicus, in the left lank, left and right hypochondriac area, and in the epigastrium.
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