Top PDF Analysing the Behaviour and Performance of Opportunistic Routing Protocols in Highly Mobile Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

Analysing the Behaviour and Performance of Opportunistic Routing Protocols in Highly Mobile Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

Analysing the Behaviour and Performance of Opportunistic Routing Protocols in Highly Mobile Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

Due to high mobility of nodes in the network it is quite often difficult to set the right priority for the forwarding nodes. Generating candidate lists based on metrics like hop count, expected transmission count may not lead to optimal paths for the data packet. Using blind opportunistic forwarding for better performance may lead to enormous routing overhead. In order to improve the performance a new class of opportunistic routing protocols were found out which used various statistical measures and learning tools to identify the list of potential forwarders and to prioritize them. A number of Probabilistic Opportunistic Routing protocols [43-51] were proposed to improve the quality of service in highly mobile ad hoc networks. Encounter Based Routing, (EBR) [48] is of the popular and widely used protocol in this category. EBR protocol was proposed to decrease the number of duplicate transmissions in the network. EBR establishes an upper limit for the duplicate packets generated for transmission of a data packet in the network to limit the number of duplicate packets.EBR measures the number of encounters each node is having with the other nodes in the network. This encounter value forms the basis of assignment of priority for the forwarding nodes in the network. Nodes with more number of encounters are assumed to have better probability of data delivery at the destination node and are selected as the best forwarder over the other nodes. The major advantage of EBR is that it reduced the number of duplicate transmissions in the network and increased bandwidth and reduced the delay in transmissions. The major drawback of this protocol was that it could not increase the delivery rate in the network.
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STUDY AND ANALYSIS OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORK

STUDY AND ANALYSIS OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORK

End to End delay is time of packet that traverse from source to destination. Figure 3 states that The end to end delay of the data packets that are successfully received by WLAN MAC and forwarded to the higher layers. The performance routing protocol is better when a packet end-to-end delay is low. The following graphs show end to end delay provided by the four different protocols by differing numbers of nodes by 5, 10, 15 and 20. Average end to end delay is very low at 20 nodes in AODV and TORA compare to other routing protocols. End to End delay increases when the node increases. In previous OPNET papers AODV, DSR comparison made by throughput and delay in wireless mesh network. Reactive and proactive routing protocols are taken in MANET, delay and load of DSR are increased and it is not suitable for wireless transmission and this is the reason, DSR is not appropriate for wireless transmissioin, because DSR contains entire routing information so that data packet is large. hence AODV is better, the reason is that need not carry the full routing information and increases
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Exploring the Behavior of Mobile Ad Hoc Network Routing Protocols with Reference to Speed and Terrain Range

Exploring the Behavior of Mobile Ad Hoc Network Routing Protocols with Reference to Speed and Terrain Range

reactive protocols AODV and DSR than proactive protocol DSDV but comparatively DSR showing best performance. Dropped packet problem is much more complicated in mobile ad hoc networks, because wireless links are subject to transmission errors and the network topology changes dynamically. It may be due to transmission errors, no route to the destination, broken links, congestions, etc. The effects of these causes are tightly associated with the network context (e.g., host mobility, number of connections, traffic load, etc.). A packet may be dropped at the source if a route to the destination is not available, or the buffer that stores pending packets is full. It may also be dropped at an intermediate host if the link to the next hop has broken. Dropped Packet is highest in DSDV because all of the dropped packets are lost as stale routing table entry directed them to be forwarded over broken link. In contrast, on-demand protocols, AODV and DSR build routing information as and when they are created make them more adaptive and result in better performance. When speed increases, the number of dropped packet increases. The main reason for dropping packets are that the protocol is sending packets on a broken route that it think is valid and that packet in the buffer are dropped because of congestion and timeouts.
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Realtime multiprocessor for mobile ad hoc networks

Realtime multiprocessor for mobile ad hoc networks

Portable electronic devices like PDAs, mobile phones and notebooks are increasingly equipped with wireless commu- nication technologies, providing higher degrees of mobil- ity and ease of use. Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are a special type of wireless networks that do not require any infrastructure and whose topology can change sponta- neously by the movement of participating nodes. To eval- uate the performance and energy efficiency of new routing algorithms, especially including directional communication (Grünewald et al., 2005b) and transmission power control (Xu et al., 2005), we use the network simulator SAHNE (Volbert, 2002), see Fig. 1. This environment emulates the packet processing of each participating node. Simulations have shown that communicating in eigth directions can in- crease the total thoughput in a mobile ad hoc network by the factor of 2.5.
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Performance evaluation of DSR Protocol under DoS attack

Performance evaluation of DSR Protocol under DoS attack

Abstract- A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) consists of mobile hosts equipped with wireless communication devices. A Mobile Ad hoc Network is a self-organizing, infrastructure less, multi-hop network. The transmission of a mobile host is received by all hosts within its transmission range due to the broadcast nature of wireless communication and unidirectional antenna. If two wireless hosts are out of their transmission ranges in the ad hoc networks, other mobile hosts located between them can forward their message, which effectively builds connected networks among the mobile hosts in the deployed area. One main challenge in design of these networks is their vulnerable nature to security attack. These attacks can be deployed by insider or outsider attacker. Sometime, the node from network can be attacker. This is happen because of mobility of nodes and changing network topology. There are different kind of attacks available in literature and can be implemented on MANET. One of these attacks is Grey Hole attack that has dangerous effect on Mobile Ad-Hoc Network. In this paper, we study the effect of Grey Hole attack on Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol in Mobile Ad-Hoc Network.
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EFFECTIVE APPROACH FOR REDUCING THE FLOODING IN ROUTING MECHANISM FOR MULTIHOP MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

EFFECTIVE APPROACH FOR REDUCING THE FLOODING IN ROUTING MECHANISM FOR MULTIHOP MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is an infrastructure less network provides multi hop based communication services, where the nodes are connected via wireless medium. Wireless networks can be broadly divided into single-hop and ad-hoc multi-hop networks. In single-hop network, the communication between nodes accomplished based on a fixed structure. The second type is the Mobile Ad-hoc Network, where the communication between nodes is accomplished via other nodes, which are called intermediate or forwarded nodes. It is well-known that one of the inherent characteristics of the multi hop MANET is that large interference area, where the mobile nodes overlap with each other. Each node in a MANET acts as a router to receive and forward packets for seamless communications between people and devices. The MANETs are used in various application domains such as battlefield communications, emergency services, disaster recovery, environmental monitoring, personal entertainment and mobile conferencing [1] and [2]. Suitable routing protocol mechanism is used for routing the packet and there are varieties mechanisms proposed by the researchers. In a MANET, nodes moves randomly, leave the network, or the power is switched off and new nodes may join the network unexpectedly. Due to this fact and characteristics, MANET is considered as an unstable network, where links between nodes may break frequently. Therefore, all the nodes in a MANET generates control message periodically and distribute it to update their connection states. However, due to the limited bandwidth constraint of the wireless medium, the protocols which use the medium should try to minimize the unnecessary traffic. Thus, it is imperative that an effective message distributing mechanism is essential for transmitting packets throughout the network.
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Study of Impact of Mobile Ad hoc Networking and its Future Applications

Study of Impact of Mobile Ad hoc Networking and its Future Applications

The huge way in which research activity has been going on, in both academia and industry, on wireless mobile ad hoc networks, is a representation of their tremendous potential now being well recognized. More and more results are appearing on problems related to basic network limitations, new protocols and their performance evaluations, network architecture and design, new technologies, and so on.For increased network reliability and enhanced QoS, it is required to develop and implement efficient routing algorithms and protocols. The significant thing is that such an algorithm must be evolved which dynamically calculates the route to forward and transfer data reliably, within the ad-hoc network or to a node that wishes to communicate with the wider internet.Such an algorithm will achieve multicast efficiency by tracking the availability of resources for each node within its neighborhood. Computation of free bandwidth will be based on reservations made for ongoing sessions and the requirements reported by the neighbors. The algorithm will proactively choose the next node on the route and generate table spontaneously.An ad-hoc network is highly dynamic, and transmissions are susceptible to fades, interference, and collisions from hidden/exposed stations, therefore, the algorithm will provide routes that can most probably satisfy the bandwidth requirement of a route, as long as the route is established.
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Proposed protocol for secured multi path routing in ad hoc networks

Proposed protocol for secured multi path routing in ad hoc networks

The common mobile network usually appears in forms, such as the cellular network or the wireless local area networks. Among cellular network, communication of portable terminal must finish with the aid of base station and switching of portable exchanger; in the wireless local area network, the portable terminal is connected to an existing infrastructural network through the wireless access point. However, today’s cellular networks use fix infrastructures, which are vulnerable to some special environments or the emergency such as the search and rescue after nature calamity. As a consequence, in such conditions, we need to rely on a kind of mobile communication network technology as the Ad Hoc network which individual nodes cooperate by forwarding packets for each other to allow nodes to communicate beyond direct wireless transmission range. Furthermore, it requires no centralized administration or fixed network infrastructure such as base stations or access points, and can be quickly and inexpensively set up as needed in the Ad Hoc network. They can be used in many special applications such as military usage, sensor networks, urgent and sudden occasion, and remote open-air area, interim occasions, personal communication, and business application. Until now, many routing protocols of Ad Hoc network are proposed [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6]. Compared with other traditional communication networks, there are several characteristics such as without a pre-existing infrastructure, dynamic topologies, dispose automatically, transmission bandwidth- constrained, and energy constrained operation in Ad Hoc network. Unfortunately, most of authors design originally routing protocols which mainly rely on the efficiency of the routing protocol and the quality of transmission of data. They do not consider the secure problem in the Ad Hoc network. Therefore, many experts and scholars have proposed different solutions to solve the secure problem in the Ad Hoc network
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A Comparison of the TCP Variants Performance over different Routing Protocols on Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

A Comparison of the TCP Variants Performance over different Routing Protocols on Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Abstract: We describe a variant of TCP (Tahoe, Vegas), TCP is most widely used transport protocol in both wired and wireless networks. In mobile ad hoc networks, the topology changes frequently due to mobile nodes, this leads to significant packet losses and network throughput degradation. This is due to the fact that TCP fails to distinguish the path failure and network congestion. In this paper, the performances of TCP over different routing (DSR, AODV and DSDV) protocols in ad hoc networks was studied by simulation experiments and results are reported.
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Byzantine fault-tolerant agreement protocols for wireless Ad hoc networks

Byzantine fault-tolerant agreement protocols for wireless Ad hoc networks

Given the usefulness of this model for wireless ad-hoc environments, it deserves a systematic study in order to circumvent its impossibility result. It is of particular importance, however, that this process does not involve extending the model with un- reasonable assumptions regarding the system. In this regard, randomization seems to be the best approach because it just implies assuming that processes have access to some local source of random information. Other approaches, previously used to cir- cumvent the FLP result, do not appear to be appropriate either for the communication failure model or our target environment. The Santoro-Widmayer impossibility applies for synchronous system, so further strengthening of timing assumptions is not possi- ble. The failure detector approach is also elusive, mainly because failure detectors usu- ally hide timing assumptions in their implementation. The collision detector approach of Chockler et al. (2005) does not use time, but instead makes simplistic assumptions about the environment. Namely, that message omissions are only due to collisions and that these can be detected. Finally, the wormhole approach may not be appropriate for wireless ad hoc networks. Assuming a hybrid model where some subpart of the system provides stronger reliability properties is very difficult to obtain in these environments. With respect to randomization, the goal is to design protocols for the communica- tion failure model that avoid the performance bottlenecks observed in Chapter 3. In order to achieve this goal, local coin protocols appear more appropriate for two rea- sons: (1) shared coin protocols involve cryptographic operations whose cost is usually prohibitive for mobile devices, and (2) the new model promises to cope much better with the communication costs involved because it reflects more closely the broadcast- ing nature of wireless environments.
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An Investigation about Performance Comparison of Multi-Hop Wireless Ad-Hoc Network Routing Protocols in MANET

An Investigation about Performance Comparison of Multi-Hop Wireless Ad-Hoc Network Routing Protocols in MANET

Professor Dr.M.L.Valarmathi received the B.E degree from Madurai Kamraj University and M.E degree from Bharathiar University, Tamilnadu, India in 1983 and 1990, respectively, and PhD degree from the Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, India, in 2007. She is currently the Assistant Professor, in the Department of computer Science & Engineering, Government College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India. Before joining Government College of Technology, Professor Valarmathi has been a Lecturer in Allagappa Chettiyar College of Technology, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu, India. Her research interests include theory and practical issues of building distributed systems, Internet computing and security, mobile computing, performance evaluation, and fault tolerant computing, Image Processing, Optimization Techniques. She is a member of the ISTE. Professor Valarmathi has published more than 20 papers in refereed international journals and refereed international conferences proceedings.
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An Efficient Quality of Service Based Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

An Efficient Quality of Service Based Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

A Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes that can communicate with each other using multi-hop wireless links without utilizing any fixed based- station infrastructure and centralized management. Each mobile node in the network acts as both a host generating flows or being destination of flows and a router forwarding flows directed to other nodes. With the popularity of ad hoc networks, many routing protocols have been designed for route discovery and route maintenance. They are mostly designed for best effort transmission without any guarantee of quality of transmissions. Some of the most famous routing protocols are Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV), Optimized Link State Routing protocol (OLSR), and Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP). In MAC layer, one of the most popular solutions is IEEE 802.11. At the same time, Quality of Service (QoS) models in ad hoc networks become more and more required because more and more real time and multimedia applications are implemented on the network. In MAC layer, IEEE 802.11e is a very popular issue discussed to set the priority to users. In routing layer, QoS are guaranteed in terms of data rate, delay, and jitter and so
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Design and Implementation of AMRP for Multi hop wireless Mobile ad hoc Networks

Design and Implementation of AMRP for Multi hop wireless Mobile ad hoc Networks

The delay performance of wireless networks, however, has largely been an open problem. This problem is notoriously difficult even in the context of wire line networks, primarily because of the complex interactions in the network (e.g., superposition, routing, departure, etc.) that make its analysis amenable only in very special cases like the product form networks. The problem is further exacerbated by the mutual interference inherent in wireless networks which, complicates both the scheduling mechanisms and their analysis. Some novel analytical techniques to compute useful lower bound and delay estimates for wireless networks with single hop traffic were developed. However; the analysis is not directly applicable to multi-hop wireless network with multi hop flows, due to the difficulty in characterizing the departure process at intermediate links.
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LINK STABILITY WITH ENERGY AWARE AD HOC ON DEMAND MULTIPATH ROUTING PROTOCOL IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

LINK STABILITY WITH ENERGY AWARE AD HOC ON DEMAND MULTIPATH ROUTING PROTOCOL IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

Mobile Ad Hoc Network is one of the wireless network in which mobile nodes are communicate with each other and have no infrastructure because no access point. The MANET protocols can be classified as proactive and reactive routing protocol. The proactive routing protocols, all nodes which participated in network have routing table. This table updated periodically and is used to find the path between source and destination. The reactive routing protocol, nodes are initiate route discovery procedure when on- demand routes. In order to find the better route in MANET, many routing protocols are designed in the recent years. But those protocols are not concentrating about communication links and battery energy. Communication links between nodes and energy of nodes are very important factor for improving quality of routing protocols. This study presents innovative Link Stability with Energy Aware (LSEA) multipath routing protocol. The key idea of the protocol is find the link quality, maximum remaining energy and lower delay. Reflections of these factors are increasing the qualities like packet delivery ratio, throughputs and reduce end- to-end delay. The LSEAMRP was simulated on NS-2 and evaluation results also shown.
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DYNAMIC K-MEANS ALGORITHM FOR OPTIMIZED ROUTING IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

DYNAMIC K-MEANS ALGORITHM FOR OPTIMIZED ROUTING IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

In this paper, a dynamic K-means algorithm to improve the routing process in Mobile Ad-Hoc networks (MANETs) is presented. Mobile ad-hoc networks are a collocation of mobile wireless nodes that can operate without using focal access points, pre-existing infrastructures, or a centralized management point. In MANETs, the quick motion of nodes modifies the topology of network. This feature of MANETS is lead to various problems in the routing process such as increase of the overhead massages and inefficient routing between nodes of network. A large variety of clustering methods have been developed for establishing an efficient routing process in MANETs. Routing is one of the crucial topics which are having significant impact on MANETs performance. The K-means algorithm is one of the effective clustering methods aimed to reduce routing difficulties related to bandwidth, throughput and power consumption. This paper proposed a new K-means clustering algorithm to find out optimal path from source node to destinations node in MANETs. The main goal of proposed approach which is called the dynamic K-means clustering methods is to solve the limitation of basic K-means method like permanent cluster head and fixed cluster members. The experimental results demonstrate that using dynamic K-means scheme enhance the performance of routing process in Mobile ad-hoc networks.
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Topology Discovering and Power saving Mechanism for Routing in a Tree of Ad-hoc Wireless Networks

Topology Discovering and Power saving Mechanism for Routing in a Tree of Ad-hoc Wireless Networks

In wireless communications networks, energy consumption is a major performance metric, lower is the energy consumption longer is the network life time. Thus, there are an increasing interest in power saving. Since energy conservation is not an issue of one particular layer of the network protocols stack. Many researches have focused on cross layer design to conserve energy more effectively. One such effort is to employ power control at the MAC layer and to design a power aware routing at the network layer. Power control is a mechanism that varies the transmission power level when sending packets. The primary benefit of power control is to increase channel capacity. The secondary benefit is to conserve energy in a manner to increase the system life time as possible. One possible way to reduce energy consumption is to exchange RTS/CTS packets at maximum power and to send their DATA/ACK packets at minimum power needed for reliable communications. The transmission power determines the range over which the signal can be coherently received, and is therefore crucial in determining the performance of the network ( throughput, delay, and energy consumption).
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Efficient Load Balancing Routing Technique for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Efficient Load Balancing Routing Technique for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

The communication in MANETs is possible due to use of routing protocols which help to discover the communication paths, select the paths, forward data on current paths, maintain the routes, and handle frequent changes in routes due to frequent nodes movements. The traditional and existing routing protocols did not addressed the issues related to QoS (Quality of Service). QoS is nothing but the level of performance of particular routing protocol of service providing to network end users. Many real time applications especially multimedia programs having the QoS requirements which must be achieved. The basic aim of QoS solutions is to get the improved deterministic behaviour of network with the objective of delivering the data carried by wireless network rightly, and utilization of network resources should be efficient. However, there is still the research challenge of maintaining the QoS solutions according to end users mobility. Many of the existing routing protocols presented so far for MANET are targeted either at minimizing the data traffic in wireless network or at reducing the number of hops taken to deliver packets.
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Paper Survey of Different Energy Efficient Schemes in Wireless Ad hoc Network

Paper Survey of Different Energy Efficient Schemes in Wireless Ad hoc Network

This paper [15] has focus on the heterogeneous Wireless Ad hoc Networks, where most nodes, denoted as B- nodes, are equipped with limited power sources like batteries, while some other nodes, denoted as P-nodes, have relatively unlimited power supplies, e.g., power scavenging units such as solar cells, or dynamos when they are installed in mobile vehicles, etc. First, following the cross-layer design philosophy, we propose a Device-Energy- Load Aware Relaying framework, named DELAR, to achieve energy conservation by utilizing the inherent heterogeneity of nodal power capabilities. Second, we design a hybrid transmission scheduling scheme, combining both the reservation-based and contention based medium access control schemes, to coordinate the transmissions among P-nodes and B-nodes, which attempts to make the best use of powerful nodes while controlling their interferences to other ongoing transmissions. Third, we develop “mini-routingand asymmetric MAC (A-MAC) protocols to support the MAC layer acknowledgements over unidirectional links due to the use of asymmetric transmission power levels between P-nodes and B-nodes.
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MULTICAST ROUTING WITH QUALITY OF SERVICE CONSTRAINTS IN THE AD HOC WIRELESS NETWORKS

MULTICAST ROUTING WITH QUALITY OF SERVICE CONSTRAINTS IN THE AD HOC WIRELESS NETWORKS

Some previous works on the issue of energy efficiency had made great progress. Singh et al. (1998) proposed five power-aware metrics that can be easily incorporated into existing routing protocols. These metrics are based on battery power consumption at nodes. Kawadia and Kumar (2003) proposed to have clusters with different level of transmitting powers, where each may belong to more than one cluster of different power levels and routing could be determined using the least power paths. Wieselthier et al. (2000), studied the problem of reducing the total energy cost of a broadcast/multicast tree by adjusting the energy power of each node. They proposed three greedy heuristics namely Broadcasting Incremental Power (BIP), Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) and the Shortest-Path Tree (SPT). Wan et al. (2001) proposed a quantitative analysis to measure the performance of these heuristics. The MEM problem was studied in the same way as the MEB problem. The resulting minimum-energy broadcast tree is pruned to construct the minimum-energy multicast tree by eliminating from it all transmissions not needed to reach the member of the multicast set. When applied to BIP, the resulting algorithm is called Multicast Incremental Power (MIP) (Wieselthier et al., 2000).
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A Performance Comparison of Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc  Networks

A Performance Comparison of Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc Networks

Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes in which the wireless links are frequently broken down due to mobility and dynamic infrastructure. Routing is a significant issue and challenge in ad hoc networks. Many routing protocols have been proposed like OLSR, AODV so far to improve the routing performance and reliability. In this paper, we describe the Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (OLSR) and the Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV). We evaluate their performance through exhaustive simulations using the Network Simulator 2 (ns2) by varying conditions (node mobility, network density). Keywords - MANET; OLSR; AODV; ns2.
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