Top PDF The Analysis of Different Production Planning Decision Models in the Supply Chain Network

The Analysis of Different Production Planning Decision Models in the Supply Chain Network

The Analysis of Different Production Planning Decision Models in the Supply Chain Network

essential technology in a wide range of electronic products, the “multi-stage” is composed of Array, Color filter, Cell and Module processes, and each production stage has several different generation plants located in varied places (e.g. in Taiwan or in China), called “multi-site” environment. Under the structure of the multi-site, multi-stage environment, the global planners will face production allocation problem to satisfy the demands of the customers. The decisions may include the manufacturing routings of demand products, and production quantities among multiple plants. For instance, a certain final demand of TFT-LCD products may be supplied from Array-Plant-1, Cell-Plant-2 to Module-Plant-1. And if the number of the final demand products is one hundred units, the planner may decide that seventy units are supplied from Module-Plant-1 and other thirty units are supplied from Module-Plant-2. These allocation planning operations are executed by the global (or headquarters) planners based on the monthly time-bucket.
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Green supply chain design and planning

Green supply chain design and planning

In short, given: a) product’s demand; b) bills of materials; c) a possible superstructure for the supply chain entities; d) distances between each pair of entities; e) maximum and minimum supplying flow, storage and production capacities, and installation areas; f) area occupied per product unit; g) price per sold product; h) weight of each product unit; i) transportation costs per kilometer and per unit; j) raw material and production costs; k) warehouse renting costs; l) initial stock levels, m) carbon credits from the usage of certified raw materials; and n) the environmental impacts of transportation, production processes, production at suppliers (if applicable), and per square meter of entity opened area, the goal is to determine 1) the network structure; 2) the installed production technologies; 3) the production and storage levels at each entity; 4) the transportation network; and 5) the flow between entities, so as to minimize the global supply chain environmental impact.
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Prod.  vol.24 número2

Prod. vol.24 número2

A number of research papers reported in the supply chain management literature have contributed to the development of models that adopt the contingency approach, departing from Fisher’s seminal paper (1997). His model has been tested and enriched in several studies. For example, Li and O’Brien (2001) have carried out a quantitative analysis to mach product types to supply chains; Ramdas and Spekman (2000) explored the contingent relationship between supply chain management processes and the characteristics of the products being produced and delivered; Lee (2002) expanded the framework to consider the supply risk and uncertainty in upstream operations; Germain, Claycomb and Dröge (2008) studied the effectiveness of different organization structures to deal with different contextual conditions, namely the level of demand predictability faced by supply chains and Blackburn et al. (2004) suggested that different configurations of reverse supply chains should be used for different categories of products being commercially returned. These studies have demonstrated the importance of aligning management practices with context in achieving better supply chain performance.
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Production Resource Management in the Industrialised House-Building Supply Chain

Production Resource Management in the Industrialised House-Building Supply Chain

․Step 1: Identify critical process segment. For this case it was appropriate to consider the entire process as the company did not have any systematic measurements. However, for more mature production systems, the unit of analysis could be narrowed down to single machines or activities. The step is dependent on the overall objective, e.g. decision support in rebuilding production systems or providing an overview of experience and competence required for a specific activity (Ståhl, 2008). ․ Step 2: Characterise response parameters and resources. Because of the lack of measurements it was impossible to make any investigation on the takt in the process. The other parameters and factors were important for the company to characterise as they provide an overview of resources and possible problems within the production system. In this step it is important to find a balance in the complexity, meaning a resolution for the resource and parameter definitions so that it is neither too simple so it does not provide any useful
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A Dynamic Optimization Algorithm for Supply Chain Planning

A Dynamic Optimization Algorithm for Supply Chain Planning

Following the example of several authors, this project was based on the creation of an optimization algorithm as the backbone of the decision process. To determine the impact of each variable, we employed an ABC based on Time-driven processes merged with the philosophy of Cost to Serve. As the beginning of the supply chain concerns the arrival of products from suppliers, one might think that TCO would be a better alternative. However, such is the case when the option to choose between suppliers is considered in this evaluation. In this system, the supplier is chosen by the brand and HUUB proceeds to act from this point forward, thus, the opportunity to select suppliers is non-existing. Due to the disadvantages mentioned in chapter 2.2.2, the fact that this method is not an integrated overall approach, and that the main advantage has no impact in this scenario, the TCO is excluded. Regarding the DPP, several authors mention this tool as inadequate to supply chain costing since only the direct costs are considered, therefore this option is also excluded. The ABC model does not provide feedback on how to change the processes but rather transmits cost data regarding each activity. Additionally, high human effort is required to implement this technique and maintain it updated. On the context of this project, the first disadvantage does not influence the decision process since the objective is to plan the operation based on the impact of each current process. To eliminate the human effort, the acquisition of data will be made directly from the information system. This action is even easier when imposing a Time-driven quantification because only one parameter is obtained and kept on the database. With the inclusion of the Cost-to-Serve, the analysis of the process is more thorough since the same process can have a distinct impact between brands and/or sales channel.
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Pesqui. Oper.  vol.32 número3

Pesqui. Oper. vol.32 número3

Oil companies are global multinational organizations whose decisions involve a large number of factors related to the supply of raw materials, their processing and distribution. For compa- nies with strongly diversified sources of petroleum supply, a long cast of products, and multiple markets, the advance planning of all activities along the supply chain is vital. Such planning includes the definition of production levels of oil (from oil fields) and of petroleum byproducts (from oil refineries), as well as the distribution among these refineries and to the final consumers of oil products. Major oil companies are characterized by integrated and verticalized activi- ties, and the activities of refining and distributing oil products are characterized by low profit margins. Therefore, techniques for decision-making optimization are frequently used in the con- text of the oil supply chain.
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Investigating The Use Of Mobile Computing In Zimbabwe Polytechnics Case Of A Polytechnic In Zimbabwe

Investigating The Use Of Mobile Computing In Zimbabwe Polytechnics Case Of A Polytechnic In Zimbabwe

1. INTRODUCTION In the period prior to 2003 Polytechnics in Zimbabwe had a mix of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs), varying from one institution to the other. There was no uniformity as to what ICTs individual institutions invested in, so while some institutions had several computer laboratories of clone desktops, some did not have even a single lab. While some had connected to the internet through the dialup system which came through telephone lines, some had no idea what internet was.A breakthrough came in 2003 when a non- governmental organization called VVOB, a Belgian abbreviation which translates in English to Flemish for Technical Assistance, came in with a project called the College Information Technology Enhancement Programme (CITEP), which helped to finance, train personnel and equip polytechnics with standard computer and network infrastructure (VVOB project document, 2003). They conducted training workshops for personnel, procured standard desktops, and installed fibre internet connectivity and setup Ethernet networks in these institutions. This project became the basis for mobile computing in Polytechnics. When the project ended in 2008, the institutions were now coordinated and some managed to go a step further by installing wireless access points within institutions using the fibre backbone. This allowed staff and students who had WIFI enabled devices to be able to access internet and research
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An Advancement To The Security Level Through Galois Field In The Existing Password Based Technique Of Hiding Classified Information In Images

An Advancement To The Security Level Through Galois Field In The Existing Password Based Technique Of Hiding Classified Information In Images

Let „S‟ be the password of length „T‟ characters. The password could be of any length and any combination of characters like lower case letters, upper case letters, and special characters. The choice of password doesn‟t affect the performance of the algorithm. It is used to enhance the security of the algorithm by one more level. This password is converted into a binary code and is used for storing one of the bits of the 2BC. It is repeated until all bits are embedded. Let E (i, j) be another randomly selected pixel from the cover image. The lower nibble of E will be used to hide the 2BC‟s obtained from the matching positions of M, in different positions as shown in Fig. 2 based on a password. If the password bit is „0‟, then the first bit of 2BC is saved in position 1, else it is saved in position 2. The second bit of 2BC can be saved using the technique described below. Save the second bit in a specific order. For example, the first 10 bits are hidden in position 1 or 2, whichever, is available after embedding the first bit of the 2BC, the next five bits are hidden in position 3 and next bit is hidden in position 4. Repeat the same pattern until all bits are embedded. By using this approach, the PSNR value can be controlled to some degree.
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Managament quality of tools in the planned housing casting

Managament quality of tools in the planned housing casting

Subbotko, Methods of distribution of tool at units based on TM software of Guhring, Production Engineering Wroc ł aw University of Technology,(2006) 273- 280 (in Polish).. Bocheński, C[r]

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Selection of the temperature of casting the bronzes to plaster moulds

Selection of the temperature of casting the bronzes to plaster moulds

Bronzes after melting were overheated to the temperature suita- bly: 1200 °C, 1180 °C, 1160 °C and 1140 °C, and then the mould was casted - probe TDAg and plaster mould with thin-walled, so- called casts test slats about dimensions: the length L=100 mm, width A=15 mm, thickness B ={4,0.8,0.5} mm (Fig. 2). Plaster moulds were executed from the mixture PRIMA-CAST about the water-plaster relation 0.4. The solidification modulus of the sections of casts, shaped in the niches of the plaster mould imitat- ing test slats were qualified from example (4):
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Analysis of quality and cost of FeSiMg treatment master alloy vs. cored wire in production of ductile cast iron

Analysis of quality and cost of FeSiMg treatment master alloy vs. cored wire in production of ductile cast iron

The results of studies on the use of FeSi5%Mg magnesium alloy in modern cored wire injection method for production of nodular and vermicular graphite cast irons were described. The injection of Mg cored wire length is a treatment method which can be used to process The injection of Mg cored wire length is a treatment method which can be used to process iron melted in an electric induction furnace. This paper describes the results of using a high-magnesium ferrosilicon alloy in cored wire (Mg recovery 47-70%) for the production of vermicular and nodular graphite cast irons at in at least 13 foundries. The results of calculations and experiments have indicated the length of the cored wire to be injected basing on the initial sulfur content and weight of the treated melt. The results of numerous trials have shown that the magnesium cored wire process can produce high quality nodular and vermicular graphite irons under the specific industrial conditions of the above mentioned foundries. It has also been proved that in the manufacture of nodular graphite iron, the cost of the nodulariser in the form of elastic cored wire is lower than the cost of the FeSiMg5 master alloys.
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Assessment Of Some Acceleration Schemes In The Solution Of Systems Of Linear Equations.

Assessment Of Some Acceleration Schemes In The Solution Of Systems Of Linear Equations.

Richardson with SOR, Chebyshev with Gauss-Seidel and Chebyshev with SOR. The iterative schemes were applied to Banded system, Tridiagonal systems and SPD system with varying dimensions. The Krylov subspace methods: GMRES, QMR, MINRES and BiCGSTAB converged to an approximate solutions less than or equal to the dimension of the coefficient matrix for each identified systems of linear equations. Again, Chebyshev and Richardson acceleration methods were the fastest convergence methods in terms of number of iterations. Again, Residual smoothing and the accelerated gradient schemes should be used for large and sparse systems of linear equations. The acceleration processes were very efficient when solving large and sparse systems of linear equation and therefore useful especially for systems resulting from the solution of partial differential equations.
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The comparison of the structure and microhardness of the tool steel C90 and HS 6-5-2 remelted with the electric arc

The comparison of the structure and microhardness of the tool steel C90 and HS 6-5-2 remelted with the electric arc

The tool steels consistute a very important group of materials used for the production, not only tools, but also machine ele- ments, that need to have the increased strength, for example the high-speed steels are used on the rolling bearing operating in high temperatures [1]. Modern technologies such as: laser treatment, electron treatment, CVD, PVD methods, give the possibility of forming the structure of the surface layer of steels providing the demaded properties. The economic factors direct research in using the plasma of the electric arc for shaping the surface layer of the machine elements and tools. Advantages of that method are the possibilities of receiving wider treated areas with one stream of the heat in comparison with the laser technologies or electron
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A Method To Find The Area Of Sector Without The Usage Of Angle Made By The Chord

A Method To Find The Area Of Sector Without The Usage Of Angle Made By The Chord

As we know that to find the area of sector the angle made by the chord (that is chord which divides the circle) is required. But in the below method we find the ratio of the segments of the circle. Thus by relating the area of segment to the area of sector the area of sector could be found. The ratio of area of segments is related to tangents that are drawn through diameter on either side.

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Supply chain strategies in the context of an ecommerce chain (E-Chain)

Supply chain strategies in the context of an ecommerce chain (E-Chain)

In regard to notebooks, a responsive strategy is suitable; in other words, the supply chain should be aligned so as to reduce response time, which is essential for electronic commerce since, if the chain is not able to meet the needs in the least time possible, it will lose the competition to a traditional retail supply chain. This requires the use of computational tools and rapid response logistics to meet customer demands. However, one must not lose track of costs, the key point for responsive supply chains, because the margins of the products in this stage of development are less than those characterized in the context of the agility, which allows a greater operating cost.
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The Influence of Small Amounts of Aluminium on the Spheroidization of Cast Iron with Cerium Mischmetal

The Influence of Small Amounts of Aluminium on the Spheroidization of Cast Iron with Cerium Mischmetal

The analysis was carried out concerning the data gathered in Tables 4-7 and photographs presenting both the shape, the magnitude, and the distribution of graphite precipitates (Figs 1, 3, 5, 7), as well as those showing the microstucture of cast iron (Figs 2, 4, 6, 8). It allowed for the assessment of the influence of aluminium added in the quantity falling into the concerned range on both the graphitization of cast iron and its susceptibility to spheroidization with cerium mischmetal. The latter addition was used in the quantity of 0.11 wt% of the material subjected to the treatment.
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AN OVERVIEW ON THE BRAZILIAN ORANGE JUICE PRODUCTION CHAIN

AN OVERVIEW ON THE BRAZILIAN ORANGE JUICE PRODUCTION CHAIN

Orange juice represents one of the main production chains in Brazil, corresponding to nearly 17.8 million tons produced yearly. Records during 2009 indicate a production of 1.0 million tons of orange juice, which is equivalent to 57% and 80% of the world’s exports (DESER, 2009). Most orange juices are mechanically extracted and concentrated to reduce the cost of transportation and storage (CRANDALL et al, 1987; ARENA et al., 2006). The commercial processes of concentrating orange juice usually involves the removal of water at high temperature followed by recovery and concentration of volatile aromas, and their addition back to the concentrated product. However, most juice manufacturers do not restore all the original volatiles, probably for economic reasons (ARENA et al., 2006). Orange juice can be frozen and sold as frozen concentrated orange juice (FCOJ), or stored and shipped in bulk to a distant distribution point where dilution, reheating, and packaging occurs. The aroma of many RFC juices heated or processed, differ from that of freshly squeezed oranges (BRAT et al., 2003; ARENA et al., 2006). This off-odor is observed most commonly in canned RFC juices, which are heated twice, one during the concentration process and again after the juice is diluted with local water and hot filled to sterilize the container. These thermal treatments induce chemical changes in orange juices, which severely degrade the fresh orange juice volatiles, and produce new volatiles (SHAW et al., 1993).
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The modification process of AlSi21CuNi silumin and its effect on change of mechanical properties of the alloy

The modification process of AlSi21CuNi silumin and its effect on change of mechanical properties of the alloy

Essence of modification of silumins boils to change of form or size of silicon crystals present as eutectic or primary ones. Perfect sliding properties and high abrasion resistance of hypereutectoid silumins result from their structure, which can be characterized by precipitations of primary crystals of silicon in soft eutectic groundmass. Primary crystals of silicon are unfavorable due to their impact on machinability of material. They bring about considerable wear of tools and have negative effect on conditions of machined surface (big roughness). In case of hypereutectic silumins, by introduction of active nucleuses of crystallization are refined mainly a brittle, hard precipitations of primary silicon [1]. High content o silicon results in necessity of superheating of the alloy in limits of 850 – 900 C and keeping it
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The impact of regulatory policies on the supply chain resilience: regulation as supply chain resilience reducer in the medical and pharmaceutical supply chain in Brazil

The impact of regulatory policies on the supply chain resilience: regulation as supply chain resilience reducer in the medical and pharmaceutical supply chain in Brazil

According to Oke and Gopalakrishnan (2008), the supply chain risk literature is focused on two combination of probability levels and impact of risk: 1) High-likelihood with low-impact risks: inherent and frequent in the supply chain operations and 2) low-likelihood with high-impact risk: including economic crisis, and natural or man-made disasters that engender supply chain disruptions. These types of risks are similarly classified by Tang (2006) respectively as operational and disruption risk. Most companies neglect the second group of risks in their supply risk assessment due to its low probability, disregarding the catastrophic effects of these disruptions (Chopra & Sodhi, 2004; Zsidisin et al., 2005; Oke & Gopalakrishnan, 2008). However, Oke and Gopalakrishnan (2008) analyzed the retail supply chains and identified the existence of several risks of medium probability with moderate impact, demonstrating that different industries and segments can have risks of different kinds and levels.
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Evaluation of susceptibility of the ZRE1 alloy to hot cracking in conditions of forced strain

Evaluation of susceptibility of the ZRE1 alloy to hot cracking in conditions of forced strain

This work in combination with industrial tests of casting welding show that the causes of high-temperature brittleness are the partial tears of the structure and the hot cracks of both the castings and the welded and padded joints. Such phenomena should be treated as irreversible failures caused by the process of crystallisation that is in the area of co-existence of the solid and liquid structural constituent. The assessment of the resistance to hot fractures was conducted on the basis of the transvarestriant trial. The transvarestriant trial consists in changing of strain during welding It was stated that the range of the high-temperature brittleness is very broad, which significantly limits the application of the welding techniques to join or mend the elements made of alloy ZRE-1. The brittleness is caused mainly by metallurgical factors, i.e., precipitation of inter-metal phases from the solid solution.
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