Top PDF Anonymity Preserving Routing In Location Privacy Schemes In Wireless Sensor Networks

Anonymity Preserving Routing In Location Privacy Schemes In Wireless Sensor Networks

Anonymity Preserving Routing In Location Privacy Schemes In Wireless Sensor Networks

Location privacy measures need to be developed to prevent the opponent from determining the physical locations of source sensors and sinks. An opponent can easily intercept network traffic due to the use of a broadcast medium for routing packets and get detailed information such as packet transmission time and frequency to perform traffic analysis and infer the locations of monitored objects and data sinks. On the other hand, sensors usually have limited processing speed and energy supplies. It is very expensive to apply traditional anonymous communication techniques for hiding the communication between sensor nodes and sinks. The existing source-location privacy protects the location of monitored objects to increase the number of messages sent by the source before the object is located by the attacker. The flooding technique has the source node send each packet through numerous paths to a sink making it difficult for an opponent to trace the source. The locations of sinks can be protected from a local eavesdropper by hashing the ID field in the packet header. But opponent can track sinks by carrying out time correlation and rate monitoring attacks. Besides protection some source nodes are transferring relatively large amounts of data in existing system. As a result, these nodes run out of battery faster due to improper position of nodes and sinks. Thus in the proposed system the sinks should be located as optimally as possible to reduce traffic flow and energy consumption for sensor nodes. Hence Sink placement problem is resolved for minimizing the delay as well as maximizing the lifetime of a WSN. Thus proposed system is efficient in terms of overhead and functionality when compared to existing system.
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Range Free Localization Schemes for Wireless Sensor Networks

Range Free Localization Schemes for Wireless Sensor Networks

116 and hard locations. Localization (location estimation) capability is essential in most of the WSN applications, where, the sensed data is meaningless without the knowledge of precise location from where it is obtained. In addition, location awareness plays an important role in designing energy efficient routing protocols for wireless sensor networks [22, 23, 24]. Location of sensor nodes can be obtained either by placing the sensor nodes at points with known coordinates or by deployment of global positioning systems (GPS) on every sensor node. Since, the sensor nodes are randomly thrown in the sensing field in large numbers; they cannot be placed at the known location. Also, deployment of GPS on every sensor node is not feasible as it will escalate the cost of sensor network deployment. Therefore, wireless sensor localization techniques are used to estimate the location of sensor nodes in the network using the apriori location knowledge of few specific sensor nodes deployed in sensing field, known as anchor nodes. The anchor nodes can obtain their location using global positioning system (GPS), or by placement at points with known coordinates. In application requiring knowledge of global coordinate systems, the anchors determine the location of sensor nodes with reference to the global coordinate system and the application where a local coordinate system is sufficient, the position of sensor nodes are referred to the local coordinate system of network. Many localization algorithms exist in the literature for location estimation of sensor nodes in WSN [1, 6, 12, 18, 23, 24]. The localization algorithms can be divided into two categories: (i) range- based localization techniques [7, 10, 18], and (ii) range-free localization techniques [4, 9, 12]. Range-based localization is defined by protocols that use absolute point
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HLAODV - A Cross Layer Routing Protocol for Pervasive Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks Based On Location

HLAODV - A Cross Layer Routing Protocol for Pervasive Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks Based On Location

personalized services while ensuring a fair degree of privacy / non-intrusiveness. The goal of pervasive computing is to create ambient- intelligence, reliable connectivity, and secure and ubiquitous services in order to adapt to the associated context and activity. To make this envision a reality, various interconnected sensor networks have to be set up to collect context information, providing context-aware pervasive computing with adaptive capacity to dynamically changing environment. Wireless sensor networks (WSN) can help people to be aware of a lot of particular and reliable information anytime anywhere by monitoring, sensing, collecting and processing the information of various environments and scattered objects [24]. The flexibility, fault tolerance, high sensing, self- organization, fidelity, low-cost and rapid deployment characteristics of sensor networks are ideal to many new and exciting application areas such as military, environment monitoring, intelligent control, traffic management, medical treatment, manufacture industry, antiterrorism and so on [18,23]. Therefore, recent years have witnessed the rapid development of WSNs. In this paper, we address the issue of cross-layer networking for the pervasive networks , where the physical and MAC layer knowledge of the wireless medium is shared with network layer, in order to provide efficient routing scheme to prolong the network life time.
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A Survey on Threats and Security schemes in Wireless Sensor Networks

A Survey on Threats and Security schemes in Wireless Sensor Networks

4.1.4 Wormhole: Wormhole attack is a critical attack in which the attacker records the packets at one location in the network and tunnels those to another location. In the wormhole attack, an adversary eavesdrop the packet and can tunnel messages received in one part of the network over a low latency link and retransmit them in a different part. This generates a false scenario that the original sender is in the neighborhood of the remote location. The tunneling procedure forms wormholes in a sensor network. The tunneling or retransmitting of bits could be done selectively. The simplest case of this attack is to have a malicious node forwarding data between two legitimate nodes. Wormholes often convince distant nodes that they are neighbors, leading to quick exhaustion of their energy resources. Wormholes are effective even if routing information is authenticated or encrypted. This attack can be launched by insiders and outsiders. This can create a sinkhole since the adversary on the other side of the wormhole can artificially provide a high quality route to the base station, potentially all traffic in the surrounding area will be drawn through her if alternate routes are significantly less attractive. When this attack is coupled with selective forwarding and the Sybil attack it is very difficult to detect. More generally, wormholes can be used to exploit routing race conditions. A routing race condition typically arises when a node takes some action based on the
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A Novel Solitude Conserving Location Monitoring Approach for  Wireless Sensor Networks

A Novel Solitude Conserving Location Monitoring Approach for Wireless Sensor Networks

Observing individual locations with a capable untrusted server impose secrecy threats to the monitored individuals. In this paper we propose “A Novel Solitude Conserving Location Monitoring approach for Wireless Sensor networks”. We design two approaches to study nondescript locations in-network approaches, namely quality-aware and resource-aware approaches, that aims to enable the system to give high end quality location monitoring services for end users, while conserving personal location privacy. Both approaches are worked based on k-anonymity solitude (i.e.,an object is indistinguishable among k objects), to enable highly trusted sensor nodes to provide the collective location data of monitored objects for our system. Each collective location is in a form of a observed area X along with the number of monitored objects reside in X. The resource-aware approach objective to optimize the computational and communication value, while quality-aware approach aims to increase the reliability of the collective location data by reducing their observing areas. We use spatial histogram methodology to estimates the distribution of observing objects based on the gathered collective location data. We evaluated these two approaches through simulated experiments. The simulation results shows that these approaches gives high quality location observing services for end users and assure the location secrecy of the monitored objects.
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Performance Evaluation of Spatial Vector Routing Protocol for
Wireless Sensor Networks

Performance Evaluation of Spatial Vector Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

LAR protocol assumes the nodes know their location, which could be easily calculated with a GPS receiver. Nodes knowing their location could estimate the position of mobile nodes. To compute mobile nodes position their position should be known at a certain time and the speed at which they are moving. LAR protocol introduces the concept of Expected Zones and Requested Zones, which reduce the flooding and are effective with mobile nodes. The region in which a node is likely to be in a specific time frame is known as the expected zone, when the initial position of the node and the speed with which it is moving are known. The region in which the expected zone is present along with some surrounding area is known as the request zone. The concept of creating these zones is to reduce flooding within the network. When a source node requests for a route, a message is propagated in the request zone. If a route is not found then the message is discarded and the requested zone is expanded for the next route discovery. When accurate information of the nodes direction is known the expected zone size could be reduced. Two schemes of LAR have been proposed. The request zone in scheme one comprises of the shortest rectangular area, which contains the originating node and the expected zone (which is normally a circle). While in scheme two when the originating node forwards a route request only the nodes nearest to the final node than the originating node forward the message, and the other nodes would simply dump it.
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Implementing Preserving Location Monitoring System for Wireless Sensor Networks

Implementing Preserving Location Monitoring System for Wireless Sensor Networks

We presented a privacy-preserving location monitoring (PPLM) system, implemented for wireless sensor networks without disturbing the privacy of the individual persons or objects. The two in-network location anonymization algorithms, namely, resource- and qualityaware algorithms are implemented one after other for improved secured privacy. The resource-aware algorithm aims to minimize communication and computational cost, while the quality- aware algorithm aims to minimize the size of cloaked areas in order to generate more accurate aggregate locations. A spatial histogram approach is used to provide location monitoring services through answering the range queries. The system is evaluated through simulated experiments. The experimental results proved that the presented system provides a high quality location monitoring services while preserving the monitored object's location privacy. In this paper, the performance of PPLM system is evaluated in terms of generated aggregate locations, computational efficiency and cloaked area size. As part of the future enhancement of presented work on wireless sensor networks, the same process of monitoring can be implemented by using mobile devices which is provided with server activation feature.
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Intrusion Detection in Wireless Body Sensor Networks

Intrusion Detection in Wireless Body Sensor Networks

To this end, it is very crucial to make a trade off balance between the pros and cons of using such greedy protocols to guarantee the best security service while minimizing the overall energy consumption. Our work sheds the light on the cloning attack, which actually consists in cloning the target sensors and transmitting faulty data to the destination. Such at- tack can affect the performance of 802.15.6-2012, as the cloned sensor will always get access to the channel for it possesses a high priority. In fact, a biosensor with a high priority value is considered transmitting emergent data; therefore, the access to the channel has to be immediate compared with regular data. This differentiation is highlighted when the CSMA/CA mechanism is employed to regulate the access to the channel. A backoff Counter is selected within a Contention windows intervals which takes into consideration the maximum and minimum value in respect to the measured data. The backoff Counter value is decremented for each idle channel detection performed by Contention Channel Assessment (CCA), when
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Throughput Improvement In Wireless Mesh Networks By Integrating With Optical Network

Throughput Improvement In Wireless Mesh Networks By Integrating With Optical Network

Recently, the hybrid Optical-wireless network has become a very attractive topic. Work in this research area has been focusing on the optimal placement for ONUs, the reconfiguration of PON structures and routing algorithms in the wireless sub network of Optical-wireless network. Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) Model [4] and Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm [5] have been proposed to minimize the average distance of any wireless mesh router to its neighbourhood ONU. A dynamic reconfiguration algorithm in WDM PONs is proposed in [6] for the better bandwidth utilization. Delay-Aware Routing Algorithm (DARA) [7] and Capacity and Delay Aware Routing Algorithm (CaDAR) [8] have been proposed to address the routing issue in the Optical-wireless network. Moreover, a centralized integrated routing algorithm is proposed in [9] to achieve the load balance at ONUs and to maximize the network throughput. In order to evaluate the network throughput gain in Optical-wireless networks, issues like network capacity, traffic routing and channel assignment in the wireless mesh sub network play important roles. In the following, we would like to introduce the related work in WMNs on those aspects. In the pioneer work, [9] shows that in a wireless network with n identical nodes, the per-node throughput is ( ) assuming the random node placement and communication
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Manet Load Balancing Parallel Routing Protocol

Manet Load Balancing Parallel Routing Protocol

Our main concern in this paper is to introduce a model that increases the MANET life time through load balancing multipath new technique representing parallism in sending data using 100% disjoint multiple paths (all selected paths sending data at the same time). We applied the load balancing concept to distribute data packets on the generated disjoint paths to solve the overloading problem and to prevent node starvation in next few sections. We will divide LBPRP proposed protocol into three parts, first part describe how can we select 100% disjoint paths (section 3.1), second part distributing traffic among paths to achieve load balancing in sending data (section 3.2) and if one of paths is broken we will use path maintenance in third step (section 3.3).
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ENERGY EFFICENT ROUTING PROTOCOL IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

ENERGY EFFICENT ROUTING PROTOCOL IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

nodes. So that energy consumption of the sensors is balanced. In this paper Sensors are grouped into several clusters. In every cluster, a routing tree is constructed for data transmission. One sensor node is selected as a cluster head in every cluster. This cluster head selection based on the residual energy and this node remains as a cluster head for an optimal number of rounds. Among all cluster heads, a routing tree is also constructed. After an optimal number of rounds, new group of cluster heads are selected. Due to the hierarchical tree structure and all tasks done by a high energy base station our protocol requires less energy as compared to other protocols .All nodes in a cluster send the sensed data to their neighbor node instead of the cluster-head. Each node aggregates the data to reduce the amount of data transferred. The cluster-head fuses the data received from the member nodes within the cluster and then transmit them to the BS. Here, the cluster formation occurs after certain round.
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A Survey on Fuzzy Based Clustering Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks: A New Viewpoint

A Survey on Fuzzy Based Clustering Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks: A New Viewpoint

There are several clustering algorith recent years [14]. Fuzzy logic is usefu time decisions without needing comp about the environment [9]. On th conventional control mechanisms genera and complete information about the en logic can also be utilized for making a different environmental parameters by according to predefined rules [17]. Some algorithms [6] employ fuzzy logic to ha in the WSNs. Basically; FCAs use blending different clustering parameters heads [4].They assign chances to tenta according to the defuzzified output of fu The tentative cluster-head becomes a clu the greatest chance in its vicinity. The and centralized fuzzy logic clustering app shows a sample WSN with a serie surrounded by gray circles. The red c sensor/node, and the surrounding green c detection range.
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A Study on Traffic Aware Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

A Study on Traffic Aware Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

Wireless sensor network are event-driven network systems consist of collection of sensor nodes that are deployed to monitor physical and environmental conditions. In Wireless sensor network, whenever an event is detected, then the data related to the event need to be sent to the sink node (data collection node). While forwarding the data from the source node to sink node there may be chance for congestion due to heavy data traffic. Due to congestion, it leads to data loss, it may be important data also. Objective of this paper is to review various existing methods to detect and control the congestion. Different parameters that are used to measure the congestion also reviewed. Finally a comparison of various parameter measures was presented.
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A Survey on Protocols and Routing Algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks

A Survey on Protocols and Routing Algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks

Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are networks of small and tiny lightweight nodes that are randomly deployed in a large area where it is not possible to monitor continuously. Some physical parameters such as pressure, temperature and relative humidity etc. are used for monitoring the same. Energy consumption is the most important and critical issues for WSNs. The paper classifies the routing protocols based on the basis of two criteria: layers and architecture. Further, a survey of 15 routing protocols are done with their comparison by considering the factors like energy, power consumption, latency, network life etc.
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An Advanced Survey on Secure Energy-Efficient Hierarchical Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

An Advanced Survey on Secure Energy-Efficient Hierarchical Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are often deployed in hostile environments, which make such networks highly vulnerable and increase the risk of attacks against this type of network. WSN comprise of large number of sensor nodes with different hardware abilities and functions. Due to the limited memory resources and energy constraints, complex security algorithms cannot be used in sensor networks. Therefore, it is necessary to balance between the security level and the associated energy consumption overhead to mitigate the security risks. Hierarchical routing protocol is more energy-efficient than other routing protocols in WSNs. Many secure cluster-based routing protocols have been proposed in the literature to overcome these constraints. In this paper, we discuss Secure Energy-Efficient Hierarchical Routing Protocols in WSNs and compare them in terms of security, performance and efficiency. Security issues for WSNs and their solutions are also discussed.
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Mobile platform-independent solutions for body sensor network interface

Mobile platform-independent solutions for body sensor network interface

components of a typical sensor node include an antenna and a Radio Frequency (RF) transceiver to allow communication with other nodes, a memory unit, a Central Processing Unit (CPU), a battery and the sensor unit itself. Due to sensors limited capabilities, there are a lot of designed issues that must be addressed to achieve an effective and efficient operation of WSN. Since sensor nodes uses batteries for power and they are difficult to replace when consumed (deployed in remote or hostile environment), it is critical to design algorithm, protocols or technologies to minimize the energy consumption. To do so, implementers must reduce communication between sensor nodes, simplify computations and apply lightweight security solutions. Sensor nodes and inherent technology is always evolving and this technology must address some kind of security. However, as all other new technologies, security is not the top priority when designing something new. Security solutions are reticent when applying them to sensor networks. For example, cryptography requires complex processing to provide encryption to the transmitted data. Again, one solution regarding this aspect must be achieved, because in many cases the sensors acquire and transmit data critical for human and such data must not be compromised at any given time.
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Performance assessment of real-time data management on wireless sensor networks

Performance assessment of real-time data management on wireless sensor networks

The fourth part of this research work, which was described in chapter 5 and 6, included the proposal of a new method to optimize the real-time query processing on WSNs for both latency and energy minimization and a new proposal of real-time query processing optimization for cloud-based wireless body area Networks (WBANs). The second main contribution of this thesis was accomplished by presented a new real-time query processing optimization for WSNs. According to the previous research work, the distributed approach allows performing in-network query processing that diminishes the data communication activities, which cause the most energy depletion in the network. In addition, it supports instant-queries and long-running queries processing, which are quasi-real-time queries processing. Therefore, this proposal combines statistical modeling techniques with the distributed approach to provide a new architecture and a query processing algorithm for optimizing the real-time user query processing for both latency and energy minimization with valid data. This valid data is stained of some uncertainty ( ε ) the user/application is willing to tolerate. In fact, the previous study reveled that in real-time systems, for some applications, the accuracy of results may be sacrificed under some limit to reduce the response time. Thus, Instead of periodically send the sensor readings to the database server for off-line processing or process the query directly into the network, the proposed hybrid approach uses statistical modeling techniques to perform a query processing based on admission control that uses the error tolerance and the confidence interval as the admission parameters to the system. A new concept of virtual network, composed by logical sensors which, in their turn, are composed by a probabilistic model and memory, is used to approximate in the gateway the answers of the query according to a given error tolerance and confidence interval. If the sensor data inside the virtual network is not sufficiently rich to answer the query, the admission controller routes the query towards the physical network. The experimental results based on real world as well as synthetic data sets show that the general proposed architecture provides, among other advantages, good individual query latency and valid data for real-time applications and energy-efficiency for WSNs.
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Identity-based Trusted Authentication in Wireless Sensor Networks

Identity-based Trusted Authentication in Wireless Sensor Networks

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is network consisting of sensor nodes or motes communicating wirelessly with each other. Advancement in sensor, low power processor, and wireless communication technology has greatly contributed to the tremendous wide spread use of WSNs applications in contemporary living. Example of these applications include environmental monitoring, disaster handling, traffic control and various ubiquitous convergence applications and services[1]. Low cost and without the need of cabling are two key motivations towards future WSN applications. These applications however demand for considerations on security issues especially those regarding nodes authentications, data integrity and confidentiality. Commonly, the sensor nodes are left unattended, and are vulnerable to intruders. The situation becomes critical when the nodes are equipped with cryptographic materials such as keys and other
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Power Consumption Reduction for Wireless Sensor Networks Using A Fuzzy Approach

Power Consumption Reduction for Wireless Sensor Networks Using A Fuzzy Approach

The increasing complexity of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is leading towards the deployment of complex networked systems and the optimal design of WSNs can be a very difficult task because several constraints and requirements must be considered, among all the power consumption. This paper proposes a novel fuzzy logic based mechanism that according to the battery level and to the ratio of Throughput to Workload determines the sleeping time of sensor devices in a Wireless Sensor Network for environmental monitoring based on the IEEE 802.15.4 protocol. The main aim here is to find an effective solution that achieves the target while avoiding complex and computationally expensive solutions, which would not be appropriate for the problem at hand and would impair the practical applicability of the approach in real scenarios. The results of several real test-bed scenarios show that the proposed system outperforms other solutions, significantly reducing the whole power consumption while maintaining good performance in terms of the ratio of throughput to workload. An implementation on off-the-shelf devices proves that the proposed controller does not require powerful hardware and can be easily implemented on a low-cost device, thus paving the way for extensive usage in practice.
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Application-driven Wireless Sensor Networks

Application-driven Wireless Sensor Networks

DODAG Information Object (DIO): the DIO message is mapped to 0x01, and is issued by the DODAG root to construct a new DAG and then sent in multicast through the DODAG structure. The DIO message carries relevant network information that allows a node to discover a RPL instance, learn its configuration parameters, select a DODAG parent set, and maintain the DODAG. The format of the DIO Base Object is presented in Fig. 2.8. The main DIO Base Object fields are: (i) RPLInstanceID, is an 8 bit information initiated by the DODAG root that indicates the ID of the RPL instance that the DODAG is part of, (ii) Version Number, indicates the version number of a DODAG that is typically incremented upon each network information update, and helps maintaining all nodes synchronized with new updates, (iii) Rank, a 16 bit field that specifies the rank of the node sending the DIO message, (vi) Destination Advertisement Trigger Sequence Number (DTSN) is an 8 bit flag that is used to maintain downward routes, (v) Grounded (G) is a flag indicating whether the current DODAG satisfies the application-defined objective, (vi) Mode of Operation (MOP) identifies the mode of operation of the RPL instance set by the DODAG root. Four operation modes have been defined and differ in terms of whether they support downward routes maintenance and multicast or not. Upward routes are supported by default. Any node joining the DODAG must be able to cope with the MOP to participate as a router, otherwise it will be admitted as a leaf node, (vii) DODAGPreference (Prf) is a 3 bit field that specifies the preference degree of the current DODAG root as compared to other DODAG roots. It ranges from 0x00 (default value) for the least preferred degree, to 0x07 for the most preferred degree, (viii) DODAGID is a 128 bit IPv6 address set by a DODAG root, which uniquely identifies a DODAG. Finally, DIO Base Object may also contain an Option field.
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