The present study was carried out to evaluate the antidiabetic effect ofRheumemodi rhizome extract and to study the activities of hexokinase, aldolase and phosphoglucoisomerase, and gluconeogenic enzymes such as glucose-6- phosphatase and fructose -1,6-diphosphatase in liver and kidney of normal and alloxaninduceddiabeticrats. Oral administration of 75 % ethanolic extract of R. emodi (250 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days, resulted in decrease in the activities of glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-disphosphatase, aldolase and an increase in the activityof phosphoglucoisomerase and hexokinase in tissues. The study clearly shows that the R.emodi possesses antidiabeticactivity.
The HbA1C level was found to be 9.73 in disease control, and it has been reduced to 6.86 and 5.71 in lower and higher dose of SPHAG treated groups respectively. The other biochemical parameters like renal function tests including urea and creatinine, liver function tests including SGOT, SGPT, and lipid profile parameters had shown that two to three fold elevated level in disease control group (Table 2). There was significant reduction of these levels in the SPHAG treated groups. Thus the overall study demonstrated that the polyherbal formulation SPHAG is having significant hypoglycaemic activityinalloxaninduceddiabeticrats.
glycemic levels under to 31 days. Contradictorily, several authors demonstrated hypoglycemic effect of Bauhinia species extract or fraction. In addition, some species even has showed insulin mimetic properties and hypoglycemic action, for example B. variegata (Silva et al. 2002, Pepato et al. 2004, Lino et al. 2004, Frankish et al. 2010). Rozza et al. (2015) verified that Bauhinia holophylla hydroalcoholic extract (150 mg/Kg) enhanced glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities and the reduced glutathione (GSH) level, suggesting an antioxidant activity from B. holophylla. In our study, B. holophylla treatment did not interfere in blood glucose levels of the diabetic and it causes no hypoglycemia in non-diabeticrats. This might be justified due to administered dose, extraction method, short treatment period, and the sensitivity difference among the plants used and the animals tested (Campos et al. 2009), which would prevent the effective action by the plant extract. Another variable to consider is the type of diabetes studied. Streptozotocin is known to reproduce the severe diabetes (glycemia above 300 mg/dL), and the plant extract could be more efficient treating individuals with a moderate diabetes (glycemia between 120 and 300 mg/dL). Previous studies testing plant extracts confirmed that animals with severe diabetes also presented no antidiabetic effect (Volpato et al. 2007, 2008, 2011).
generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a cyclic reaction with its reduction product, dialuric acid. The beta cell toxic action ofalloxan is initiated by free radicals formed in this redox reaction. One study suggests that alloxan does not cause diabetes in humans 18-20 .The antioxidant enzymes which are the defence systems of the body which protect the cell membrane and other cellular constituents against oxidative damage by free radical Species (ROS) 21 . Decreased serum concentration of total antioxidant enzymes inalloxan treated diabeticrats were observed due to their utilization during inhibition or destruction of free radical species which also indicates an imbalanced ROS production and antioxidant scavenging systems. Marsilea minuta Linn shows significant antidiabeticactivity when compared with standard drug Glibenclamide. Reports of earlier studies suggested that various plants was proved to possessing wide variety of natural antioxidant constituents such as tannins, saponoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolic acids and poly phenols etc. which enhances free radical scavenging activities and responsible to ameliorate change in antioxidant enzymes which may be helpful for treatment ofdiabetic related complications. The qualitative phytochemical analysis on the ethanolic leaf extract of Marsilea minuta Linn shows the presence of flavonoids. Flavonoids constituent of plant possess antioxidant 22 and Antidiabetic properties. The present study suggests that ethanolic leaf extract of Marsilea minuta Linn have significant Antidiabeticactivity.
Despite the presence of effective antidiabetic medicines in the pharmaceutical market, screening for bioactive substance from natural plants is still attractive because they contain substances that are effective and safe in diabetes mellitus. In the present study traditional medicinal plant has been selected for the hypoglycemic effect.
Serum concentrations of liver function marker enzymes, SGPT, SGOT and ALP inalloxaninduceddiabeticrats were elevated. This may be due to leaking out of enzymes from the tissues and migrating into the circulation by the adverse effect ofalloxan and alloxan can induce the liver injury by free radical mechanism (Kala et al., 2012). LMCW treatment regulated the activityof SGPT and SGOT in liver ofrats intoxicated with alloxan. SGPT and SGOT act as indicators of liver function and restoration of normal levels of these parameters indicate normal functioning of liver. The measurement of enzymatic activityof alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is of clinical and toxicological importance as changes in the activity is indicative of tissue damage by toxicants. Elevated levels of ALP in diabetes may be due to extensive damage to liver in the alloxaninduceddiabeticrats (Ravikumar et al., 2010). Treatment with LMCW inalloxaninduceddiabeticrats caused a decline in ALP level.
Carthamus tinctorius, commonly known as safflower, false saffron or dyers saffron belongs to the family asteraceae and since centuries it has been grown from China to Mediterranean regions, but now is grown for commercial purposes in Pakistan, India, USA, Ethiopia, Mexico, Kazakhstan, Argentina, Australia, Spain, Turkey, Canada and Iran (10). Safflower is an oilseed crop in the Compositae that is valued for its oils rich in unsaturated fatty acids The major fatty acid in safflower oil is linoleic acid (80%) (11). Carthamus tinctorius L extracts and oil are important in drug development with numerous pharmacological activities in the world. It is a useful plant in painful menstrual problems, post-partum hemorrhage and osteoporosis. C. tinctorius has recently been shown to have antidiabetic activities. Caryophyllene, p-allyltoluene, 1-acetoxytetralin and heneicosane were identified as the major components for C. tinctorius flowers essential oil (12). This study was designed to investigate the Hepatoprotective and Hypolipidemic effects of Carthamus tinctorius Linn seed oil indiabeticrats.
Abstract: Malva sylvestris, Punica granatum, Amygdalus communis, Arnebia euchroma and Scrophularia deserti are important medicinal plants in Iranian traditional medicine (Unani) whose have been used as remedy against edema, burn, and wound and for their carminative, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. The ethanol extracts of M. sylvestris and P. granatum flowers, A. communis leaves, A. euchroma roots and S. deserti stems were used to evaluate the burn healing activityinalloxan-induceddiabeticrats. Burns were inducedin Wistar rats divided into nine groups as following; Group-I: normal rats were treated with simple ointment base (control), Group-II: diabeticrats were treated with simple ointment base (control), Groups-III and –VII: diabeticrats were treated with simple ointment base containing of extracts (diabetic animals), Groups VIII: diabeticrats were treated with simple ointment base containing of mixed extracts, Group-IX: diabeticrats received the standard drug (Silver Sulfadiazine). The efficacy of treatments was evaluated based on wound area, epithelialization time and histopathological characteristics. Wound contraction showed that there is high significant difference between the different groups (p<0.001). At the 18 th day, A. euchroma, S. deserti, A. communis
The fundamental mechanism underlying hyperglycemia involves over-production (excessive hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis) and decreased utilization of glucose by the tissues. Persistent hyperglycemia, the common characteristic feature of diabetes can cause most of the diabetic complications. In all the patients, treatment should aim to lower the blood glucose to near-normal levels. In our investigation, Glipizide is the standard antidiabetic drug used for the study. Glipizide is an oral rapid, short acting antidiabetic drug from the second generation sulfonylurea class. It undergoes enterohepatic circulation, having more potent and shorter half-lives than the first generation sulfonylureas. Its action is produced by blocking potassium channels in the beta cells of the islet of langerhans. By partially blocking the potassium channels, the cell remains depolarized, increasing the time, the cell spends in the calcium release stage of cell, which results in signalling leading to calcium influx. The increase in calcium will initiate more insulin release from each beta cell. Sulfonylureas may also cause the decrease of serum glucagon and potentiate the action of insulin at the extrapancreatic tissues. Further it revealed that, the methanolic extract of BM and BC has the capacity to lower the blood glucose levels. STZ induceddiabeticrats administered with methanolic extract of BM (500mg/kg) showed 161.64 and 115.6 decline and methanolic extract of BC (500mg/kg) showed 152.22 and 107.91 decline in the blood glucose levels on days 5 and 12 respectively. The characteristic loss of body weight associated with STZ induced diabetes is due to increased muscle wasting and loss of tissue proteins in diabetes. The BM and the BC methanolic extract treated animals showed a weight loss in our studies, which may be directly due to the lipid lowering activityof the extract or indirectly to the influence on various lipid regulation systems. The present investigation discusses about the
Based on ethnopharmacological information,Barleria montana has been used to treat diabetes by the tribals in and around tropical and subtropical areas.But there are no more scientific reports available about the antidiabeticactivityof this plant. Hence the study was carried out to ascertain the activity.The plant was extracted with methanol in soxhlet apparatus and the extracts thus obtained were examined for acute toxicity studies in wistar albino rats at different doses upto 2000 mg/kg body weight. The plant extracts were also evaluated for antidiabeticactivity at a dose levels of 100,200 and 400 mg/kg in streptozotocin induceddiabetic rats.The plant extracts have not produced any toxic symptoms within the treated animals. The maximum reduction in blood glucose level was observed at 8 and 12 th hr. after the oral administration of the 400 and 200 mg/kg b. w of methanolic extract of Barleria montana aerial parts respectively. From the observations, it was concluded that the reduction of blood glucose levels indiabeticrats was found to be dose dependent and also dependent on duration of action. So it might be useful in the treatment of diabetes without toxicity.
species of Fumaria have been studied by Orhan et al. which showed anticholinesterase activity for extracts of the aerial parts of F. parviflora. 12 Moreover, phyto- chemical analyses of some plants of genus Fumaria, including F. parviflora has indicated presence of isoquinoline alkaloids. 13-17 Elsewhere, the antipyretic activityof the hexane, chloroform and water-soluble extracts of F. parviflorain rabbits was verified. 18 Akhtar et al. in 1984 published a paper in which they examined the blood glucose levels of the normal and alloxan-diabetic male albino rabbits after oral adminis- tration of various doses of the powdered F. parviflora and concluded that the plant contained some hypo- glycaemic properties. 19 However, firm recommenda- tions for general use of any herbal remedies needs detailed documentations of the glucose or insulin lowering effects of the plants in diabetes. Herein, we have evaluated the effect of the methanol extract of F. parvifloraon blood glucose level in normal and streptozotocin STZ-induceddiabeticrats.
Diabetes mellitus is a systemic disease characterized by abnormal metabolic regulation of both glucose and lipids, resulting in hyperglicemia and hyperlipidemia [1,2]. In spite of some controversies, a positive correlation between diabetes and periodontal disease has been demonstrated [3,4] with periodontal disease considered the sixth most common complication of diabetes mellitus . Despite wide discussion in the literature regarding an association between diabetes and periodontal disease, the periodontal histological alterations induced by diabetes are poorly known [6,7]. Diabetes seems to interfere in extracellular matrix metabolism in periodontium, reducing collagen synthesis  and increasing collagenolytical activity . Histological studies also demonstrated increased vessel wall thickening in gingival tissue ofdiabetic patients [6,10,11]. In addition, some studies suggest diabetes seems to interfere in host defense mechanisms such as chemotaxis, adherence, phagocytosis and apoptosis, contributing therefore to tissue destruction [12,13].
Previously, oleuropein have been reported as a good antioxidant in vitro through chelating of Cu and Fe metallic ions which then catalyse free radical formation(24)(25)and in vivo through the inhibition of enzymatic oxidation such as lipoxygenases(10). In agreement with the present experiment, a significant increasing in the serum GSH has shown after treating diabeticrats with 5mg/kg and 10mg/kg of oleuropein. Previous experiment has been observed that GSH capable to prevent the diabetic when it has injected together withalloxan inrats (3). That means GSH is able to decrease the generation of free radicals, formed from alloxan, in the body and then positively protecting the β cell from any destruction(3). Moreover, non-enzymatic antioxidant elevation also has been observed in the present study after treating diabeticrats with5mg/kg and 10mg/kg of oleuropein. Vitamin Eor α-tocopherol as an essential antioxidant has been proved to be depressed when glucose level is increased in the body(26). The same results been detected in this study, it has been shown a negative correlation between serum glucose level and serum vitamin E levels ofdiabeticrats treated with oleuropein. Meaning that oleuropein is able to decrease glucose level and increasing the antioxidant capability. However, oleuropein have also been assessed for haematological analysis there is no any significant changes been detected in this study as presented in Table 1.
people suffering from diabetes worldwide is increasing at an alarming rate with a projected 366 million people likely to be affected by the year 2030 as against 191 million estimated in the year 2000 4 . India leads the world with largest number ofdiabetic subjects earning the dubious distinction of being termed the “diabetes capital of the world” with 41 million Indians having diabetes. Every fifth diabeticin the world is an Indian 5 . The World Health Organization Expert Committee on diabetes has recommended that traditional medicinal herbs be further investigated for hypoglycemic agents 6 . There are numerous plants which have the ability to reduce the glucose production, stimulate the utilization of glucose and combat with secondary complications. Out of an estimated 250,000 plants, less than 1% have been pharmacologically evaluated and only a fraction of these for diabetes. The most commonly used drugs of contemporary medicine such as aspirin, anti-malarials, anticancer, digitalis etc. originated from plant sources. Therefore, it is practical to look for options in herbal medicine for diabetes. On the basis of this report which lists the impending effectiveness of medicinal plant against diabetes, it can be believed that phytochemicals can play a vital role in the management of diabetes. This needs additional exploration before drugs and nutraceuticals can be developed from the natural resources. Most of the herbal therapies have not yet undergone proper scientific assessment and some have the ability to cause severe toxic effects and drug-to-drug interactions. Continual
induceddiabeticrats elicited significant rise in blood glucose from 83.16 to 231.84 mg/dl (p<0.05) and a significant decrease in serum insulin level from 14.27 to 5.21 (p<0.01). On the other hand, diabeticrats treated with ethanol extract of Polygala javana whole plant exhibited decrease in blood glucose and increase in serum insulin significantly (p<0.05) at a dose of 100 mg/kg and 200mg/kg body weight. It was observed that ethanol extract of Polygala javana reversed these effects indiabeticrats. Alloxan causes diabetes through its ability to destroy the insulin producing β cells of the pancrease 27 . Diabetogenic effect ofalloxan is due to excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to cytotoxicity in pancreatic β cells which reduces the synthesis and release of insulin 28 .In this study, administration of ethanol extract of Polygala javana whole plant14 days produced a significant increase in insulin levels along with a decrease in blood glucose levels inalloxaninduceddiabeticrats. Earlier many plants have been studied for their hypoglycemic and insulin release stimulatory effects 29-32 . A significant elevation in serum constituents, urea and creatinine were observed inalloxaninduceddiabeticrats (Group II) when compared to control rats. The ethanol extracts of Polygala javana whole plant were administrated orally (100mg/kg body weight Group III and 200 mg/kg body weight Group IV) to rats for 14 days reversed the urea and creatinine level to near normal. The administration of gllibenclamide (GroupV) also decreased the levels of urea and creatinine to some extent. Renal impairment is one of the serious and common diabetic complications; the diabeticrats had increased levels of serum urea and creatinine, which are considered as significant markers
in body weight are frequently observed in the state of diabetes. In the present study, induction of diabetes by alloxan also produced a decrease in body weight. The cinnamon administration showed a significant increase of weight compared to diabetic control rats. Decrease in body weight ofdiabeticrats was possible due to catabolism of fats and protein, even though the food intake was more indiabeticrats than control. Due to insulin deficiency, protein content was decreased in muscular tissue by proteolysis (Vats, Yadav, Grover, 2004). Similar results were obtained by Mahmood et al. (2011) and El Desoky et al. (2012) who reported a decrease of weight inalloxandiabeticrats. As shown in this study, cinnamon was an effective agent contributing to the reduction of glucose levels in serum. The high serum glucose level induced by alloxan was decreased by the cinnamon powder supplementation for 50.02% during the fourth week of treatment (p < 0.001). Our results corroborated the findings of Mahmood et al. (2011) about the elevation of blood glucose level inalloxan-induceddiabeticrats, and a reduction in this level after cinnamon extract administration. Rekha, Balaji and Deecaraman (2010) reported that the increased levels of plasma glucose in streptozotocin-induceddiabeticrats were lowered by the administration of cinnamon extract. Mahera (2010) and Ping, Zhang and Ren (2010) reported that oral
The Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a global epidemics and considered as an inflammation related disease. Myracrodruon urundeuva (Anacardiaceae) is used in Northeast Brazil, because of its anti-inflammatory properties. The species is known to present tannins and chalcones among its active compounds. The objectives of the work were to investigate the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of the stem bark decoction (MUSB) from a cultivated specimen of M. urundeuva, in the alloxan-induced diabetes model. For that, male Wistar rats were divided into normal controls, untreated and treated (MUSB, 50 and 100 mg/kg, 7 days) diabetic groups. Afterwards, the animals were subjected to biochemical measurements (glycemia, cholesterol, triglycerides and ALT and AST liver transaminases) before (48 h, post-alloxan) and after treatments, then euthanized for histopathological studies. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey’s test and considered significant for p<0.05. We observed significant decreases in glycemia, cholesterol and triglycerides values. ALT and AST values were within normal ranges. The histopathological examination revealed changes of somehow less intensity in treated diabetic, relatively to diabetic animals without treatment. An interesting finding was the beta cell proliferation observed indiabetic pancreas after MUSB treatments. The antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects are possibly related to the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions of MUSB. The regulation of beta cell mass, as a strategic target for T2D treatment, should estimulate translational studies dealing with the effects of M. urundeuva on beta cell proliferation.
piperine, an increase in the circulating levels of curcumin may not be a useful approach to improve its pharmacodynamic actions, at least those related to antidiabetic and antioxidant activities. It is interesting to note that changes in the ALT, ALP (Figure 3), and GSH (Table 3) levels and in the GSH-Px activity ( Table 3 ) were early detected indiabeticrats treated with curcumin +20 mg/kg piperine, showing that these biomarkers are more sensitive in monitoring the impairments of this association in diabetes. The complete absence of the curcumin effects when co-administered with 40 mg/kg piperine may be also related with the reach of toxic curcumin levels. Accumulating evidence has pointing that curcumin may have in vivo adverse effects when administered at very long periods  or under specific pathological conditions . If a higher dose of piperine causes a major inhibition in the curcumin biotransformation, the probability of curcumin in reaching toxic levels at various tissues will be increased. The co-administration of curcumin and 40 mg/kg piperine led to a very increase in the ALT levels when compared with values of untreated diabeticrats (Figure 3), showing the toxicity of this co-administration in diabetes. The biological activities of curcumin metabolites have been a matter of extensive studies, alerting us for the caution when comparing the biological effects of curcumin evaluated through in vivo, ex vivo or in vitro approaches . Studies demonstrated that
The rat was positioned in right lateral decubitus. The left hemithorax was disin- fected with polyvinylpyrrolidone iodine in an aseptic environment. A left thoracotomy was carried out in the fourth intercostal space by an incision in the skin, subcutaneous tissues, serratus muscle, intercostal muscles and parietal pleura. The trunk of the left pulmonary lobe was sutured with 000 cotton thread and left pneumonectomy was executed in subgroups PE-C and PE-D. In order to keep the subatmospheric intrathoracic pres-
The experimental STZ-diabetes model usually involves type 1 diabetes. However, in the present study, at the dose of STZ used, the model probably involved type 2 diabetes and some functioning ß cells of islets of Langerhans were present because: a) un- treated diabetic controls survived in spite of increasing FBS and GTT blood glucose lev- els as observed on day 15 of treatment; b) a response to treatment was observed in group III without insulin treatment. The measure- ments of the end points of insulin activity, i.e., FBS and GTT blood glucose and liver glycogen levels, in this study suggest that E. jambolana seed promote the release of insu- lin, a finding also reported by Achrekar et al. (14) after measuring insulin levels in vivo and in vitro. A dose-dependent in vitro reduction in insulin degradation (14) was also seen. Thus, we conclude that the seed