CnicusbenedictusL. (Blessed Thistle or Holy Thistle), the sole species in the genus Cnicus, is a thistle-like plant in the family Asteraceae, native to the Mediterranean region. It is an annual plant growing to 60 cm tall, with leathery, hairy leaves up to 30 cm long and 8 cm broad, with small spines on the margins. The flowers are yellow, produced in a dense flower head (capitulum) of 3-4 cm diameter, surrounded by numerous spiny basal bracts . The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil.
temperature to be used Troom and high temperature extractions with ethyl acetate of fresh and dried G. vermiculophylla (also from IMTA regime) were tested. Results of these tests are presented in Figure 1 and show that extracts obtained with dried algae processed at high temperatures (with Soxhlet apparatus) presented wider inhibition zones for some ofthe tested microorganisms: S. enteritidis, P. aeruginosa, L. innocua and both clinical (CI) and food isolates (FI) of S. aureus. However, there were no significant differences between the four tested methods. Unlike results reported by Lima-Filho et al. (2002) who stated that antimicrobialactivity can be influenced by the physical state ofthe different seaweed. Based on the preliminary tests’ results, the extraction method chosen for the subsequent tests included high temperature (Soxhlet apparatus) and dried form of which parallels algae, the extraction method of Lekameera et al. (2008); the reasoning for such choice was based not only on these results but also on evidence published in the scientific literature, where different authors stated that higher temperatures increased the permeability of cell membranes facilitating the solvent passage through cells and cellular organelles and thus increasing the amount of extracted compounds (Liu et al., 2003; Franco et al., 2007).
Although, several species ofthe Cerrado’s plants contain bioactive compounds with natural antimicrobial potential, only a few studies have evaluated their effectiveness. In addition, there has been an increase in microbial resistance to important pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. Therefore, the aim ofthe present study was to evaluate theantimicrobialactivityof hydroalcoholic extractsof peel, pulp, and seed of Genipa americana L. (genipap), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), and Vitex cymosa Bert. (taruma) against the microorganisms, S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans.
RESUMO - A diversidade de plantas em todo o mundo, bem como a variação química implica em uma grande quantidade de substâncias bioativas. O uso de extratos de plantas com propriedades biológicas surge como uma alternativa viável e saudável quando comparada a substâncias sintéticas. Neste contexto, objetivou-se esta pesquisa avaliar os extratos aquosos das folhas de Physalis angulata L., nativas e cultivadas, quanto a influência do método de extração na bioacessibilidade de compostos bioativos, atividade antioxidante e atividade antimicrobiana. Os extratos foram obtidos a partir das folhas nativas e cultivadas de P. angulata e três diferentes métodos extrativos, decocção, maceração e assistidos por ultrassom. A análise de variância mostrou diferenças significativas entre os métodos extrativos e o tipo de material vegetal. Os extratos obtidos por decocção apresentaram os maiores teores de compostos fenólicos e maior potencial antioxidante para ambos os métodos analíticos (ABTS e DPPH), diferindo significativamente dos demais métodos extrativos. Os índices de bioacessibilidade de compostos fenólicos dos extratos foram considerados reduzidos após a digestão gastrointestinal simulada, e consequentemente, apresentaram baixo potencial antioxidante. O potencial antimicrobiano dos extratos foi observado frente as bactérias Gram- positivas, Staphylococcus aureus e Listeria monocytogenes.
Theantimicrobialactivityof 13 total extracts was evaluated, 10 soft extracts (B) and 3 blended extracts (E) prepared from dry and fresh leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. Various solvents were used for their preparation: hydroalcoholic solution at 30%, 80% and isopropyl alcohol. Theantimicrobial effect oftheextracts was tested by means ofthe method of Kirby-Bauer, using four bacterial strains from the ATCC collection (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and a leveduriform fungus (Candida albicans). The following quality control parameters were determined for most active extracts: physical, physical-chemical and chemical parameters. The results were: nine extracts showed antibacterial activity, being the most concentrated (B8 and E3), the ones with the highest activity in the presence ofthe bacteria tested; the effect of blended extracts (E1, E2 and E3) was greater in the presence of P. aeruginosa. Blended extracts are considered more potent and active than soft extracts. No antifungal activity was obtained for both types ofextracts. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) were determined for both extracts, with the following results: MIC-soft extracts (>100 mg/mL), blended extracts (>50 mg/ mL); MBC-soft extracts (≥400 mg/mL), blended extracts (≥200 mg/mL) based on fresh leaves.
for accommodation of bas-relief panels . So, there were no regularities to install the sculptures and "the whole sculpture was seen as one ofthe kinds of inner decor ofthe wall" [35, 81p]. According to G.A. Pugachenkova, the tradition of placing the royal statues in separately designated locations began from the era of Kanishka (in Surkh-Kotal the statues were located in inter- columnar spans) and presented a stylistic feature ofthe monumental art of late antiquity. In the "Hall of Kings" in Toprak-Kala, according to S.P. Tolstov, was a portrait gallery of Khoresm Siyavushids, "huge seated statues depicted the kings and the surrounding statues –their family members, and god-protectors" [36, 109p]. The isolated location ofthe figures symbolized the coming disintegration ofthe dynasty. However, it should be noted that "round sculpture, especially of large forms had no such strong roots in Central Asia" [3, 231p], as monumental painting, common even before the Hellenistic conquest. Wall and high relief compositions had dominated, particularly in the design of Buddhist monuments (stupas).
Abstract: The need to survive in extreme environments has furnished haloarchaea with a series of components specially adapted to work in such conditions. The possible application of these molecules in the pharmaceutical and industrial fields has received increasing attention; however, many potential bioactivities of haloarchaea are still poorly explored. In this paper, we describe the isolation and identification of two new haloarchaeal strains from the saltern ponds located in the marshlands ofthe Odiel River, in the southwest of Spain, as well as the in vitro assessment of their antioxidant, antimicrobial, and bioactive properties. The acetone extract obtained from the new isolated Haloarcula strain exhibited the highest antioxidant activity, while the acetone extracts from both isolated strains demonstrated a strong antimicrobialactivity, especially against other halophilic microorganisms. Moreover, these extracts showed a remarkable ability to inhibit the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 and to activate the melanogenic enzyme tyrosinase, indicating their potential against chronic inflammation and skin pigmentation disorders. Finally, the aqueous protein-rich extracts obtained from both haloarchaea exhibited an important inhibitory effect on theactivityofthe acetylcholinesterase enzyme, involved in the hydrolysis of cholinergic neurotransmitters and related to several neurological diseases.
The plant Anacardium occidentale L. belongs to the Anacardiaceae family and is indigenous to tropical regions such as Northeast Brazil. Its fruit, popularly known as the cashew, consists of two parts: the fruit itself (the nut), and the accessory fruit (or flower stalk), also known as the cashew apple (Alcântara et al. 2009, Assunção et al. 2003). The cashew apple contains tannins, vitamin C, sugars, carotenoids, organic acids, proteins, fibers, and water (Queiroz et al. 2011). Tannins are widely used in the leather industry for transforming the skins of animals into finished leather. Tannins are also important gustatory components responsible for the astringency of many fruits and vegetables, including the cashew. In addition to their pharmacological activities (Santos and Mello 2003), the compounds formed between tannins and proteins are the bases for their insecticidal, antifungal, and antibacterial properties.
Abstract: The research was carried with the aim to discover the existence of securing the foremost islands and state border region ofthe Republic of Indonesia reviewed from a legal perspective, which is directly related to the existence of security and dispute resolution methods as well as the governance ofthe foremost islands and border region in Kalimantan which bordering Malaysia. This study was conducted in Nunukan district and the surrounding provinces of Kalimantan, in this research method that used is normative legal analysis data with juridical and qualitative descriptive approach. The results showed that the security of foremost islands and border region of law perspective in accordance with the Law No. 34 of 2004 regarding the Indonesian National Army has not been implemented to the fullest to realize the security of foremost islands and border region as the frontline ofthe Republic of Indonesia. The existence of leading islands securing and the border region ofthe Republic of Indonesia still contain many weaknesses in terms of both governance and security.
Infusion (BHI) were adjusted to 0.5 Mac Farland standard and inoculated on Petri plates by using a Steer’s replicator. After 37ºC/24 hours, MIC values (4,6) were read and MIC 50% and 90% values calculated. Kruskal-Wallis test for significant analysis (p<0.05) and Dunn’s Test for multiple comparisons were carried out. Then, the results mean values, which represent the inhibitory capacity of each plant extract against the bacteria tested, were obtained and expressed as %v/v and mg/mL (Table 2).
multiple synchronous and/or metachronous cancers ofthe oesophagus, lungs, and head and neck region (i.e. oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, or larynx). 90% ofthe tumours in head and neck are squamous cell carcinomas, and at least 75% of them are attributable to the combination of tobacco and alcohol consumption. The odds ratio of OSCC may be as high as 50.1 for those who are both heavy smokers and heavy drinkers in comparison to people who neither drink nor smoke. 13 It has been estimated
testing. Disks of 6 mm in diameter were punched from a sheet of Whatman filter paper, sterilized, and impregnated with 25 µL of each sample (31,25, 62,5, 125 and 250 µg/mL)or solvent alone. The bacterial inoculum was prepared and adjusted to 10 8 CFU/mL (corresponding to 0.5 McFarland standards). A sterile cotton swab was dipped into the standardized bacterial suspension and used to inoculate the Muller-Hinton agar plates. The plates were allowed to dry for 3–5 min. After that, all disks were placed in plates and maintained at a distance of at least 15 mm from the plate edges and sufficiently separated from each other to prevent overlapping of inhibition zones. A clarithromycin (Abbott®) disk (15 µg/mL), and 25% methanol and water solution-impregnated disks were used as controls. Fifteen minutes following placement ofthe disks, the plates of H. pylori were incubated at 37 °C for 3–5 days in a microaerobic atmosphere (10% CO 2 and 98% humidity). They were then
serovar of Salmonella (Table 1). All serovars were susceptible to a minimum of five (25%) and maximum of 11 extracts tested (55%) (Figure 1).The six extracts that presented action against most ofthe serovars were the following ones: Punica granatum (Lythraceae), Achyrocline satureioides (Compositae), Eugenia jambolana, Eugenia uniflora, Caryophyllus aromaticus and Psidium araca (Myrtaceae) (Table 1). Theextractsof Myrtaceae are among the five most active ones. The species of Myrtaceae and Lythraceae, belonging to the order Myrtales (BREMER et al., 2000; THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP, 2003) are genetically closely related, which could justify the similar behavior concerning inhibitory capacity. Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) The seven extracts submitted to MIC and MBC presented bacteriostatic activity and six of them showed bactericidal activity. Due to technical problems some extracts were not tested (NT) against all serovars, as shown in table 2. The extract of Caryophyllus aromaticus presented higher antimicrobialactivity for MIC and MBC (Table 2, Figure 2). NASCIMENTO et al. (2000) also confirmed the inhibitory activityof this species against 64.2% ofthe evaluated bacteria, including S. Choleraesuis. Phytochemical composition performed by the authors detected the presence of eugenol, tannins and flavonoids, and tests with eugenol showed an inhibitory effect against S. Choleraesuis.
due to its anti-ulcerogenic, analgesic and anti- inflammatory properties (de Albuquerque et al., 2007; Rao et al., 1987). Psidium spp. is native to tropical America and it has been used to treat scurvy in Asia and Africa, diarrhea in Mexico, cough and pulmonary diseases in Bolivia and Egypt, and as an anti- inflammatory and hemostatic agent in China due to its composition of phenols, triterpenes and essential oils, such as eugenol (Jaiarj et al., 1999; Lozoya et al., 1994). While the molecular and cellular processes involved in the pathogenesis ofthe periodontitis are being studied, efficient therapeutic strategies have not yet been established for all patients, particularly for populations living in isolated and poor areas from developing countries (Alviano et al.; Komiya Ito et al.; Iwaki et al.). These communities use plant extracts for the treatment of periodontal diseases and other infections, but the effectiveness of these natural products has not been scientifically established (Alviano et al.). The importance of scientifically test empirical preparations is supported by our study: from the six plants tested, three (Patagonula americana, Piptocarpha rotundifolia, and Maytenus ilicifolia) did not show any antimicrobialactivity, and one (F. enormis) just evidenced some antimicrobialactivity.
For determination ofthe antibacterial activityof C. pyramidalis, different fresh material parts ofthe plant including leaves, bark ofthe stem, peel ofthe root, lower, seeds and fruit were triturated, weighed and submitted to three successive extractions by the process of infusion, with medium intervals of 72 hours for each solvent. The order of solvents used was n-hexane, followed by ethylic acetate and lastly methanol. Theextracts thus obtained were filtered and solvents evaporated at 40 ºC under reduced pressure. These were subsequently weighed and their output calculated.
Even though pharmacological industries have produced a number of new antibiotics in the last three decades, resistance to these drugs by microorganisms has increased. In general, bacteria have the genetic ability to transmit and acquire resistance to drugs, which are utilized as therapeutic agents (12). Such a fact is cause for concern, because ofthe number of patients in hospitals who have suppressed immunity, and due to new bacterial strains, which are multi-resistant. Consequently, new infections can occur in hospitals resulting in high mortality. From 1980 to 1990, Montelli and Levy (27) documented a high incidence of resistant microorganisms in clinical microbiology in Brazil. This fact has also been verified in other clinics around all over world.
It is important to highlight that our results apply to a specific institutional framework, given that we studied the effects of oil discoveries on the local development of only one country. For instance, the U.S. has a more widespread ownership of resources than Brazil. There are thousands of oil companies in the U.S., in contrast to the historical monopoly of Petrobras in Brazil. Furthermore, results are likely to differ between developed and developing countries. Finally, we cannot rule out the possibility that oil discoveries positively affect local development of oil municipalities but have adverse effects at the national level (through, for example, a nominal appreciation and pork barrel politics). We show that at the local level, oil discoveries are not a curse per se, and the pure market effect (i.e., when fiscal windfalls are small) benefits development. In light ofthe results on fiscal windfalls in the literature, it appears that the impact ofthe windfall effect of resource wealth is strongly dependent on the institutional setting. While natural resource extraction can foster local growth, defining good policies and institutions for use ofthe associated fiscal windfalls thus remains a key policy challenge for developing countries.
To tackle these problems, in this paper we rely on a large panel of matched employer- employee data. Based on administrative files maintained by the federal government in Brazil (Rela¸c˜ao Anual de Informa¸c˜oes Sociais - RAIS ), the data provides information on every single employment relationship that all registered employers have during the year. The data set is rich in that it contains information on wages and on the characteristics of workers (sex, age, education), establishments (industry, size), and jobs (occupation, tenure). Its census nature allows precise computations ofthe share of women within the segregation dimensions of interest: occupation, industry, establishment, and job cell (i.e., occupation within establishment). This a strength of this study as compared to the previous literature, which had to rely on small samples of workers or a limited set of occupations to calculate the proportion of females along these dimensions. The longitudinal aspect ofthe data for workers and establishments also allows us to deal with distinct forms of unobserved heterogeneity in wage regressions. One ofthe main contributions of this paper is the incorporation of fixed effects for workers, firms, and workers-firms matches in the estimation ofthe segregation effects of interest on the gender wage gap. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that does that in the literature. 2
Hashinaga, 2006), which was slightly modified. A solution of β-carotene (Sigma, Germany) in chloroform (Vetec, Brazil) (3 mg.mL -1 ) was mixed with 45 mg of linoleic acid (Vetec, Brazil) and 215 mg of Tween-80 (Vetec, Brazil). The chloroform was removed at 45 °C under vacuum using a rotary evaporator and 6 mL of distilled water was added under vigorous shaking. The emulsion was then made up to 100 mL with 0.1 M hydrogen peroxide (Vetec, Brazil). Aliquots (4.0 mL) of this emulsion were transferred into different glass tubes containing 0.2 mL of test samples (methanolic extracts from P. sanguineus at a concentration of 1 mg.mL -1 ). A blank experiment was prepared as above, but without β-carotene, and BHT was used as a positive control. A negative control containing 0.2 mL of methanol (Vetec, Brazil) and 4.0 mL ofthe above emulsion was also prepared. The tubes were placed in a water bath at 50 °C. All the determinations were carried out in triplicate. The absorbance of each sample, at 470 nm, was taken at zero time and every 20 min for 100 min. The antioxidant activityoftheextracts was expressed as % of oxidative inhibition of β-carotene/linoleic acid system (I %) according to the equation:
from hospitalized patients and the second most common from patients in outpatient settings. In general, bacteria have the genetic ability to transmit and acquire resistance to drugs, which are utilized as therapeutic agents. Related studies ofantimicrobialactivity indicate that crude extracts containing flavonoids, triterpenes and steroids have showed significative activity against several Staphylococcus aureus strains. Combination effects between flavonoids and antibiotics also have been reported. The aim ofthe present work was to investigate in vitro synergism between several chalcones substituted in combination with oxacillin, an antibiotic used conventionally against S. aureus ATCC 43 300 that is resistant to meticillin, using the kinetic turbidimetric method developed earlier. The results were satisfactory for all assayed combinations and in accordance with the mechanism of bacteriostatic inhibition previously proposed, except for 2´,4´-dihydroxy-3´-methoxychalcone – oxacillin. The best combination was 2´,3´-dihydroxychalcone - oxacillin (MIC: 11.2 µg/mL). Further investigations are needed to characterize the interaction mechanism with antibiotics. Thus, chalcones - oxacillin combination could lead to the development of new antibiotics against methicillin resistant S. aureus infection.