Top PDF The antimicrobial activity of the Cnicus benedictus L. extracts

The antimicrobial activity of the Cnicus benedictus L. extracts

The antimicrobial activity of the Cnicus benedictus L. extracts

Cnicus benedictus L. (Blessed Thistle or Holy Thistle), the sole species in the genus Cnicus, is a thistle-like plant in the family Asteraceae, native to the Mediterranean region. It is an annual plant growing to 60 cm tall, with leathery, hairy leaves up to 30 cm long and 8 cm broad, with small spines on the margins. The flowers are yellow, produced in a dense flower head (capitulum) of 3-4 cm diameter, surrounded by numerous spiny basal bracts [1]. The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil.
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Antimicrobial activity and lipid profile of seaweed extracts from the North Portuguese coast

Antimicrobial activity and lipid profile of seaweed extracts from the North Portuguese coast

temperature to be used Troom and high temperature extractions with ethyl acetate of fresh and dried G. vermiculophylla (also from IMTA regime) were tested. Results of these tests are presented in Figure 1 and show that extracts obtained with dried algae processed at high temperatures (with Soxhlet apparatus) presented wider inhibition zones for some of the tested microorganisms: S. enteritidis, P. aeruginosa, L. innocua and both clinical (CI) and food isolates (FI) of S. aureus. However, there were no significant differences between the four tested methods. Unlike results reported by Lima-Filho et al. (2002) who stated that antimicrobial activity can be influenced by the physical state of the different seaweed. Based on the preliminary tests’ results, the extraction method chosen for the subsequent tests included high temperature (Soxhlet apparatus) and dried form of which parallels algae, the extraction method of Lekameera et al. (2008); the reasoning for such choice was based not only on these results but also on evidence published in the scientific literature, where different authors stated that higher temperatures increased the permeability of cell membranes facilitating the solvent passage through cells and cellular organelles and thus increasing the amount of extracted compounds (Liu et al., 2003; Franco et al., 2007).
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The Brazilian Cerrado biome is rich in plants containing bioactive chemical compounds that may be

The Brazilian Cerrado biome is rich in plants containing bioactive chemical compounds that may be

Although, several species of the Cerrado’s plants contain bioactive compounds with natural antimicrobial potential, only a few studies have evaluated their effectiveness. In addition, there has been an increase in microbial resistance to important pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of peel, pulp, and seed of Genipa americana L. (genipap), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), and Vitex cymosa Bert. (taruma) against the microorganisms, S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans.
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Bioaccessibility of the bioactive compounds and antimicrobial activity of aqueous extracts of Physalis angulata L.

Bioaccessibility of the bioactive compounds and antimicrobial activity of aqueous extracts of Physalis angulata L.

RESUMO - A diversidade de plantas em todo o mundo, bem como a variação química implica em uma grande quantidade de substâncias bioativas. O uso de extratos de plantas com propriedades biológicas surge como uma alternativa viável e saudável quando comparada a substâncias sintéticas. Neste contexto, objetivou-se esta pesquisa avaliar os extratos aquosos das folhas de Physalis angulata L., nativas e cultivadas, quanto a influência do método de extração na bioacessibilidade de compostos bioativos, atividade antioxidante e atividade antimicrobiana. Os extratos foram obtidos a partir das folhas nativas e cultivadas de P. angulata e três diferentes métodos extrativos, decocção, maceração e assistidos por ultrassom. A análise de variância mostrou diferenças significativas entre os métodos extrativos e o tipo de material vegetal. Os extratos obtidos por decocção apresentaram os maiores teores de compostos fenólicos e maior potencial antioxidante para ambos os métodos analíticos (ABTS e DPPH), diferindo significativamente dos demais métodos extrativos. Os índices de bioacessibilidade de compostos fenólicos dos extratos foram considerados reduzidos após a digestão gastrointestinal simulada, e consequentemente, apresentaram baixo potencial antioxidante. O potencial antimicrobiano dos extratos foi observado frente as bactérias Gram- positivas, Staphylococcus aureus e Listeria monocytogenes.
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Braz. J. Pharm. Sci.  vol.49 número2

Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. vol.49 número2

The antimicrobial activity of 13 total extracts was evaluated, 10 soft extracts (B) and 3 blended extracts (E) prepared from dry and fresh leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. Various solvents were used for their preparation: hydroalcoholic solution at 30%, 80% and isopropyl alcohol. The antimicrobial effect of the extracts was tested by means of the method of Kirby-Bauer, using four bacterial strains from the ATCC collection (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and a leveduriform fungus (Candida albicans). The following quality control parameters were determined for most active extracts: physical, physical-chemical and chemical parameters. The results were: nine extracts showed antibacterial activity, being the most concentrated (B8 and E3), the ones with the highest activity in the presence of the bacteria tested; the effect of blended extracts (E1, E2 and E3) was greater in the presence of P. aeruginosa. Blended extracts are considered more potent and active than soft extracts. No antifungal activity was obtained for both types of extracts. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) were determined for both extracts, with the following results: MIC-soft extracts (>100 mg/mL), blended extracts (>50 mg/ mL); MBC-soft extracts (≥400 mg/mL), blended extracts (≥200 mg/mL) based on fresh leaves.
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Synthesis Of Arts In Architecture Of Uzbekistan Of The Ancient Period

Synthesis Of Arts In Architecture Of Uzbekistan Of The Ancient Period

for accommodation of bas-relief panels [34]. So, there were no regularities to install the sculptures and "the whole sculpture was seen as one of the kinds of inner decor of the wall" [35, 81p]. According to G.A. Pugachenkova, the tradition of placing the royal statues in separately designated locations began from the era of Kanishka (in Surkh-Kotal the statues were located in inter- columnar spans) and presented a stylistic feature of the monumental art of late antiquity. In the "Hall of Kings" in Toprak-Kala, according to S.P. Tolstov, was a portrait gallery of Khoresm Siyavushids, "huge seated statues depicted the kings and the surrounding statues –their family members, and god-protectors" [36, 109p]. The isolated location of the figures symbolized the coming disintegration of the dynasty. However, it should be noted that "round sculpture, especially of large forms had no such strong roots in Central Asia" [3, 231p], as monumental painting, common even before the Hellenistic conquest. Wall and high relief compositions had dominated, particularly in the design of Buddhist monuments (stupas).
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Antioxidant, antimicrobial, and bioactive potential of two new haloarchaeal strains isolated from Odiel Salterns (Southwest Spain)

Antioxidant, antimicrobial, and bioactive potential of two new haloarchaeal strains isolated from Odiel Salterns (Southwest Spain)

Abstract: The need to survive in extreme environments has furnished haloarchaea with a series of components specially adapted to work in such conditions. The possible application of these molecules in the pharmaceutical and industrial fields has received increasing attention; however, many potential bioactivities of haloarchaea are still poorly explored. In this paper, we describe the isolation and identification of two new haloarchaeal strains from the saltern ponds located in the marshlands of the Odiel River, in the southwest of Spain, as well as the in vitro assessment of their antioxidant, antimicrobial, and bioactive properties. The acetone extract obtained from the new isolated Haloarcula strain exhibited the highest antioxidant activity, while the acetone extracts from both isolated strains demonstrated a strong antimicrobial activity, especially against other halophilic microorganisms. Moreover, these extracts showed a remarkable ability to inhibit the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 and to activate the melanogenic enzyme tyrosinase, indicating their potential against chronic inflammation and skin pigmentation disorders. Finally, the aqueous protein-rich extracts obtained from both haloarchaea exhibited an important inhibitory effect on the activity of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme, involved in the hydrolysis of cholinergic neurotransmitters and related to several neurological diseases.
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Antimicrobial Effect of Anacardium Occidentale Extract and Cosmetic Formulation Development

Antimicrobial Effect of Anacardium Occidentale Extract and Cosmetic Formulation Development

The plant Anacardium occidentale L. belongs to the Anacardiaceae family and is indigenous to tropical regions such as Northeast Brazil. Its fruit, popularly known as the cashew, consists of two parts: the fruit itself (the nut), and the accessory fruit (or flower stalk), also known as the cashew apple (Alcântara et al. 2009, Assunção et al. 2003). The cashew apple contains tannins, vitamin C, sugars, carotenoids, organic acids, proteins, fibers, and water (Queiroz et al. 2011). Tannins are widely used in the leather industry for transforming the skins of animals into finished leather. Tannins are also important gustatory components responsible for the astringency of many fruits and vegetables, including the cashew. In addition to their pharmacological activities (Santos and Mello 2003), the compounds formed between tannins and proteins are the bases for their insecticidal, antifungal, and antibacterial properties.
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The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

Abstract: The research was carried with the aim to discover the existence of securing the foremost islands and state border region of the Republic of Indonesia reviewed from a legal perspective, which is directly related to the existence of security and dispute resolution methods as well as the governance of the foremost islands and border region in Kalimantan which bordering Malaysia. This study was conducted in Nunukan district and the surrounding provinces of Kalimantan, in this research method that used is normative legal analysis data with juridical and qualitative descriptive approach. The results showed that the security of foremost islands and border region of law perspective in accordance with the Law No. 34 of 2004 regarding the Indonesian National Army has not been implemented to the fullest to realize the security of foremost islands and border region as the frontline of the Republic of Indonesia. The existence of leading islands securing and the border region of the Republic of Indonesia still contain many weaknesses in terms of both governance and security.
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Antibacterial activity of medicinal plant extracts

Antibacterial activity of medicinal plant extracts

Infusion (BHI) were adjusted to 0.5 Mac Farland standard and inoculated on Petri plates by using a Steer’s replicator. After 37ºC/24 hours, MIC values (4,6) were read and MIC 50% and 90% values calculated. Kruskal-Wallis test for significant analysis (p<0.05) and Dunn’s Test for multiple comparisons were carried out. Then, the results mean values, which represent the inhibitory capacity of each plant extract against the bacteria tested, were obtained and expressed as %v/v and mg/mL (Table 2).

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	Field Cancerisation of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract: Screening for Second Primary Cancers of the Oesophagus in Cancer Survivors

Field Cancerisation of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract: Screening for Second Primary Cancers of the Oesophagus in Cancer Survivors

multiple synchronous and/or metachronous cancers of the oesophagus, lungs, and head and neck region (i.e. oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, or larynx). 90% of the tumours in head and neck are squamous cell carcinomas, and at least 75% of them are attributable to the combination of tobacco and alcohol consumption. The odds ratio of OSCC may be as high as 50.1 for those who are both heavy smokers and heavy drinkers in comparison to people who neither drink nor smoke. 13 It has been estimated

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Chemical Constituents of the Methanolic Extract of Leaves of Leiothrix spiralis Ruhland and Their Antimicrobial Activity

Chemical Constituents of the Methanolic Extract of Leaves of Leiothrix spiralis Ruhland and Their Antimicrobial Activity

testing. Disks of 6 mm in diameter were punched from a sheet of Whatman filter paper, sterilized, and impregnated with 25 µL of each sample (31,25, 62,5, 125 and 250 µg/mL)or solvent alone. The bacterial inoculum was prepared and adjusted to 10 8 CFU/mL (corresponding to 0.5 McFarland standards). A sterile cotton swab was dipped into the standardized bacterial suspension and used to inoculate the Muller-Hinton agar plates. The plates were allowed to dry for 3–5 min. After that, all disks were placed in plates and maintained at a distance of at least 15 mm from the plate edges and sufficiently separated from each other to prevent overlapping of inhibition zones. A clarithromycin (Abbott®) disk (15 µg/mL), and 25% methanol and water solution-impregnated disks were used as controls. Fifteen minutes following placement of the disks, the plates of H. pylori were incubated at 37 °C for 3–5 days in a microaerobic atmosphere (10% CO 2 and 98% humidity). They were then
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Cátia Silene KleinI Vânia Helena Techio

Cátia Silene KleinI Vânia Helena Techio

serovar of Salmonella (Table 1). All serovars were susceptible to a minimum of five (25%) and maximum of 11 extracts tested (55%) (Figure 1).The six extracts that presented action against most of the serovars were the following ones: Punica granatum (Lythraceae), Achyrocline satureioides (Compositae), Eugenia jambolana, Eugenia uniflora, Caryophyllus aromaticus and Psidium araca (Myrtaceae) (Table 1). The extracts of Myrtaceae are among the five most active ones. The species of Myrtaceae and Lythraceae, belonging to the order Myrtales (BREMER et al., 2000; THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP, 2003) are genetically closely related, which could justify the similar behavior concerning inhibitory capacity. Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) The seven extracts submitted to MIC and MBC presented bacteriostatic activity and six of them showed bactericidal activity. Due to technical problems some extracts were not tested (NT) against all serovars, as shown in table 2. The extract of Caryophyllus aromaticus presented higher antimicrobial activity for MIC and MBC (Table 2, Figure 2). NASCIMENTO et al. (2000) also confirmed the inhibitory activity of this species against 64.2% of the evaluated bacteria, including S. Choleraesuis. Phytochemical composition performed by the authors detected the presence of eugenol, tannins and flavonoids, and tests with eugenol showed an inhibitory effect against S. Choleraesuis.
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Antimicrobial activity of six plant extracts from the brazilian savanna on periodontal pathogens

Antimicrobial activity of six plant extracts from the brazilian savanna on periodontal pathogens

due to its anti-ulcerogenic, analgesic and anti- inflammatory properties (de Albuquerque et al., 2007; Rao et al., 1987). Psidium spp. is native to tropical America and it has been used to treat scurvy in Asia and Africa, diarrhea in Mexico, cough and pulmonary diseases in Bolivia and Egypt, and as an anti- inflammatory and hemostatic agent in China due to its composition of phenols, triterpenes and essential oils, such as eugenol (Jaiarj et al., 1999; Lozoya et al., 1994). While the molecular and cellular processes involved in the pathogenesis of the periodontitis are being studied, efficient therapeutic strategies have not yet been established for all patients, particularly for populations living in isolated and poor areas from developing countries (Alviano et al.; Komiya Ito et al.; Iwaki et al.). These communities use plant extracts for the treatment of periodontal diseases and other infections, but the effectiveness of these natural products has not been scientifically established (Alviano et al.). The importance of scientifically test empirical preparations is supported by our study: from the six plants tested, three (Patagonula americana, Piptocarpha rotundifolia, and Maytenus ilicifolia) did not show any antimicrobial activity, and one (F. enormis) just evidenced some antimicrobial activity.
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Braz. J. Pharm. Sci.  vol.48 número1

Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. vol.48 número1

For determination of the antibacterial activity of C. pyramidalis, different fresh material parts of the plant including leaves, bark of the stem, peel of the root, lower, seeds and fruit were triturated, weighed and submitted to three successive extractions by the process of infusion, with medium intervals of 72 hours for each solvent. The order of solvents used was n-hexane, followed by ethylic acetate and lastly methanol. The extracts thus obtained were filtered and solvents evaporated at 40 ºC under reduced pressure. These were subsequently weighed and their output calculated.
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MATERIALS AND METHODS Microbial samples

MATERIALS AND METHODS Microbial samples

Even though pharmacological industries have produced a number of new antibiotics in the last three decades, resistance to these drugs by microorganisms has increased. In general, bacteria have the genetic ability to transmit and acquire resistance to drugs, which are utilized as therapeutic agents (12). Such a fact is cause for concern, because of the number of patients in hospitals who have suppressed immunity, and due to new bacterial strains, which are multi-resistant. Consequently, new infections can occur in hospitals resulting in high mortality. From 1980 to 1990, Montelli and Levy (27) documented a high incidence of resistant microorganisms in clinical microbiology in Brazil. This fact has also been verified in other clinics around all over world.
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Winning the Oil Lottery: The Impact of Natural Resource Extraction on Growth Tiago Cavalcanti Daniel Da Mata Frederik Toscani

Winning the Oil Lottery: The Impact of Natural Resource Extraction on Growth Tiago Cavalcanti Daniel Da Mata Frederik Toscani

It is important to highlight that our results apply to a specific institutional framework, given that we studied the effects of oil discoveries on the local development of only one country. For instance, the U.S. has a more widespread ownership of resources than Brazil. There are thousands of oil companies in the U.S., in contrast to the historical monopoly of Petrobras in Brazil. Furthermore, results are likely to differ between developed and developing countries. Finally, we cannot rule out the possibility that oil discoveries positively affect local development of oil municipalities but have adverse effects at the national level (through, for example, a nominal appreciation and pork barrel politics). We show that at the local level, oil discoveries are not a curse per se, and the pure market effect (i.e., when fiscal windfalls are small) benefits development. In light of the results on fiscal windfalls in the literature, it appears that the impact of the windfall effect of resource wealth is strongly dependent on the institutional setting. While natural resource extraction can foster local growth, defining good policies and institutions for use of the associated fiscal windfalls thus remains a key policy challenge for developing countries.
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The Effects of Gender Segregation at the Occupation, Industry, Establishment, and Job-Cell Levels on the Male-Female Wage Gap

The Effects of Gender Segregation at the Occupation, Industry, Establishment, and Job-Cell Levels on the Male-Female Wage Gap

To tackle these problems, in this paper we rely on a large panel of matched employer- employee data. Based on administrative files maintained by the federal government in Brazil (Rela¸c˜ao Anual de Informa¸c˜oes Sociais - RAIS ), the data provides information on every single employment relationship that all registered employers have during the year. The data set is rich in that it contains information on wages and on the characteristics of workers (sex, age, education), establishments (industry, size), and jobs (occupation, tenure). Its census nature allows precise computations of the share of women within the segregation dimensions of interest: occupation, industry, establishment, and job cell (i.e., occupation within establishment). This a strength of this study as compared to the previous literature, which had to rely on small samples of workers or a limited set of occupations to calculate the proportion of females along these dimensions. The longitudinal aspect of the data for workers and establishments also allows us to deal with distinct forms of unobserved heterogeneity in wage regressions. One of the main contributions of this paper is the incorporation of fixed effects for workers, firms, and workers-firms matches in the estimation of the segregation effects of interest on the gender wage gap. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that does that in the literature. 2
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Antioxidant Activity of the Extracts from Pycnoporus

Antioxidant Activity of the Extracts from Pycnoporus

Hashinaga, 2006), which was slightly modified. A solution of β-carotene (Sigma, Germany) in chloroform (Vetec, Brazil) (3 mg.mL -1 ) was mixed with 45 mg of linoleic acid (Vetec, Brazil) and 215 mg of Tween-80 (Vetec, Brazil). The chloroform was removed at 45 °C under vacuum using a rotary evaporator and 6 mL of distilled water was added under vigorous shaking. The emulsion was then made up to 100 mL with 0.1 M hydrogen peroxide (Vetec, Brazil). Aliquots (4.0 mL) of this emulsion were transferred into different glass tubes containing 0.2 mL of test samples (methanolic extracts from P. sanguineus at a concentration of 1 mg.mL -1 ). A blank experiment was prepared as above, but without β-carotene, and BHT was used as a positive control. A negative control containing 0.2 mL of methanol (Vetec, Brazil) and 4.0 mL of the above emulsion was also prepared. The tubes were placed in a water bath at 50 °C. All the determinations were carried out in triplicate. The absorbance of each sample, at 470 nm, was taken at zero time and every 20 min for 100 min. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was expressed as % of oxidative inhibition of β-carotene/linoleic acid system (I %) according to the equation:
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MATERIALS AND METHODS Compounds

MATERIALS AND METHODS Compounds

from hospitalized patients and the second most common from patients in outpatient settings. In general, bacteria have the genetic ability to transmit and acquire resistance to drugs, which are utilized as therapeutic agents. Related studies of antimicrobial activity indicate that crude extracts containing flavonoids, triterpenes and steroids have showed significative activity against several Staphylococcus aureus strains. Combination effects between flavonoids and antibiotics also have been reported. The aim of the present work was to investigate in vitro synergism between several chalcones substituted in combination with oxacillin, an antibiotic used conventionally against S. aureus ATCC 43 300 that is resistant to meticillin, using the kinetic turbidimetric method developed earlier. The results were satisfactory for all assayed combinations and in accordance with the mechanism of bacteriostatic inhibition previously proposed, except for 2´,4´-dihydroxy-3´-methoxychalcone – oxacillin. The best combination was 2´,3´-dihydroxychalcone - oxacillin (MIC: 11.2 µg/mL). Further investigations are needed to characterize the interaction mechanism with antibiotics. Thus, chalcones - oxacillin combination could lead to the development of new antibiotics against methicillin resistant S. aureus infection.
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