Top PDF Antimicrobial effect of dietary oregano essential oil against Vibrio bacteria in shrimps

Antimicrobial effect of dietary oregano essential oil against Vibrio bacteria in shrimps

Antimicrobial effect of dietary oregano essential oil against Vibrio bacteria in shrimps

Abstract - he efect of dietary oregano essential oils on the growth of Vibrio bacteria in shrimps was evaluated. Shrimps were fed: (i) food with oregano oil with a high level of thymol; (ii) food with oregano oil with a high level of carvacrol, and (iii) food without oregano oil (the control). he animals were infected by three species of Vibrio (vulniicus, parahaemolyti- cus and cholerae). he microbial counts of Vibrio species were signiicantly lower (p <0.05) in tissues from animals whose food was supplemented with oregano oil. We concluded that dietary supplementation of shrimps with oregano oil provides antimicrobial activity into the body of the penaeids.
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Microencapsulation of essential thyme oil by spray drying and its antimicrobial evaluation against Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus

Microencapsulation of essential thyme oil by spray drying and its antimicrobial evaluation against Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus

GRACIA-VALENZUELA, M.H., VERGARA-JIMÉNEZ, M.J., BAEZ-FLORES, M.E. and CABRERA-CHAVES, F., 2014. Antimicrobial effect of dietary oregano essential oil against Vibrio bacteria in shrimps. Archives of Biological Sciences, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 1367-1370. http://dx.doi.org/10.2298/ABS1404367G. HELANDER, I.M., ALAKOMI, H.L., LATVA-KALA, K., MATTILA-SANDHOLM, T., POL, I., SMID, E.J., GORRIS, L.G.M. and VON WRIGHT, A., 1998. Characterization of the action of selected essential oil components on gram-negative bacteria. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 3590-3595. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf980154m. HEO, G.J., KIM, C.H., PARK, S.C., ZOYSA, M. and SHIN, G.W., 2012. Antimicrobial activity of thymol against pathogenic gram-negative bacteria of fishes. Philippine Journal of Veterinary Medicine, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 103-106.
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Microencapsulation of essential thyme oil by spray drying and its antimicrobial evaluation against Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus

Microencapsulation of essential thyme oil by spray drying and its antimicrobial evaluation against Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus

GRACIA-VALENZUELA, M.H., VERGARA-JIMÉNEZ, M.J., BAEZ-FLORES, M.E. and CABRERA-CHAVES, F., 2014. Antimicrobial effect of dietary oregano essential oil against Vibrio bacteria in shrimps. Archives of Biological Sciences, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 1367-1370. http://dx.doi.org/10.2298/ABS1404367G. HELANDER, I.M., ALAKOMI, H.L., LATVA-KALA, K., MATTILA-SANDHOLM, T., POL, I., SMID, E.J., GORRIS, L.G.M. and VON WRIGHT, A., 1998. Characterization of the action of selected essential oil components on gram-negative bacteria. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 3590-3595. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf980154m. HEO, G.J., KIM, C.H., PARK, S.C., ZOYSA, M. and SHIN, G.W., 2012. Antimicrobial activity of thymol against pathogenic gram-negative bacteria of fishes. Philippine Journal of Veterinary Medicine, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 103-106.
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Open Efeito inibitório do óleo essencial de Thymus vulgaris L. frente a bactérias patogênicas e ácido láticas de importância em queijo de coalho

Open Efeito inibitório do óleo essencial de Thymus vulgaris L. frente a bactérias patogênicas e ácido láticas de importância em queijo de coalho

Coalho cheese is obtained by enzymatic coagulation by the action of renin or specific enzymes, as well as using starter lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cultures that positively contribute to organoleptic aspects of the product. Some physicochemical characteristics of this cheese, as high moisture and pH, favor the growth of pathogenic bacteria frequently associated to outbreaks, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. The development of these pathogens in coalho cheese could be avoided by the adding of synthetic additives, however the growing interest of consumers for natural foods, free or containing low levels of chemical additives, have led the research of natural compounds with antimicrobial properties that can be used in food industry. The essential oil from Thymus vulgaris L. (TVEO), popularly known as thyme, possesses recognized antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria, however there is no information about its effect on bacteria of technological interest, such as starter lactic acid cultures, used cheese manufacture. Considering these aspects, this study was performed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of TVEO on Lactococcus strains commonly used in coalho cheese processing as well as on pathogenic strains S. aureus and L. monocytogenes. For this, the values of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of TVEO were determined against the test strains and the effects of TVEO on bacterial cell viability were assessed in cheese-based broth and in cheese samples. The main constituents of TVEO identified by CG-MS, were thymol (43.19%) and p-cymene (28.55%). The MIC value MIC of TVEO was 2.5 µL/mL against S. aureus and L. monocytogenes, and 1.25 µL/mL against L. lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris in co-culture. In the assays in cheese-based broth containing TVEO at 1.25 µL/mL after 24 h, a decrease of
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Orange essential oil as antimicrobial additives in poly(vinyl chloride) films

Orange essential oil as antimicrobial additives in poly(vinyl chloride) films

In this work were developed and evaluated films of poly(vinyl chloride)-PVC additivated with orange essential oil – OEO. These films were evaluated with FT-IR spectroscopy; mechanical tests; migration OEO in simulants; and determination of stability after sterilization by gamma radiation at a dose of 25 kGy. The OEO was assessed with GC-MS and analysis of antimicrobial activity. The films were prepared by the casting solution technique. The essential oil concentrations in PVC were 2%, 10% and 30% (w/w). The results showed that the OEO was incorporated into the polymer matrix and that this oil had antimicrobial activity against the bacteria E. coli and S. aureus. The migration of OEO in the films occurred with all simulants. The incorporation of OEO in the films also made them more flexible. It was also found that additive with 30% w/w OEO provides a protective effect for the polymer after sterilization by gamma radiation.
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Essential oil of Origanum majorana L., Illicium verum Hook. f. and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume: chemical and antimicrobial characterization

Essential oil of Origanum majorana L., Illicium verum Hook. f. and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume: chemical and antimicrobial characterization

ABSTRACT: Essential oils of Origanum majorana L. (marjoram), Illicium verum Hook. f. (star- anise) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (cinnamon) were obtained by steam distillation using a modified Clevenger device. The antimicrobial activity of each oil was evaluated against the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus by observing their growth and/or mycelial inhibition through comparison with the standard dish (without oil). The essential oils were analyzed using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer for identification and coupled to a flame ionization detector for quantification. The major constituents of marjoram, star-anise and cinnamon essential oils were 4-terpineol, trans- anetole and cinnamic aldehyde, respectively. In in vitro tests, essential oils of marjoram and cinnamon promoted an inhibitory effect on the bacteria S. aureus and E. coli, while the essential oil of star-anise presented activity only against E. coli. Marjoram, star-anise and cinnamon oils were effective against the studied fungi, presenting an inhibitory effect. The minimal inhibitory concentration for the mycelial growth of A. parasiticus was 1 and 0.01  L mL -1 for star-anise and
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MATERIALS AND METHODS Materials

MATERIALS AND METHODS Materials

This work reports antimicrobial activity of oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oil against several bacteria in sausage. The in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for 9 selected aerobic heterotrofic bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of distinct concentrations of the essential oil on the basis of the highest MIC found was tested in a food system comprised of fresh sausage. Batch food samples were also inoculated with Escherichia coli with a fixed concentration and the time course of the product was evaluated with respect to the action of the different concentrations of essential oil. Sensory analysis were conducted, and results showed that the addition of oregano essential oil to sausage may be a promising route as bacteriostatic effect was verified for oil concentrations lower than the MIC.
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Antimicrobial properties of oregano oil (Origanum vulgare) against Listeria monocytogenes in “alheira”

Antimicrobial properties of oregano oil (Origanum vulgare) against Listeria monocytogenes in “alheira”

Fermented meat products are part of the daily diet in rural areas of Portugal and have become very popular in urban centers. “Alheiras’’ are traditional, slightly smoked, naturally fermented meat sausages typical of the Northern regions (Trás-os-Montes) in Portugal. Essential oils (EOs) have been shown good antimicrobial properties, becoming a good natural alternative to the use of chemical preservatives. Oregano EO already demonstrated, in vitro, a good antimicrobial activity, essentially against Listeria monocytogenes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of oregano EO to inhibit a cocktail of L. monocytogenes strains in paste of “alheira”, during 21 days. A cocktail of L. monocytogenes was inoculated at 10 7 CFU/mL in “paste of alheira” with different concentrations of oregano EO (4%, 1.5%, 0.5%, 0.195% and 0.0975%). Control samples without L. monocytogenes were also evaluated. Microbiological analyzes and determination of water activity and pH values were performed after 0, 3, 7, 15 and 21 days of storage at 4 ºC. The experiment was done in triplicate. The results showed that L. monocytogenes decrease gradually over time and at day 15, a 2-3 log decrease was observed for all concentrations investigated. When a concentration of 4% of oregano EO was used, L. monocytogenes was not detected after 7 days of storage. The lowest concentrations used (0.195 and 0.0975%) showed a good inhibition, with ~5 log reduction after 21 days. Counts of lactic acid bacteria were ~10 9 CFU/mL for all samples. No differences in the values of pH and a w were detected between samples. Although this EO
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Antimicrobial Action of the Essential Oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer

Antimicrobial Action of the Essential Oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer

Most part of the essential oils possesses activity against fungi and bacteria due to the presence of monoterpenes. The main constituents of the essential oil of L. gracilis used in this work were carvacrol (41.77%) and thymol (10.13%), classified as phenolic monoterpenes (Rasooli and Mirmostafa, 2003). These compounds have been studied even against food pathogens, such as Bacillus cereus (Periago et al., 2002). The essential oil of Thymus vulgaris, with percentages of thymol (18.1%) and carvacrol (8.9%), lower than those obtained in this work, was highly efficient in the reduction of gray mold and soft rot in strawberries, caused by the fungi Botrytis cinerea and Rhizopus stolonifer, respectively. These volatile compounds act in the reduction of the conidial germination, causing subsequent death of the fungus (Reddy et al., 1997). Studies done with oregano also confirmed the antifungical action of its oil, due to the presence of thymol and carvacrol. The phenolic monoterpenes inhibited the formation of the germinative tube of Candida
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Rev. bras. farmacogn.  vol.19 número3

Rev. bras. farmacogn. vol.19 número3

TLC of essential oil showed three zones: F1, F2 and F3. The fractions F2 and F3 were active against C. neoformans. Bioauthography revealed a large zone containing oxygenated monoterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes that inhibited the growth of C. neoformans. Previous studies demonstrated that antifungal activity may be associated with the oxygenated terpenes (Knobloch et al., 1987; Jansen et al., 1987). The fraction F1 did not inhibit C. neoformans, S. aureus and E. coli, however its major constituent α-terpineol (24.2%) has been reported to inhibit the growth of bacteria and fungi (Carson & Riley, 1995; Hammer et al., 2003). The compounds identiied for fraction F2 were 1,8 cineole, linalool and caryophyllene oxide were already described for their antimicrobial activity. Linalool has a wide range of activity spectrum (Knobloch et al., 1987) and caryophyllene oxide was reported for its eficient activity against bacteria and fungi (Yang et al., 1999; Matasyoh et al., 2007). The fraction F3 possessed the highest percentage of terpinen-4-ol (43.6%) and oxygenated monoterpenes (Table 1, Figure 2). Furthermore, bornyl acetate, α-humulene and caryophyllene oxide were
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PROBIOTIC FEATURES OF TWO ORAL LACTOBACILLUS ISOLATES Gordana Zavisic

PROBIOTIC FEATURES OF TWO ORAL LACTOBACILLUS ISOLATES Gordana Zavisic

To assess the safety of G1 and G3 strains, NMRI Ham mice were fed with bacteria in a dose 100 times greater than the average most frequently administered probiotic dose for the oral use. No feeding or behavioural changes were observed in the treated mice, when compared to the control group. None of the treated mice died during 72 h following lactobacilli administration. Therefore, G1 and G3 most probably did not induce toxic effects, i.e. they were considered safe after the oral administration. In vivo studies on Wistar rats showed good viability of lactobacilli in the GIT. Namely, G1 and G3 strains were re-identified in faecal samples of the treated Wistar rats. Moreover, a lower E. coli count in faecal samples was seen in Wistar rats treated with G1. In addition, G1 and G3 strains were also re-identified in the material taken from the surface of ileum mucosa of Wistar rats. These results could be an indicator of good colonization ability and bacterial adhesiveness of G1 and G3 to the intestinal mucosa as described previously (28).
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INCREASED PRESERVATION OF SLICED MOZZARELLA CHEESE BY ANTIMICROBIAL SACHET INCORPORATED WITH ALLYL ISOTHIOCYANATE Ana Clarissa dos Santos Pires

INCREASED PRESERVATION OF SLICED MOZZARELLA CHEESE BY ANTIMICROBIAL SACHET INCORPORATED WITH ALLYL ISOTHIOCYANATE Ana Clarissa dos Santos Pires

There is an increasing tendency to add natural antimicrobials of plant origin into food. The objective of this work was to develop a microbial sachet incorporated with allyl isothiocyanate (AIT), a volatile compound of plant origin, and to test its efficiency against growth of yeasts and molds, Staphylococcus sp. and psychrotrophic bacteria on sliced mozzarella cheese. Another objective was to quantify the concentration of AIT in the headspace of cheese packaging. A reduction of 3.6 log cycles was observed in yeasts and molds counts in the mozzarella packed with the antimicrobial sachet over 15-day storage time. The sachet also showed an antibacterial effect on Staphylococcus sp., reducing 2.4 log cycles after 12-day storage. Psychrotrophic bacteria species were the most resistant to the antimicrobial action. The highest concentration of AIT (0.08µg.mL -1 ) inside the active packaging system was observed at the 6 - day of storage at 12 ºC ± 2 ºC. At the end of the storage time, AIT concentration decreased to only 10% of the initial concentration. Active packaging containing antimicrobial sachet has a potential use for sliced mozzarella, with molds and yeasts being the most sensitive to the antimicrobial effects.
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THE INFLUENCE OF OREGANO ESSENTIAL OIL AND BEE PRODUCTS ON QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS AND MICROBIOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF TABLE EGGS CONTENT

THE INFLUENCE OF OREGANO ESSENTIAL OIL AND BEE PRODUCTS ON QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS AND MICROBIOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF TABLE EGGS CONTENT

Removal and restriction of subtherapeutic antibiotics from poultry diets in many parts of the world has amplified interest in improving intestinal health and nutrient utilization (Applegate et al., 2010). The use of feed additives is more and more questioned by the consumers. Therefore, the feed industry is highly interested in valuable alternatives which could be accepted by the consumers (Dahiya et al., 2006). Among the candidate replacements for antibiotics are competitive exclusion products, probiotics, prebiotics, organic acids, enzymes and plant extracts (Capcarová et al., 2010). Feed additives can not replace the negative impact of diet, feeding regime or unbalanced nutrients in the ration. They are not a source of nutrients for poultry. When absent in the ration, the animals have not signs of nutritional deficiency (Hashemi, Davoodi, 2011). Based on the work of several authors may have a beneficial effect on the gastrointestinal microflora of poultry (Kačániová et al., 2007; Nováková et al., 2008; Kačániová et al., 2011), production parameters, the quality of poultry meat (Haščík et al., 2008, 2009; Čuboň et al., 2009) and eggs (Arpášová et al., 2009; 2010; Gálik, Horniaková, 2010; Arpášová, 2011; Halaj, Golian, 2011).
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Antibacterial activity and mechanism of a scorpion venom peptide derivative in vitro and in vivo.

Antibacterial activity and mechanism of a scorpion venom peptide derivative in vitro and in vivo.

The structure-function relationship of some antimicrobial peptides has been analyzed to unravel the regular pattern of antibacterial activity, hemolytic activity and toxicity [23]. How- ever, the regular patterns of antibacterial activity, hemolytic activity and toxicity have still need to be clarified. More recently, molecular design of antimicrobial peptides has become an important and attractive strategy for developing new antimicrobial drugs. In this study, six BmKn2-derived peptides were designed with the aim of increasing the proportion of polar residues at first. But the activity of the six deletion mutants did not improve. So Kn2-7 peptide was designed to increase the net positive charge of BmKn2 to improve its affinity for bacteria. The antibacterial activities of Kn2-7 were better than those of BmKn2. Moreover, Kn2-7 showed higher antibacterial activity than the other antimicrobial peptides identified from scorpion venoms to date [9,11,17,18,19,20]. Furthermore, the hemolytic activity of Kn2-7 reduced observably compared to the wild-type peptide BmKn2. High hemolytic activity is always an obstacle to the application of AMPs. Increasing the net positive charge of AMPs may be a good way to improve the high hemolytic activity. Topical application of Kn2-7 cured the skin of mice infected with S. aureus. Compared with conventional antibiotics, Kn2-7 has many advantages, such as broad-spectrum activities, rapid killing ability, low levels of induced resistance, and broad anti-inflammatory activities. Kn2-7 may have the therapeutic potential for topical use.
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Intestinal and liver morphometry of the Yellow Tail Tetra (Astyanax altiparanae) fed with oregano oil

Intestinal and liver morphometry of the Yellow Tail Tetra (Astyanax altiparanae) fed with oregano oil

Among the many species of fi sh, tetras have received signifi cant market interest because they can be used as live bait for sport fi shing, like fried snacks, and still have the potential to be canned. The yellow tail tetra (Astyanax altiparanae) has a wide distribution in South America (Martinez et al. 2012) and therefore can be raised without the risk of introducing exotic species into the natural environment. This species has a great aquaculture potential due to its high reproductive rate, short production cycle (Porto-Foresti et al. 2005) and omnivorous (Adrian et al. 2001), while having a good acceptance of processed diets. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the effects of oregano oil on the intestinal and liver morphometry of yellow tail tetra (Astyanax altiparanae).
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Inhibitory activity of Syzygium aromaticum and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in bovine ground meat

Inhibitory activity of Syzygium aromaticum and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in bovine ground meat

The microorganism used was Listeria monocy- togenes ATCC 19117 acquired from Oswaldo Cruz Foun- dation - (Rio de Janeiro-Brazil). The bacterial strain was reactivated in Trypic Soy Broth medium (TSB, Merk ® ) at 37 °C for 24 h; after the strain grew, the bacterial cells were pelleted by centrifugation (5000 g for 5 min at 24 °C), cov- ered by freezing culture medium (15% glycerol Vetec ® , Brazil; 0.5% bacteriological peptone and 0.3% of yeast ex- tract, Biolife Italiana Srl, Italy; and 0.5% of NaCl, final pH of 7.2 ± 0,2) and maintained under a freezing temperature (-20 °C) throughout the experiment. For bacterial reactiva- tion and use, an aliquot of the freezing culture medium was transferred to test tubes containing TSB and grown with two subcultures. The standardization of cell counts was car- ried out by the growth curve. Bacterial populations in the inoculum were determined with a spectrophotometer (CARY Varian Inc.) by optical density (periodic absor- bance readings) at 600 nm in culture media TSB broth. Throughout the growth curve, cell counts were determined as log CFU/ml by serial dilution in peptone water 0.1% (w/v) and subsequent enumeration on Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA, Merk ® ) by a spread plate methodology.
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Origanum vulgare essential oil during mating, gestation and lactation

Origanum vulgare essential oil during mating, gestation and lactation

Pregnant females were weighed daily and observed for signs of resorption, dystocia and prolonged duration of pregnancy. On day 21 of pregnancy, half of the females of each group were assigned to give birth to their offspring and the other half were assigned to teratogenicity studies. After the end of the lactation period, remaining progenitors were euthanized and each uterus was inspected for uterine implantation sites and sent to histopathological evaluation. The following reproductive rates were calculated (x100): mating (females with sptz in vaginal smear / mated); pregnancy (pregnant females / females with sptz in vaginal smear); delivery (parous females / pregnant); birth (live pups born/ pups born); viability (live pups on day fourth of lactation / live pups born); post-implantation loss (implantation sites - fetuses born / implantation sites).
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Homeopathic and Larvicide Effect of Eucalyptus cinerea Essential Oil against Aedes aegypti

Homeopathic and Larvicide Effect of Eucalyptus cinerea Essential Oil against Aedes aegypti

First and fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti hailing from several collections taken in the municipality of Maringá PR Brazil were employed for the bioassays. Essential oil of E. cinerea, obtained by hydro-distillation in steam drags, was diluted in a watery solution of dimethyl sulfoxide (2% DMSO, Sigma) in 100, 50, 10, 1.0, 0.4, 0.3, 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 mg mL -1 concentrations. Ten larvae of A. aegypti were separated by Pasteur pipette and placed in 500mL-flasks with 30 mL of different concentrations of essential oil. Control consisted of a solution with DMSO (2%). Larvae were fed with previously tested fish diets during the assay. The number of dead larvae was obtained after larvae had been exposed in different essential oil concentrations for 24 h. Motion-less larvae or those which did not respond to stimuli by pipette were considered as dead. The experimental design was totally randomized, with four concentrations of E. cinerea essential oil, besides control constituted of DMSO (2%) solution. Four repetitions, totaling 20 experimental runs, were used.
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Effect of direct adding oregano essential oil (Origanum syriacum L.) on quality and stability of chicken meat patties

Effect of direct adding oregano essential oil (Origanum syriacum L.) on quality and stability of chicken meat patties

The frozen meats were thawed in the lab cooling area (4 °C), double ground using a 8-mm and a 3-mm plates (Moulinex, Type DKA1, France) to prepare the raw meat. Six different treatments including 1) (No additive), 2) 100 ppm DE, 3) 150 ppm DE, 4) L-ascorbic acid (E-300), 5) 5 and 14ppm butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA) for both breast and thigh meat, and 6) 150 ppm E-250 were prepared. The oregano essential oil was purchased from a local company in Jordan (Green Fields Factory for oils, Jordan). The HPLC analysis of the oregano essential oil (Royal Scientific Society, Jordan, Amman) indicated that 76.39% of the essential oil was carvacrol. L- ascorbic acid (Fisher Scientific, fair Lawn, N.J., USA), and sodium nitrite (Gainland Chemical company‑GCC, factory road; UK) powder were dissolved in de-ionized distilled water (DDW) first, then oil emulsion (water in oil) using mineral oil were prepared to make their aqueous solution. BHA and DE were dissolved pure ethanol, and then mixed with mineral oil to make their stock solutions. The ethanol added was removed using a rotary evaporator (Heidolph, Model Laborota 4001‑effecient) at (70 °C, 175 mbar Vp) before mixing the stock solution to meat samples. Each additive was added to the ground breast or thigh meat and then mixed for 3 min in a bowl mixer (Model KM-
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Investigating the inhibitory effect of bismuth nanoparticles on E. coli (with pks gene) extracted from the cancer tumors of colorectal

Investigating the inhibitory effect of bismuth nanoparticles on E. coli (with pks gene) extracted from the cancer tumors of colorectal

Bismuth nanoparticles (BNPs) (a spherical morphology with a particle size of 170-200nm, spherical with irregular peripheral and with early concentration of 3500 ppm) (Figure 1), sterile distilled water and physiology serum 0.9% sodium chloride, crystal violet, Safranin , alcohol - Estonia, cotton, foil, Para, antibiotics tetracycline, metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin in the form of powder from Merck companies of Germany, Sigma-Aldrich America and others were prepared in lab and were used without initial modification. Mueller Hinton Broth culture media (Liquid Microbial Culture) (LMC, LB) and Mueller-Hinton agar (Solid Microbial Culture) (SMC) were used for culturing bacteria. In addition, E.coli strains isolated from patients with colorectal cancer with pks genes, and standard strain of S.aureus ATCC 6537 was prepared ready.
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