Top PDF The application of GIS and its components in tourism

The application of GIS and its components in tourism

The application of GIS and its components in tourism

A thematic mapper is used to integrate tourism information (e.g., object symbol to identify the object type, object name, category (stars) of hotels, a link to the object homepage for further navigation, etc.) and GIS data to build tourist maps. A hotel search can be a time-based search which extends the map with available information of rooms (e.g., the color of the hotel symbol emphasizes the availability). To guarantee a sensible use, the user will have the possibility to zoom in/out to change the scale of the map, scroll on the map and print as well. When returning the map to the Web-client, only queried layers are set to be visible (Fig.2) to give the user a more detailed impression of where things are, how they can be reached, and which things are located nearby. SVG offers the possibility to turn layers on or off to create the representation which fits to the requirements of the user. All layers can be combined without restrictions to achieve the goal of the user.
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MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS AND USE OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN RAW WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT

MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS AND USE OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN RAW WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT

Adding statistics to this scenario, it is of great value to an- alyze data, to relate them and, if possible, to group them, allowing a more cohesive and punctual interpretation of factors. A comprehensive water quality-monitoring pro- gram encompasses spatial and temporal assessment of many relevant variables, generating a complex and, in most cases, difficult to interpret data matrix. Thus, the application of different multivariate statistical tech- niques, such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), can facilitate the interpretation of complex data and enable the identification of possible factors that are unfavorably influencing water systems (SINGH; MALIK; SINHA, 2005; PAZ; FREITAS; NICOLA, 2006; DINIZ; SOARES; CABRAL, 2012; FIGUEIREDO FILHO; SILVA JÚNIOR; ROCHA, 2012; SHEELA et al., 2012; RUŽDJAK & RUŽDJAK, 2015). Hence, GIS have been increasingly used in integrated environ- mental assessments (LIU & DE SMEDT, 2005; CARDOSO et al., 2015, ELLIOTT et al., 2016).
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Fabrication Of Gold Nanoparticles-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode And Its Application For Voltammetric Detection Of CrIII

Fabrication Of Gold Nanoparticles-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode And Its Application For Voltammetric Detection Of CrIII

3.3 Calibration curve and analytical performance Calibration curve for the determination of Cr(III) on the AuNPs- GCE was achieved by DPSV under optimum conditions. Fig. 3 shows voltammetric performance and calibration curve for different concentrations of Cr(III) at deposition potensial -1.5 V, deposition time 90 seconds, scan rate 0.05 V/s and amplitude modulation 0.05 V. The regression equation and correlation coefficient are y = 0.142 + 0.004x and r = 0.9955, respectively. The resulting calibration plots is linear over the range from 0.5 to 75 ppb. The reproducibility of the AuNPs-GCE was estimated from the response to each 1 ppb of Cr(III) at replicates measurements. This series yield a mean current response, referred to as sensitivity, of 0.14 µA ppb-1 corresponding to a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.4%. The detection limit is 0.01 ppb based on three times the standard deviation of the baseline, calculated according to the reference [32]. The calculated detection limit of the proposed method is better than previous reported methods including the Cr(III) determination using sophisticated ICP–MS (Table 1). Usage of AuNPs modified electrode gives at least one order of magnitude better detection limit than previous reported voltrametric methods using film electrodes. Limited publication of Cr(III) voltammetric detection compared with those of Cr(VI), in addition to its relatively poor sensitivity of non-gold electrodes lead us to infer that to obtain high quality of Cr(III) voltammetric profiles require gold or gold-modified electrodes. Previously it is known that high quality voltammetric profiles for Cr(III) oxidation were found to appear only at a gold electrode [33].
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CRUISE TOURISM IN LISBON - CRUISE TOURISM ACTIVITY AND ITS IMPACT ON THE CITY

CRUISE TOURISM IN LISBON - CRUISE TOURISM ACTIVITY AND ITS IMPACT ON THE CITY

Age is another factor which influences segmentation. The cruise image associated with luxury vacations, which formerly attracted elderly-couple passengers, with high standards of living and seeking a peaceful trip, has been replaced by active passengers looking for dynamic experiences. However, the group of passengers over-60 are still an important segment for the industry (Silligankis, 2001). Being the most loyal customers, this group purchases cruise vacations shortly after the release, requiring minimal marketing efforts. They tend to choose the same company and have a greater tendency to choose luxurious and expensive trips. What is more, they look for low- season trips in order to avoid crowded experiences. On the other hand, a new group of travellers between the age of 45 and 60 has begun to gain significance (CLIA, 2011). This is due to on-shore thematic activities and marketing campaigns looking to attract all ages. It particularly attracts younger consumers, with purchasing power, but who lack free time and seek comfort, variety and safety (RCCT, 2012). Furthermore, the growing concept of all-inclusive has been essential to increasingly attract families and group of friends. This segment tends to look for thematic ships, during summer holidays, and mostly on a 7-day cruise trip. Regarding the repetitive passengers, cruise lines are now offering top quality services and hospitality as an added value. According to UNWTO (2010), the two groups particularly large are cruise for families and thematic cruises, between contemporary and premium segments. The last cruise is centred on golf, educational themes, wine tasting, cinema or others. The central activity takes place not only on board but also at the destinations. Other growing specialised cruises include cultural cruises.
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The Neutrosophic Entropy and its Five Components

The Neutrosophic Entropy and its Five Components

The paper also presents the particular forms of neutroso- phic entropy obtained in the case of bifuzzy representa- tions, intuitionistic fuzzy representations, paraconsistent fuzzy representations and finally the case of fuzzy rep- resentations.

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Assessment Of NPK In Human Male And Female Urine For Its Fertilising Potential In Agriculture

Assessment Of NPK In Human Male And Female Urine For Its Fertilising Potential In Agriculture

se of excreta on arable land secures valuable fertilisers for crop production and limits the negative impact on water bodies [29,13, 6]. The environmental impact of excreta disposal usage would always be less than that of the direct use of water bodies as the primary recipient of excreta and greywater [29]. To preserve its fertility, arable land needs to be compensated for the plant nutrients removed. Today, chemical fertilisers produced by fossil resources do mostly this. In the long-term perspective the world cannot securely rely on fossil resources, as the recycling of plant nutrients. Another way of compensating soil fertility is from human excreta’s direct application to arable land [18]. Urine has been used as a valuable plant food for centuries in many parts of the world, particularly in the Far East. It is surprising, therefore, that nearly all the urine produced in the West and in Africa goes to waste and is lost to agriculture [16]. Urine is known to contribute the major proportion of the nutrients (N, P and K) in domestic wastewater as compared to faeces which even poses a greater health risk when used [9]. Thus, separating the urine which accounts for about 1% of the total wastewater flow, and using it as fertilizer makes it possible to utilize most of the nutrient content of wastewater [10]. Urine is usually collected in a source separating toilet [20], and nitrogen
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Joint Analysis of the Discount Factor and Payoff Parameters in Dynamic Discrete Choice Games

Joint Analysis of the Discount Factor and Payoff Parameters in Dynamic Discrete Choice Games

criterion makes full information on the underlying parameter on the empirical model and has impli- cations for all two-step estimation methods that wish to estimate the discount factor. One can of course argue that analogous analysis can be performed with other loss functions. However, without pro…ling, an exhaustive search with other loss functions, e.g. those based on the choice probabilities (e.g. maximum likelihood, moments or asymptotic least squares) may not be feasible. Especially when there are many payo¤ parameters, it may not be trivial to locate the global minimizer even for a single candidate value of the discount factor. We also provide conditions when switching costs can be identi…ed in closed-form under independently of the discount factor and speci…cation of other payo¤ components (linear or otherwise). The latter gives a closed-form estimator for the switching costs that can be used for speci…cation testing, which for example can use to test for the mode of competition between …rms. We illustrate the scope of its applications in a Monte Carlo study and an empirical game using real data.
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Analysis of the Tourist Services Company Enoaventura and Proposals for its Improvement

Analysis of the Tourist Services Company Enoaventura and Proposals for its Improvement

3) Attract more people from the surrounding cities: Rioja Alavesa is located in a strategic place for the wine tourist due the proximity to important cities as Logroño, Vitoria, Bilbao and Pamplona. It is also known that much of the wine produced in rural areas is consumed in cities and that a large part of the tourist who visit the Wine Routes of Spain comes mostly from nearby autonomous communities (Iliescu, 2016). Their main motivation is to visit cellars and their interests in discover the heritage and the historical footprint of the wine culture, as the traditions of the towns and their people, have been growing. Also, an important percentage of wine tourists are fans, passionate and enthusiastic of the wine and its culture and with interest about to learn more. In the appendix 5 is presented an experience that involves traditional family cellars in the town Lapuebla de Labarca (at only 16 km far from Logroño), that could help to reach the goal, energizing the economy of the town and giving more visibility both to the cellars and the wines produced there. To reach the target audience, it is proposed to make alliances with wine bars and specialized wine shops, which already having a base of clients interested in wine, can promote the proposed activity adding value to what they already do by showing the people a winegrowing reality (different to the classic visits to the famous cellars) that they have only a couple of minutes from their cities and that is usually foreign to a large number of wine lovers because of its low level of tourism promotion.
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Strategies and Problems in the Promotion of Taal as a Culture and Religious Destination

Strategies and Problems in the Promotion of Taal as a Culture and Religious Destination

V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The commonly visited tourist attractions in Taal were Escuela Pia, White House and Basilica of St. Martins of Tours. Historical Sites were considered the most effective promotional strategies used in Taal. Presence of Beggars was the common problem encountered by the tourists of Taal. The Municipality of Taal may continually preserve Taal’s historical sites. The Department of Tourism of Taal may provide a sustainable program to promote Taal through its historical and pilgrimage sites. CITHM may also support existing activities promoting Taal as tourist destination. Future researchers may conduct similar study but using other variables. It is a great opportunity for the students to have c urriculum which is supported by activities which are in the forms of actual
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Efficient GIS-based model-driven method for flood risk management and its application in central China

Efficient GIS-based model-driven method for flood risk management and its application in central China

addition, our Model-driven Decision Support System (MDSS) is running successfully to manage the flood risk in Jingjiang flood diversion area, located in central China near the Yangtze River (see Sect. 5). Section 6 demonstrates the benefits of our model- driven method through comparing with some traditional solutions. It demonstrates that MDSS is reasonable, reliable and flexible, thus has bright prospects of application for

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The application of optical measurements for the determination of accuracy of gear wheels casts manufactured in the RT/RP process

The application of optical measurements for the determination of accuracy of gear wheels casts manufactured in the RT/RP process

Rapid prototyping (RP) and rapid tooling (RT) systems are increasingly used in the production of casting components. RP systems can be used directly for manufacturing casting moulds [1- 9]. The spectrum of rapid prototyping uses can be expanded by the application of the rapid tooling methods. One of the RT techniques is the direct manufacture of casting moulds using the ZCast technology. The accuracy of gear wheels casts made in printed moulds depends on a variety of technological factors [10- 13]. The accuracy of the cast fabrication quality can be assessed with the use of the coordinate optical measuring technique [14- 16]. Literature describes the methods for manufacturing moulds in
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Determinants and Consequences of   the Website Perceived Value

Determinants and Consequences of the Website Perceived Value

Customer value begins to emerge in the 1990s as an issue of growing interest to business, in particular to marketing at both academic and practitioner levels. This concept is considered to be one of the most significant factors in the success of an organisation and an important element of online shopping (Burke 1999; Pulliam 1999; Klein 1998; Hoffman and Novak 1996). It has been envisioned as a critical strategic weapon in attracting and retaining customers (Lee and Overby, 2004). In this sense, the study in hand focuses on three consequences of the perceived value of the site which are site preference, future patronage intent and e-loyalty. Besides, previous researches (Parasuraman, 1997; Holbrook, 1999) have demonstrated the multi-dimensional and highly context-dependent nature of the perceived value. In the online retailing setting, not only the product itself, but also the web site contributes value to customer. Two fundamental variables are taken in consideration to describe the site quality namely telepresence and flow state.
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Assessment Of Some Acceleration Schemes In The Solution Of Systems Of Linear Equations.

Assessment Of Some Acceleration Schemes In The Solution Of Systems Of Linear Equations.

The results of the numerical experiments are presented in Tables 1 to 12. From Table 1 all the methods (the stationary methods, the accelerated schemes and the Krylov subspace acceleration methods) converged for the system considered. The Accelerated gradient scheme (AGS) converged faster than all the other methods (after just one or two iterations). The minimum and maximum optimal relaxation parameters for the stationary and acceleration schemes were 1.01 and 1.25 respectively. The number of iterations for both the acceleration schemes and Krylov subspace acceleration methods reduced drastically with the exception of that of Richardson with the stationary iterative methods. The speed indicates fast converges of the method even though it is relative, depending on the type of computer used. Each method has small relative residual which show that the approximation to the solution is stable and accurate.
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Evaluation And Characterization Of Trace Metals Contamination In The Surface Sediment Using Pollution Load Index PLI And Geo-Accumulation Index Igeo Of Ona River Western Nigeria

Evaluation And Characterization Of Trace Metals Contamination In The Surface Sediment Using Pollution Load Index PLI And Geo-Accumulation Index Igeo Of Ona River Western Nigeria

Abstract: Evaluation and Characterization of Trace Metal Contamination in the Surface Sediment Using Pollution Load Index (PLI) and Geo-accumulation Index (Igeo) Index of Ona River was conducted for six months. From the result of this study, the mean values of lead ranged between 0.004 mg/kg and 0.330 mg/kg, while the mean iron was highest (5.05 mg/kg) in station 4 and lowest (2.26 mg/kg) in station 5. The mean chromium value ranged from 0.007 mg/kg (station 1 and 2) to 0.021 mg/kg (station 3 and 4). The mean copper was highest (3.97 mg/kg) in station 1 and lowest (0.008 mg/kg) in station 2. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed the same trend in spatial variation of these heavy metals. There was a significant difference (P< 0.05) in lead, chromium and copper among the study sampling stations and insignificant difference (P>0.05) in iron among the study sampling station. The PLI values recorded for all the stations were below 1. Thus the sediment of the study stretch that Ona River is unpolluted. The Igeo values for chromium and iron fall in class ‘0’ in all the five sampling stations, indicating that there is no pollution from these metals in the Ona River sediments, lead fall in class ‘3’ in station 4indicating moderately to heavily contaminated condition and class ‘0’in station 1, 2, 3 and 5 and copper fall in class ‘3’ in station 4 and 5, in class ‘6’ in station 3 indicating extremely contaminated condition. The Igeo values were consistent with those derived for PLI. All trace metals had concentrations below the EPA regulatory limits for sediment except iron. From the results of this study, sediment quality reflects the impacts of anthropogenic activities on quality of the river. However, the continuous build-up of the metal contaminants can be checked if relevant government agencies ensure strict compliant of industrial standards which stipulate treatment of industrial waste before discharging such contaminated effluents/wastes into River. Therefore, perpetual assessment is highly recommended to minimize the potential health hazards of the people who surely depend on the River water for fishing and agricultural purposes.
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Evaluation of susceptibility of the ZRE1 alloy to hot cracking in conditions of forced strain

Evaluation of susceptibility of the ZRE1 alloy to hot cracking in conditions of forced strain

This work in combination with industrial tests of casting welding show that the causes of high-temperature brittleness are the partial tears of the structure and the hot cracks of both the castings and the welded and padded joints. Such phenomena should be treated as irreversible failures caused by the process of crystallisation that is in the area of co-existence of the solid and liquid structural constituent. The assessment of the resistance to hot fractures was conducted on the basis of the transvarestriant trial. The transvarestriant trial consists in changing of strain during welding It was stated that the range of the high-temperature brittleness is very broad, which significantly limits the application of the welding techniques to join or mend the elements made of alloy ZRE-1. The brittleness is caused mainly by metallurgical factors, i.e., precipitation of inter-metal phases from the solid solution.
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CONTINUOUS CREATION IN THE PROBABILISTIC WORLD OF THE THEOLOGY OF CHANCE

CONTINUOUS CREATION IN THE PROBABILISTIC WORLD OF THE THEOLOGY OF CHANCE

by God at any subsequent moment t’ can itself determine (“decide”) to be F or non-F at t or t’. This process of partial self-determination could concern all substances created by God ex nihilo. It also seems to be possible that accidental properties of x which are produced by it at the irst moment of its existence can be replaced by other properties compatible with a given kind K produced by agents distinct from x and from God (say by y). But if x brings about that x is F at t, then x creates F ex nihilo. The reason for this is that if God creates x and God does not bring about F (or that x is F), then either x is doing it or another causal agent distinct from x and from God is doing it. Whatever that being could be, it would have to create F ex nihilo. This is impossible, because only God can do that. If x brings about that x is F at t’, then either the principle of divine control (at least in its unrestricted form: “all-form”) has to be rejected or x’s self-determination is an illusion. If this line of reasoning is correct, then all substances must be totally and directly determined (created and caused) by God. They must be determined by God “from the bottom up”. Therefore, it is metaphysically impossible that God created x and conserved it at the moment t’ and did not conserve all its essential and accidental properties at the moment t’.
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Application of time-series analysis for prediction of molding sand properties in production cycle

Application of time-series analysis for prediction of molding sand properties in production cycle

Time-series analysis is characterized, as a data mining tool which facilitates understanding nature of manufacturing processes and permits prediction of future values of the process parameters or production results on the basis of the past data, recorded in regular intervals. The main methods and problems of the time-series analysis are presented. The authors’ research results, based on green molding sand proper- ties data collected in a foundry with Disamatic molding line, are presented. The work was aimed at finding optimal settings and models of the time-series analysis for that data as well as detection of possible periodicities appearing in the sand properties. It is concluded that although the time-series analysis requires individual approach to each particular problem, some general recommendations can be also formulated. It can be a useful tool for analysis and predictions of outcomes of foundry processes.
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Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

the countries in Asia as Malaysia had more intentions of organic products from the customers in view of the importance of health on environmental issues (Saleki et al., 2012:99). This shows that attentions to organic products are already quite well received by the community. However, there needs to be studied perception of organic products in Indonesia, because Indonesia is a developing country which has a population density is quite high compared from Malaysia. And consumption of vegetable, especially organic vegetable products is still low in Indonesia (Amin, 2014:13), in particularly the province of West Java. An organic vegetable product offered by retail supermarket is assessed by consumers in both of sides, quality and risk. Price is a risk that should be accepted by consumers when buying organic vegetables. Hence, price of organic vegetables is more expensive than conventional vegetable products (Radman, 2005:263). Value of the risk products is very important for customer, which has an impact on consumer purchasing decisions (Yee et al., 2011:55). Nowadays consumers buy organic products is not as aware of the health and environmental effects but because of advised and habit of surroundings (Guido et al., 2010:99). In addition, not all consumers considered that by buying organic products, have been keeping or help conserve the environment (Arvola, 2008:449). It is alleged lack of consumer understanding of product quality organic vegetables. On last study it was discovered that the perceived quality is strong relationship with consumer purchasing decisions (Yee et al., 2011:55). Consumer’s had perception of organic products is because of quality and safety, in addition to some other benefits (Zanoli et al., 2012:70). Customer value of product influenced purchase decision of products (Shareef, 2008:105). Organic vegetable products have value in consumer where quality and satisfactions become value for consumers (Ying & Chiu, 2012:125). Higher value of consumer product quality of organic vegetables is more possibility to purchase decisions of organic vegetable products who offered in retail supermarkets. Based on previously phenomenon, this study examines the level of consumer perceptions of quality and risk in organic vegetables, as well as the impact on consumer purchasing decisions.
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ALÍVIO DA POBREZA NO BRASIL

ALÍVIO DA POBREZA NO BRASIL

Support for micro-businesses, be it in the form of fostering the creation of new companies, or through assistance for the formalization of businesses that are already operating in the informal market, constitutes another effective policy strategy. No other factor contributes more to the perpetuation of poverty in Brazil than the existence of a huge informal sector. Roughly one third of all the Brazilians classified as ‘indigent’ belong to households where the chief breadwinner is an informal freelancer (Néri, 2005). In view of the difficulties of access to credit faced by informal-sector businessmen, it becomes clear that policies are needed to promote greater formalization, and to find ways to grant popular credit. Such measures are, however, often frustrated by the difficulty of assessing the size of the informal sector, and further research is needed to shed light on this issue. Aside from granting credit, other measures could be adopted, in an integrated manner, to ensure the efficiency of credit granted. Foremost among these are: professional capacity building, marketing advisory services, incentives for the formation of cooperatives, investments in public infrastructure, and formal schooling.
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The influence of the arc plasma treatment on the structure and microhardness C120U carbon tool steel

The influence of the arc plasma treatment on the structure and microhardness C120U carbon tool steel

The material used in this study was C120U steel. Chemical composition of this steel is presented in Table 1. Specimens as cuboids about dimensions 7,5 x 30 x 30 mm were conventional hardened (temperature austenitization – 770 o C, quenching in oil) and tempered (in temperature 250 o C). Temperatures hardening and tempering were chosen on the basis EN ISO 4957:1999 norms to obtain a structure with a relatively high toughness. Remelting surface was carried out using gas tungsten arc welding method. The surface of the samples were remelted by means of
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