Top PDF Bat assemblages from three Atlantic Forest fragments in Rio de Janeiro state, Southeastern Brazil

Bat assemblages from three Atlantic Forest fragments in Rio de Janeiro state, Southeastern Brazil

Bat assemblages from three Atlantic Forest fragments in Rio de Janeiro state, Southeastern Brazil

Bat species richness in Neotropical localities is generally higher than that of any other group of mammals, and surveys of local bat assemblages may provide useful data for conservation management plans. Although the bat fauna of the Rio de Janeiro state is currently one of the best known in Brazil, there are several localities not adequately surveyed yet, and most of them are in the mountainous regions and in the northern portion of the state. From January 2008 to November 2009, we conducted surveys of bats in three localities in the state of Rio de Janeiro (municipalities of Varre-Sai, Sumidouro, and Cantagalo), and our fieldwork constitutes the first assessment of the bat assemblages of these localities. Surveys were conducted using mist nets in four different habitat types in each locality (forest interior, forest edge, riparian forest, and open areas [pastures]). We captured a total of 148 individuals in 17 species, 14 genera and 3 families. Among them, 11 species were recorded in Sumidouro, seven in Cantagalo, and nine in Varre-Sai. Although species richness was low compared with previous surveys in other close localities, we recorded species that have been rarely sampled in Southeastern Brazil (e.g.,
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Euglossine bee communities in small forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

Euglossine bee communities in small forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

ABSTRACT. Euglossine bee communities in small forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Euglossine bees are important pollinators in forests and agricultural areas. Although the structure of their communities is critically affected by anthropogenic disturbances, little is known about these bees in small forest fragments. The objectives of this study were to analyze the composition, abundance, and diversity of euglossine bee species in nine small fragments of different phytophysiognomies of the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil, and to identify the environmental variables that may be related to the species composition of these communities. Males were sampled quarterly from May 2007 to May 2009 with aromatic traps containing methyl cinnamate, vanillin, eucalyptol, benzyl acetate, and methyl salicylate. A total of 1558 males, belonging to 10 species and three genera of Euglossina were collected. The richness ranged from five to seven species per fragment. Euglossa cordata, E. securigera, Eulaema nigrita e E. cingulata were common to all fragments studied. The diversity differed significantly among areas, ranging from H’ = 1.04 to H’ = 1.65. The precipitation, phytophysiognomy, and altitude had the highest relative importance over the species composition variation. The results presented in this study demonstrate that small forest frag- ments are able to support populations of euglossine bee species, most of which are widely distributed and reportedly tolerant to open and/or disturbed areas and suggest that the conservation of such areas is important, particularly in areas that are regenerating and in regions with agricultural matrices where these bees can act as important pollinators.
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Environmental parameters affecting the structure of leaf-litter frog (Amphibia: Anura) communities in tropical forests: A case study from an Atlantic Rainforest area in southeastern Brazil

Environmental parameters affecting the structure of leaf-litter frog (Amphibia: Anura) communities in tropical forests: A case study from an Atlantic Rainforest area in southeastern Brazil

The study was carried out at the Reserva Ecológica de Guapiaçu (hereafter REGUA, 22°24’S, 42°44’W), municipality of Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Bra- zil. The area is inserted within one of the largest remnants of Atlantic forest in the state (over 60,000 ha), most of which is encompassed by the Três Picos State Park. Most of the area is covered with Atlantic Rainforest in different levels of conserva- tion, with remnants of undisturbed forests occurring in the higher and less accessible areas of the reserve. The climate is wet and warm, with mean annual rainfall of about 2,600 mm and daily temperatures ranging from 14 to 37°C (B ERNARDO et al. 2011).
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Small mammal populations of an agroecosystem in the Atlantic Forest domain, southeastern Brazil

Small mammal populations of an agroecosystem in the Atlantic Forest domain, southeastern Brazil

This study reports 2 years of the population dynamics and reproduction of a small mammal community using the removal method. The study was conducted in a rural area of the Atlantic Forest, in Sumidouro, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The population sizes, age structure and reproduction were studied for the four most common species in the study area. The overall diversity was 1.67 and ranged between 0.8 to 1.67. The species richness was 13 consider- ing the whole study. The most abundant species were the rodents Nectomys squamipes (n = 133), Akodon cursor (n = 74), Oligoryzomys nigripes (n = 25) and the marsupials Didelphis aurita (n = 58) and Philander frenatus (n = 50). Seven other rodents were captured once: Necromys lasiurus, Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oecomys catherine, Oxymycterus judex, Euryzygomatomys spinosus and Trinomys iheringi. There were higher peaks for diver- sity and species richness during the winter (dry) months, probably due to higher food availability. The marsupials had a seasonal reproduction with highest population sizes at the end of the rainy seasons. Nectomys squamipes reproduced mostly during rainy periods. Akodon cursor reproduced predominantly in the winter with the highest population peaks occurring during this season. The analysis of the population dynamics of the rodent species indicated that no species behaved as an agricultural pest, probably due to the heterogeneous landscape of high rotativity of vegetable cultivation. Rodent populations were more susceptible to the removal procedure than marsupial ones.
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CYTOGENETICS OF THE BRAZILIAN WHIPTAIL LIZARD Cnemidophorus littoralis (TEIIDAE) FROM A RESTINGA AREA (BARRA DE MARICÁ) IN SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL

CYTOGENETICS OF THE BRAZILIAN WHIPTAIL LIZARD Cnemidophorus littoralis (TEIIDAE) FROM A RESTINGA AREA (BARRA DE MARICÁ) IN SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL

Cnemidophorus nativo, previously considered as C. ocellifer, was recently described as a new species by Rocha et al. (1997). This was also the first des- cription, within the ocellifer group, of a new unisexual population of lizards with diploid thelytok parthe- nogenesis and chromosomal structural heterozygosity. Recently, a new species called C. vacariensis of the lacertoides group has been described by Feltrim & Lema (2000). In addition, four new species from the ocellifer group have recently been described: C. littoralis, an endemic species from the coastal areas of Rio de Janeiro State in Southeastern Brazil (Rocha et al., 2000); C. abaetensis, which is endemic in the sand dune habitats of Salvador (Dunas de Abaeté) and the northern coast of Bahia State (Dias et al., 2002); C. parecis (Colli et al., 2003), and C. mumbuca (Colli et al., 2003). This study describes the karyotype and the meiosis of a population of the endemic C. littoralis from the locality type for the species (Restinga da Barra de Maricá in Rio de Janeiro State, Southeastern Brazil), which presents a chromosomal sex determination mechanism of the type XX:XY.
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Anurans from two high-elevation areas of Atlantic Forest in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Anurans from two high-elevation areas of Atlantic Forest in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

ABSTRACT. The anurofauna inhabiting higher montane Atlantic forest areas in southeastern Brazil, which often attain heights of more than 2000 m, is still insufficiently known. In this study, we present data on anuran species composition and abundances in two high-altitude (i.e. > 1000 m) sites within the Parque Estadual dos Três Picos (PETP), in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Field surveys were done at altitudes between 1100 and 1900 m above sea level. We recorded 35 species during our study, adding 22 records to the set of anuran species previously known to occur within the PETP. The stability of the species accumulation curve, as well as the richness estimations, showed that the sampling methodology employed and the total sampling effort were appropriate to inventory the anuran assemblages of both sites. Direct-developing frogs such as Ischnocnema parva (Girard, 1853) (at the 1100-1400 m altitude site), and Brachycephalus garbeanus Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920 (at the 1600-1900 m altitude site) were the most locally abundant species. None of the species recorded during the study is listed as threatened, though nine of them are currently considered endemic to the state of Rio de Janeiro. Furthermore, eight of the species recorded are likely restricted to high-altitude habitats. The relatively high diversity of anurans (some of them endemic to the state), the presence of species restricted to high-altitude habitats, and the occurrence of rare and presently undescribed species attest to the biological relevance of the studied areas within the PETP.
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Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from domestic animals in a rural area surrounding Atlantic dry forest fragments in Teodoro Sampaio municipality, State of São Paulo, Brazil

Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from domestic animals in a rural area surrounding Atlantic dry forest fragments in Teodoro Sampaio municipality, State of São Paulo, Brazil

The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in domestic animals in rural properties surrounding rain forest fragments within the municipality of Teodoro Sampaio, southeastern Brazil. Conventional sucrose flotation method followed by molecular characterization of the parasites by sequencing PCR products amplified from SSU rRNA gene were used. Stool samples were collected from domestic animals raised as pets and livestock in all rural properties surrounding three forest fragments. Samples from cattle (197), equine (63), pigs (25), sheep (11), and dogs (28) were collected from 98 rural properties. The frequency of occurrence of Cryptosporidium within each animal species was 3.0% (6/197) among cattle and 10.7% (3/28) among dogs. Cryptosporidium was not detected in stool samples from equine, sheep, and pigs. All sequences obtained from the six samples of calves showed molecular identity with Cryptosporidium andersoni while all sequences from dog samples were similar to C. canis. The frequency of occurrence of Cryptosporidium in these domestic animal species was low. The absence of C. parvum in the present study suggests that the zoonotic cycle of cryptosporidiosis may not be relevant in the region studied. The presence of Cryptosporidium species seldom described in humans may be, otherwise, important for the wild fauna as these animals are a source of infection and dissemination of this protozoan to other animal species. The impact and magnitude of infection by C. andersoni in wild ruminants and C. canis in wild canids have to be assessed in future studies to better understand the actual importance of these species in this region.
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Hippeastrum species in areas of restinga

Hippeastrum species in areas of restinga

The order Asparagales comprises 14 families, five of which occur in Brazil. Amaryllidaceae is a family of economic relevance and includes numerous ornamental genera. The genus Hippeastrum is widely distributed in Brazil and comprises 34 species, 11 of which occur in areas of restinga (coastal woodland) and Atlantic Forest in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The morphology of Hippeastrum has not been extensively studied in Brazil, where only a few systematic floristic surveys have been carried out with native species. In field studies and reviews of herbarium collections, we identified five Hippeastrum species occurring in areas of restinga in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The five species identified could be distinguished according to the following palynological characteristics: pollen grain size, polarity, pollen units, shape, aperture (number and type), exine sculpture, colpus length and pattern of sexine ornamentation. Of the five species identified, Hippeastrum aulicum Herb. and H. glaucescens (Ker Gawl.) Herb. were not identified in the field. Among the three species that were found in the field, H. striatum had the widest distribution in the study area, whereas the distribution of H. reticulatum was restricted to a single area of restinga, in the Jaconé district of the municipality of Saquarema. Through palynological examinations of specimens from herbaria in the state of Rio de Janeiro, we were able to confirm the identity of all five species of Hippeastrum studied. Our data represent a relevant contribution to increasing knowledge of this plant group in the region and will aid in future conservation efforts.
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Bat richness (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in an area of montane Atlantic Forest in the Serra da Mantiqueira, state of Minas Gerais, southeast Brazil

Bat richness (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in an area of montane Atlantic Forest in the Serra da Mantiqueira, state of Minas Gerais, southeast Brazil

The captured animals were preliminarily identified in the field using identification keys and field guides (Reis et al. 2013). Data on length of the forearm, body mass and reproductive state were collected, and most individuals were then released where they were captured. In order to carry out morphological analyses and confirm taxonomic identifications some individuals were collected, prepared as voucher specimens, preserved in spirits, and deposited in the collection of the Bat Diversity Laboratory (LDM – IBAMA process 1755/89), Institute of Biology, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro (Appendix 1). All field procedures were carried out with permission from the “Instituto Chico Mendes para Conservação da Biodiversidade” (ICMBio) (permanent licence for collection granted to C.E.L. Esbérard - number 10356-1, issued on 06/09/2007). The “Instituto Estadual de Florestas-MG” granted permission to carry out the collections within and around the Serra do Papagaio State Park (UC:151/11 - Extension I).
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Reproductive biology of the bat Sturnira lilium (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil

Reproductive biology of the bat Sturnira lilium (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil

Fruits of Solanaceae are a yearlong food source for mammals (Elias et al., 2003; Iudica and Bonaccorso, 1997; Mello et al., 2008b), mainly during the dry season, when the availability of other fruits is scarce (Dalponte and Lima, 1999). Other studies have already shown a strong association between S. lilium and plants of the genus Solanum (Uieda and Vasconcellos-Neto, 1985; Iudica and Bonaccorso, 1997; Herrera et al., 2001; Mello et al., 2008a, b, 2009 ). Flowering and fruiting of these species may vary from September to March in tropical areas (Vignoli-Silva and Mentz, 2005; Penhalber and Montovani, 1997; Santos and Kinoshita, 2003 ), with flowering in the end of the dry season (July-September) and fruiting in the beginning of the rainy season (October-November). This phenology coincides with the peaks of lactating females observed in the present study, which suggests the synchronization of most pregnancies with the period of the highest food availability in the state of Rio de Janeiro.
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Activity patterns of nine phyllostomid bat species in a fragment of the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil

Activity patterns of nine phyllostomid bat species in a fragment of the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil

Captured animals were placed in cloth bags, identified, weighed, measured, and individually marked with numbered plastic ring on the forearm and released. Voucher specimens of all collected species are preserved in 70% ethanol and de- posited in the bat collection of the Universidade Estadual de São Paulo (UNESP) at São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo. Sunset and sunrise times corresponded to data obtained from the Observatório Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (1989, 1990). Statistical analyses were performed with Fisher Exact Test, Chi Square and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (KS) for significance level of 0.05, following Z AR (1984).
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Asilidae (Diptera) of two Atlantic Forest protected areas of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil

Asilidae (Diptera) of two Atlantic Forest protected areas of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil

As few Asilidae inventories of Rio de Janeiro areas have been published, there are many data gaps. This paper aims to contribute to the knowledge of richness, abundance and distribution of this family in this State. From January 2013 to March 2014, insects were collected monthly using Malaise traps and every two months using entomological nets in the Reserva Biológica União (REBIO), and Estação Ecológica Estadual de Guaxindiba (EEEG). 682 specimens of Asilidae were collected in the present study, distributed in 31 genera and 51 species (20 identified and 31 unidentified), 527 of REBIO (in 19 genera and 38 species – 14 identified and 24 unidentified), and 155 specimens of EEEG (in 12 genera and 19 species – 6 identified and 13 unidentified). Leptogaster was the most abundant genus being L. tropica (Curran 1934) the most abundant species in the REBIO, with 268 specimens and Leptogaster sp., with 54 specimens, the most abundant in the EEEG. All records of genera and species in the present study are new in the REBIO and EEEG, wich contribute to the knowledge of the Asilidae geographic distribution and richness in the State of Rio de Janeiro.
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Anurofauna of an Atlantic Rainforest fragment and its surroundings in Northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

Anurofauna of an Atlantic Rainforest fragment and its surroundings in Northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

We carried out a study on the anurofaunal community from an Atlantic Forest fragment (Monte Verde mountains) and the surrounding area in Cambuci municipality, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, which constitutes one of the largest fragments remaining in the largely deforested landscape of the northern portion of the State. We combined three sampling methods: plot sampling, transects and pit-fall traps. We recorded twenty species of amphibians, of which only eleven were found within the forest fragment (and five of these also occurred in the surrounding matrix). Two of the species recorded in the present study (Crossodactylus sp. and Ischnocnema cf. parva) may represent undescribed taxa. Our records expand the distribution range of one species (Scinax trapicheiroi) to the north, and fill a geographic distribution gap for another one (Ischnocnema oea). The estimated overall density of frogs living in the leaf litter of the fragment (based on results of plot sampling) was 3.1 individuals/100 m 2 , with Haddadus binotatus being the most
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Siphonaptera Parasites of Wild Rodents and Marsupials Trapped in Three Mountain Ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil

Siphonaptera Parasites of Wild Rodents and Marsupials Trapped in Three Mountain Ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil

ering 5 ha, with 14 transects varying from 200 to 240 m, spaced 20-m from each other and 1000 to 1500 m above sea level. Sherman  live traps (100) baited with banana or manioc with peanut butter were set on the forest floor for four consecutive nights. Each trap site was recorded, and trapped animals were taken to a nearby station labora- tory. Handling of small mammals was similar to the proce- dure used by Gettinger (1992). The animals were placed in plastic bags with cotton balls soaked with ethyl ether until they became unconscious, after which they were marked using an ear-code (Monteiro-Filho 1987), weighed, and sexed. Fleas were removed from the fur, ears, and tail with fine combs, toothbrushes or tweezers and stored in 70% alcohol. The hosts harboring specimens of Tunga were taken to the laboratory of the Department of Parasitology, State University of Campinas, where the fleas were re- moved. The hosts were subsequently released at the same trap site. A voucher collection of skins and skulls of male and female of all collected host species were kept at the Department of Ecology, State University of Rio de Janei- ro. Mammal identification was based on morphological characters and cariotype, using material from the sacri- ficed specimens. Fleas that fell from the animals into the plastic bag during anesthesia were also stored in 70% alcohol. Each trapping was carried out for four consecu- tive nights, totaling eight collections in each location, and the total trapping effort was 3200 traps/night/site. Serra da Bocaina National Park belongs to the Serra do Mar mountain complex whereas the other two locations belong to the Serra da Mantiqueira complex, and the two complexes are separated by the Paraíba do Sul river val- ley. All three areas are covered by the Atlantic rain forest vegetation. The fleas were clarified and mounted in glass slides and identified using the key of Linardi and Guimarães (2000). The Rhopalopsyllinae were named according to the nomenclature revision proposed by Linardi and Guimarães (1993). The mean abundance, defined as I = nr fleas/nr of collected hosts (Bush et al. 1997), was deter- mined for the collected species of fleas and their hosts, as well as for the three sites. This index is the same as the Financial support: Fapesp, grants 98/01296-9 and 99/10594-6
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Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil

Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil

baited with banana or manioc with peanut butter were set on the forest floor for four consecutive nights. Each trap site was recorded, and trapped animals were taken to a nearby station laboratory. Handling of small mammals was similar to the procedure used by Gettinger (1992). The animals were placed in plastic bags with cotton balls soaked with ethyl ether until they became uncon- scious, after which they were marked using an ear-code (Monteiro-Filho, 1987), weighed and sexed. The blood was collected by an incision in the tail made with a lan- cet and the animals were subsequently released at the same spot as the trap site. A voucher collection of skins and skulls of males and females of all collected host spe- cies were deposited at the Department of Ecology, State University of Rio de Janeiro. Mammal identification was based on morphological characters and cariotype, using material from the sacrificed specimens. Each trapping was carried out for four consecutive nights, totaling eight collections in each location, and the total trapping effort was 3200 traps/night/site.
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Host-ectoparasite Specificity in a Small Mammal Community in an Area of Atlantic Rain Forest (Ilha Grande, State of Rio de Janeiro), Southeastern Brazil

Host-ectoparasite Specificity in a Small Mammal Community in an Area of Atlantic Rain Forest (Ilha Grande, State of Rio de Janeiro), Southeastern Brazil

Considering all of the sampled areas, were found ectoparasites in five rodents species [Sciuridae - Sciurus aestuans Thomas, 1901, n = 13; Sigmodontinae - Oryzomys russatus (Wagner, 1848), n = 3; Oxymycterus sp. Waterhouse, 1837, n = 4; Nectomys squamipes (Brants, 1827), n = 2 and Echimyidae - Proechimys iheringi Thomas, 1911, n = 35] and two marsupials species [Didelphidae - Didelphis aurita Wied, 1826, n = 6 and Marmosops incanus (Lund, 1846), n = 4]. The identification of the ectoparasite material collected from the small mammals resulted in a total of 27 identified ectoparasite taxa: Acari, Acariformes: Cheyletidae Leach, 1815 and Listrophoridae Canestrini, 1892; Acari, Parasitiformes: Macronyssidae Oudemans, 1936; Amblyomma sp. Koch 1844; Ixodes sp. Latreille, 1795; Ixodes didelphidis Fonseca & Aragão, 1952; Tur sp. Baker & Wharton, 1952; Tur turki Fonseca, 1959; Gigantolaelaps goyanensis Fonseca, 1939; Gigan- tolaelaps oudemansi Fonseca, 1939; Laelaps man- guinhosi Fonseca, 1936; Androlaelaps fahrenholzi (Berlese, 1911) and Androlaelaps marmosops Martins- Hatano, Gettinger & Bergallo, 2001; Insecta, Amblycera: Gliricola porcelli (Schrank, 1781) and Gyropus lineatus Neumann, 1912; Insecta, Anoplura: Polyplax spinulosa (Burmeister, 1839); Pterophthirus wernecki Guimarães, 1950 and Hoplopleura sciuricola Ferris, 1921; Insecta, Siphonaptera: Craneopsylla minerva minerva (Rothschild, 1903); Hechtiella lakoi (Guimarães, 1948); Polygenis (Polygenis) roberti roberti (Rothschild, 1905); Polygenis (Polygenis) occidentalis occidentalis (Cunha, 1914); Polygenis (Polygenis) rimatus (Jordan, 1932); Polygenis (Polygenis) tripus (Jordan, 1933) and Polygenis (Neopolygenis) pradoi (Wagner, 1937) and Insecta, Coleoptera: Amblyopinus sp. Solsky, 1875 and Amblyopinodes sp. Seevers, 1955. Table I shows the ectoparasites recorded from each respective host.
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Ticks parasitizing wild mammals in Atlantic Forest areas in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Ticks parasitizing wild mammals in Atlantic Forest areas in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Borchers AT, Keen CL, Huntley AC, Gershwin ME. Lyme disease: a rigorous review of diagnostic criteria and treatment. J Autoimmun 2015; 57: 82-115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2014.09.004. PMid:25451629. Brasil. Ministério do Meio Ambiente. Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis – IBAMA. Instrução Normativa nº 003, de 27 de maio de 2003. Lista das Espécies da Fauna Brasileira Ameaçadas de Extinção [online]. Diário Oficial da República Federativa do Brasil, Brasília, 2003 [cited 2017 June 19]. Available from: http:// www.mma.gov.br/estruturas/179/_arquivos/179_05122008034002.pdf Bush AO, Lafferty KD, Lotz JM, Shostak AW. Parasitology meets ecology on its own terms: Margolis et al. revisited. J Parasitol 1997; 83(4): 575- 583. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3284227. PMid:9267395.
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Taxonomia e história natural de anfíbios anuros da Serra do Brigadeiro, Mata Atlântica, Minas Gerais

Taxonomia e história natural de anfíbios anuros da Serra do Brigadeiro, Mata Atlântica, Minas Gerais

Adult specimens were fixed in 10% formalin and stored in 70% ethyl alcohol solution. Tadpoles were prepared and preserved in 10% formalin. Sex was determined by the presence of nuptial pads, extended vocal sacs and vocal slits in males and oocytes in females (by visualization through transparency of the skin). Measurements of adults were taken with a digital caliper (0.01 mm): snout-vent length (SVL), head length (HL), head width (HW), eye diameter (ED), thigh length (THL), tibia length (TL), foot length (FL), upper arm length (AL), forearm length (FAL) and hand length (HAL). With a micrometric ocular in a stereomicroscope (Olympus SZ61): tympanum diameter (TD), interorbital distance (IOD), eye-nostril distance (END), internarial distance (IND) and eye-snout distance (ESD). All measurements are shown in millimeters. Morphological terminology and description of the snout shape follow Cei (1980) and Heyer et al. (1990). Webbing formula notation followed Savage & Heyer (1997) with observation of Fabrezi & Alberch (1996) that the first digit is lost in anurans, thus digits are numbered II –V.
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Laboratório de Ecologia de Insetos, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil

Laboratório de Ecologia de Insetos, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil

Given their charming appeal and importance for the development of conservation and ecological theory, researchers and admirers alike are interested in ways to recognize butterfly species. In fact, butterflies may be used as flagship species in conservation planning and to raise the awareness and attract the public to activities related to the maintenance and preservation of native environments. Field guides provide an invaluable service for these issues, allowing the identification of species and helping to solve doubts with regards to natural history information. In the case of butterflies, use of field guides may lessen the need for unnecessary collections, ensuring the survival of individuals and the performance of faster inventories. This can be of great use for the planning and management of natural reserves, as well as for ecological and taxonomic studies (Brown 1992).
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The ethnoecological knowledge of fishermen from three coastal lagoons in the northern of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

The ethnoecological knowledge of fishermen from three coastal lagoons in the northern of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

To take part in the experiment, interviewees from each lagoon were chosen by snowball sampling in which some of the interviewees are previously identified and, after being inter- viewed, are asked to indicate new possible interviewees for the research (Biernacki & Waldorf 1981). Initially, legitimate representatives from all lagoons were contacted. Thus, Carapebus’ lagoon Residents Association former president - who is the son of one of the fishermen - was interviewed. After him, two old fishermen were also interviewed. The representative from a fishermen colony at Imboassica - who also works at the Carapebus lagoon - was interviewed in public locations. He is recognized by fishermen from both colonies and other sectors of society as a local leader. At Saquarema lagoon, the interviews were initiated with the fishermen’s leader. From his recommendations, two other fishermen were contacted and they indicated five more fishermen, totaling eight fishermen interviewed at this lagoon. Thus, in total, 11 fishermen were interviewed in addition to the chairman of the Association of Residents of Carapebus beach who provided important historical information. The sample was considered sufficient based on the effect of a progressive inclusion that allowed applying the criterion for completeness (Andrade et al. 2006a b). The number of interviewees was adequate for the purpose of this research, given the semi-structured interview questions, which were seeking answers of a technical nature. This research did not target issues related to personal opinions, which would have required a quantitative analysis. Moreover, as already men- tioned, the fishermen have long experience in the profession and are recognized among other fishermen as leaders and experts in fisheries in coastal lagoons. The number of interviewees was similar to those used by Costa-Neto et al. (2002) and Costa-Neto (2000) in ethnoichthyological studies. It is worth noting that finding active fishermen at Imboassica lagoon is very rare, due to urbanization, as mentioned by Frota & Caramaschi (1998). Each interview took from 30 to 70 minutes, depending on the interviewees’ mood to speak with researchers. All interviews were recorded, for a total of 10 hours of recordings, which are stored at the Limnology Lab of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro.
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