Twenty-two genotypes, fifteen mother plants selected in a first-cycle recurrent selection for resistanceto WB, and the seven clones CSG70 (6A), BN34 (7A), SJ02 (9), MCB09 (10), RLF1938 (11), EET75 (12), and UF273 (13), being the first five clones selected in farms of the Bahia cacao region and the last two introduced in Brazil, previously selected as resistant to frost pod rot (FPR), were used as genitors. The mother plants were from the following crosses: CSUL3 x CCN10 (1), CAB301 x CCN10 (2), MO20 x CCN34 (3), CAB148 x MO20 (4), CAB157 x MO20 (5), NA33 x RB39 (6), SCA6 x P4B (7), SCA6 x RB36 (8), CEPEC86 x RB36 (1A), CA5 x RB36 (2A), CCN10 x CAB324 (3A), CCN34 x CAB301 (4A), MO20 x AMAZ15 (5A), TSH1188 x CAB169 (9A), and SCA6 x GU114 (10A). Crosses were carry out to associate genotypes with resistancegenesfromdifferentsourcesof Scavina – selections in progenies from CSUL3 x CCN10, CAB301 x CCN10, MO20 x CCN34, CAB148 x MO20, CAB157 x MO20, NA33 x RB39, CEPEC86 x RB36, CA5 x RB36, CCN10 x CAB324, CCN34 x CAB301, and MO20 x AMAZ15; with resistant genotypes from Scavina – TSH1188 x CAB169, SCA6 x GU114, SCA6 x P4B, SCA6 x RB36, SJ02, MCB09, and RLF1938; and with genotypes selected as resistant to moniliasis – EET75 (12) and UF273 (13). These genotypes, selected for productivity, resistanceto WB, resistanceto FPR and other characteristics of interest, generated 72 progenies. The origin of the clones is shown in Table 1. Genotypes consisted of three genetic designs, composed as follows: diallel 01 with progenitors followed by simple numbers (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6), which were crossed with 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13; diallel 02 with numbering followed by letter A were crossed with 6A, 7A, 9A, 10A, 11, 12, and 13; and the third diallel crossing only the clones. Diallel crossings between progenitors were carried out with unprotected pollination in a North Carolina II design. Clones Catongo and SIC23, used as susceptibility patterns, and Scavina-6 (SCA6), used as resistance pattern, were used as a control to assess the resistance.
ABSTRACT: The witches’ broom disease caused by the fungus Crinipellis perniciosa is the main phytossanitary constraint for cacao production in Brazil. The integrated management of the disease involves resistance as one of the components. The breeding program conducted by the Brazilian Institution, CEPLAC is directed toward the pyramidation ofresistancegenesfromdifferentsourcesto achieve a more durable resistance. This study aimed to identify sourcesofresistance in progenies ofcacao accessions collected in the basins of ten Amazonian rivers and compared to progenies from the Peruvian clones ‘Scavina 6’ and ‘Sacavina 12’. Progenies from 40 Amazonian accessions and ‘Scavina’ were evaluated in the field for six years for witches’ broom resistance through multivariate and repeated measurement analyses evaluating the effect of progeny, area, block, year, and their interactions. There were differences in the mean number of vegetative brooms on some Amazonian progenies and ‘Scavina’ descendants. There was an increase in the number of vegetative brooms in the last year for ‘Scavina’ progenies, but that was not observed for the Amazonian progenies 64, 66, 156, 194, 195, 269 and 274. There were different gene/alleles for resistance in the Amazonian progenies in comparison to the traditional ‘Scavina’ accessions. These new sourcesofresistance will be important for pyramiding resistancegenes and consequently increasing the stability and durability of the resistanceto witches’ broom.
Abstract: Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds classified into flavonols, flavones, flavanones, isoflavones, catechins, anthocyanidins, and chalcones according to their chemical structures. They are abundantly found in Nature and over 8,000 flavonoids have fromdifferentsources, mainly plant materials, have been described. Recently reports have shown the valuable effects of flavonoids as antiviral, anti-allergic, antiplatelet, antitumor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory agents and interest in these compounds has been increasing since they can be helpful to human health. Several mechanisms of action are involved in the biological properties of flavonoids such as free radical scavenging, transition metal ion chelation, activation of survival genes and signaling pathways, regulation of mitochondrial function and modulation of inflammatory responses. The anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoids have been described in a number of studies in the literature, but not frequently associated to respiratory disease. Thus, this review aims to discuss the effects ofdifferent flavonoids in the control of lung inflammation in some disorders such as asthma, lung emphysema and acute respiratory distress syndrome and the possible mechanisms of action, as well as establish some structure-activity relationships between this biological potential and chemical profile of these compounds.
Since 1992, the standard tolerance established to Pyricularia for certified wheat seeds has been 10% (ABRATES, 1992; Goulart et al., 1995). This implies that most of the incidence values in the wheat seeds genotypes discussed in this study were high, even when only 5% of the plants were inoculated in field. These results point out the potential of transmission of the pathogen from plant to seeds, and reinforce the probability that, the greater the incidence of Pyricularia in field, the greater its incidence in seeds (Goulart et al., 1995). Araújo et al. (2009), in studies with cotton, also verified that an increase in the initial inoculum of Colletotrichum gossypii South var. cephalosporioides A.S. Costa led to an increase in ramulose in field, which augmented the incidence of the pathogen in the seeds.
Abstract – Fusarium wilt (syn= Panama disease), caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC), is one of the most destructive diseasesof banana, being genetic resistance the main management strategy for this disease. Since the pathogen is constantly evolving to supplant the genetic resistance, new sourcesofresistance must be investigated by genetic improvement programs aiming to developing new varieties. The objective of the present study was to identify sourcesofresistancefrom the different accessions maintained in the banana active germplasm bank (BAGB) at Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura. Forty-one BAGB accessions were evaluated, including 17 diploids, 21 triploids, and two tetraploids. The area under the disease progress curve, disease index, and incubation period were also evaluated. In relation to FOC resistance, there is genetic variability available among the BAGB accessions. The genotype M53 is notable for the complete resistance it expressed, and the accessions Birmanie, PA Songkla, Pirua, Imperial, Poyo, Ambei, Walebo, and Kongo FRF 1286 expressed quantitative resistance.
The measurements of trunk diameter and dry broom behaved as independent characteristics, since they presented a correlation of -0.01. Theoretically, the correlation between the characteristics had already been reported (Faleiro et al. 2006). However, the edaphoclimatic conditions of the experimental area characterized by the “cacau-cabruca” planting system (Brazil 2014) is considered to have provided different shading patterns, soil depth, spacing between plants and wind exposure, which may have influenced the result. In particular, the genetic effect ofdifferent varieties is believed to be the main component of the variation of expression of the trait analyzed. Moreover, the age of the plants (over 30 years) may have led them to stable stem growth.
In those strains (9.7%) wherein ISAba1 was not verified upstream of any of the two genes (bla OXA23 or bla OXA51 ), there was maintenance ofresistanceto carbapenems. However, the strains in which bla OXA23 gene was not present, even in the presence of ISAba1 and bla OXA51 , sensitivity profile to MP was observed. When evaluating biofilm formation, it was verified that 96.8% of strains incubated at 37°C showed biofilm formation after 4 h of incubation. Among these, 38.7% were poorly adherent, 45.2% moderately adherent, 12.9% strongly adherent and 3.2% were nonadherent under these conditions. The majority of strains (95.2%) grew at 37°C for 24 h, with 29%, 38.7% and 27.4% of strains considered weakly, moderately and strongly adherent, respectively, and 4.8% being nonadherent. In relation to incubated strains at room temperature, 96.8% formed biofilm when incubated for 24 h.
ABSTRACT:The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect ofresistance inducers, plant extract-based formulations and fungicide over the protection of coffee seedlings in controlling Cercospora coffeicola. In addition, the objective was to select alternative treatments that highlight in control of Cercospora leaf spot and study its effect as resistance inducer through the defense gene expression analysis. The treatments applied were: Greenforce CuCa, Greenforce KP, ET64-DT, which are plant extracts-based formulations (are under patent secrecy - PI 0603575-2), mineral fertilizer, acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) and, as control, the epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin fungicide. We conducted weekly evaluations of incidence of cercosporiose to calculate the area under the curve of disease incidence progress (AUCDIP). After analysis of this experiment, the two best alternative treatments to evaluate the resistance-inducing potential of them were chosen. For this, a second experiment was carried out in order to analyze the expression ofgenes that are translated into the lipoxygenase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and chitinase enzymes. The application of epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin fungicide resulted in more effective control of the incidence of the disease, differing from the other treatments tested. The Greenforce Cuca and ASM, 0.05 g.L-1, products resulted in a reduction of AUCDIP of cercosporiose by 38 and 35%, respectively, differing from the other treatments. In the analysis of gene response expression to induce, it was observed that the highest expression of the genes encoding the lipoxygenase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and chitinase enzymes occurred at 24 hours after application of ASM and 48 hours for Greenforce Cuca, no difference from one treatment to the other in these periods. Plants were sprayed with Greenforce Cuca showed a higher expression of the lipoxygenase gene at 72 hours after application of this product, differed from the ASM. With this work, we found that Greenforce Cuca and ASM products control Cercospora leaf spot through the induction of defense genes in coffee.
Many reports suggest that the antioxidant ascorbic acid is involved in suppression of defense genes. For example, ascorbic acid reduced the elicitor-inducible phenolic synthesis in rice (Velazhahan &Vidhyasekaran, 1999) and tomato cells (Vera-Estrella et al., 1993). Ascorbic acid inhibited the oxidation of phenolics in epicotyls of Vigna angularis (Takahama, 1993) and spinach leaves (Takahama & Oniki, 1992). It also inhibited the oxidation of coniferyl alcohol by peroxidase leads to synthesis of lignin, another important defense-related compound (Ye et al., 1990). Pastori et al. (2003) showed that many defense genes, particularly those that encode pathogenesis-related proteins were activated in Arabidopsis mutant deficient in biosynthesis of ascorbic acid. In this study, a negative correlation was observed between ascorbic acid content and PM severity. This finding may suggest that ascorbic acid is involved in activation of defense genes. However, no conclusive biological explanation is available for the discrepancy between our finding and those reported by the others.
(Figure 1) and because the soil of the experimental area is very loamy and fertile, well-drained and has a high organic matter content. Different N fertilizer sources have been compared by many authors (Cantarella & Raij, 1986, Cantarella et al., 1988, Faria & Pereira, 1992), who rarely verified differences in the efficiency of these sources under field conditions, for example, regarding wheat grain yield, given satisfactory soil moisture conditions. (Bartz et al., 1976). Similarly, studies on slow-release N sources (top-dressed urea) compared with most soluble sources (urea and ammonium sulfate), did not lead to differences in rice grain yields (Magalhães & Machado, 1973).
The molecular interaction produced after gelatinization and cooling of the paste is known as retrogradation (Hoover, 2000). During retrogradation, amylose molecules associate with other glucose units to form a double helix, while amylopectin molecules re-crystallize through associationof its small chains (Singh et al., 2003). After retrogradation, starch exhibits lower gelatinization and enthalpy compared to native starch because its crystalline structure has been weakened (Sasaki et al., 2000). Initially, the amylose content exercises a strong influence over the retrogradation process; a large amount of amylose is associated with a strong tendency for retrogradation. Amylopectin and intermediate materials influence the retrogradation process during storage under refrigeration; each polymer has a different recrystallization rate (BeMiller, 2011; Conde-Petit et al., 2001). Recrystallization of starch easily occurs at temperatures under 0 °C, but also occurs above 100 °C. Starch retrogradation is intensified by repeated freezing and thawing of paste (Leszczyñski, 2004). Some research has shown that paste components such as proteins influence the retrogradation properties of paste through emulsification. Proteins form complexes with starch that retards the retrogradation process during refrigerated storage (Wu et al., 2010). The presence of other components in addition to proteins and lipids, such as other carbohydrates, salts and polyphenols, significantly affects retrogradation (Fu et al., 2015). In general, retrogradation in starch pastes, as well as foods containing starch, is unfavorable in terms of food quality, causing syneresis of gels or hardness. Currently, retrograded starch is classified as a form of resistant starch (RS) (Zięba et al., 2011) and is used in industry for different purposes described in other sections of this review.
A variety of foods and environmental sources harbor bacteria that are resistant to one or more antimicrobial drugs used in medicine and agriculture. Antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli is of particular concern because it is the most common Gram-negative pathogen in humans. Hence this study was conducted to determine the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of E. coli isolated fromdifferent types of food items collected randomly from twelve localities of Hyderabad, India. A total of 150 samples comprising; vegetable salad, raw egg-surface, raw chicken, unpasteurized milk, and raw meat were processed microbiologically to isolate E. coli and to study their antibiotic susceptibility pattern by the Kirby-Bauer method. The highest percentages of drug resistance in isolates of E. coli were detected from raw chicken (23.3%) followed by vegetable salad (20%), raw meat (13.3%), raw egg-surface (10%) and unpasteurized milk (6.7%). The overall incidence of drug resistant E. coli was 14.7%. A total of six (4%) Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL) producers were detected, two each from vegetable salads and raw chicken, and one each from raw egg-surface and raw meat. Multidrug resistant strains of E. coli are a matter of concern as resistancegenes are easily transferable to other strains. Pathogen cycling through food is very common and might pose a potential health risk to the consumer. Therefore, in order to avoid this, good hygienic practices are necessary in the abattoirs to prevent contamination of cattle and poultry products with intestinal content as well as forbidding the use of untreated sewage in irrigating vegetables.
The pervasive use of new mobile devices has allowed a better characterization in space and time of human concentrations and mobility in general. Besides its theoretical interest, describing mobility is of great importance for a number of practical applications ranging from the forecast of disease spreading to the design of new spaces in urban environments. While classical data sources, such as surveys or census, have a limited level of geographical resolution (e.g., districts, municipalities, counties are typically used) or are restricted to generic workdays or weekends, the data coming from mobile devices can be precisely located both in time and space. Most previous works have used a single data source to study human mobility patterns. Here we perform instead a cross-check analysis by comparing results obtained with data collected from three differentsources: Twitter, census, and cell phones. The analysis is focused on the urban areas of Barcelona and Madrid, for which data of the three types is available. We assess the correlation between the datasets on different aspects: the spatial distribution of people concentration, the temporal evolution of people density, and the mobility patterns of individuals. Our results show that the three data sources are providing comparable information. Even though the representativeness of Twitter geolocated data is lower than that of mobile phone and census data, the correlations between the population density profiles and mobility patterns detected by the three datasets are close to one in a grid with cells of 262 and 161 square kilometers. This level of correlation supports the feasibility of interchanging the three data sources at the spatio- temporal scales considered.
There are also several studies suggesting a possible interaction between DL-HMBA molecules and the gastrointestinal tract. Maenz and Engele-Schaan (1996a) reported that a signiﬁcant quantity of DL-HMBA was converted into non-absorbable by-products during its passage through the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, Lingens and Molnar (1996) have indicated that methionine absorption rates into broilers bodies were signiﬁcantly higher when it was given as DLM than when it was given as DL-HMBA. This means that there is a deﬁnite relationship between the availability of dietary methionine sources and methionine absorption into muscle tissue. Even though these scientiﬁc studies have suggested that DL-HMBA absorption is reduced, there has been no clear explanation for this phenomenon. However, the interaction between DL- HMBA and the gastrointestinal tract was very clear in the study by Drew et al. (2003). The authors reported that over 10% of 3H-DL-HMBA activity remained in the distal ileum of conventional chickens, while only 4.7% remained in the distal ileum of germ-free chickens. Moreover, there was no difference in the H 3 + -DLM residual amounts in the distal
The data obtained in this work strongly suggest the impor- tance of mutations in gyrase and topoisomerase in quinolone resistance development in Salmonella, although other fac- tors such as overexpression of efflux pumps can play a complementary role. Additionally, our study underscores the importance of using EPI (NOR and TMP) to inhibit the major AcrAB-TolC in Salmonella efflux systems which are the major efflux pumps responsible for MDR Gram-negative clinical isolates. MDR and fluoroquinolone-resistance in Salmonella recovered from patients are common in Egypt, and monitoring antimicrobial resistanceof foodborne pathogens should be an important component of the surveillance system to improve public health.
A randomized block experimental design was applied, consisting of five treatments with eight replicates of five birds each. Treatments consisted of a reference diet and four test diets (four glycerine sources with different compositions - A, B, C, and D). The assay was carried out on days 21-29, with four days of adaptation to the cages and to the experimental diets, and four days of total excreta collection. Feed intake and excreta output were recorded during the collection period. Excreta were collected twice daily in order to prevent possible contamination and fermentation of the excreta. Plastic-lined trays were placed under each cage.
Proteins are the most abundant macromolecules in living cells and their primary role in the diet is to supply the body with essential amino acids in adequate quantities for the synthesis and maintenance of body tissues. The determination of protein digestibility of foods is an important factor to estimate their quality and the in vitro methodology is a fast and easy way to perform it. This study aimed to determine the influence of lipids on the in vitro digestibility of animal and vegetable proteins. The following protein sources: oat, beef, chicken, fish and pork meats, red beans, milk powder, textured soy protein (TSP), quinoa and five soybean varieties were evaluated. Animal proteins presented higher in vitro values than vegetable proteins, except for the textured soy protein, which presented higher digestibility based on the thermal treatment. In this study, there was no statistic difference between lipid content and protein digestibility. Therefore, there is no need that samples be defatted prior the analysis of the in vitro digestibility, using an enzymatic system containing the enzymes trypsin and pancreatin, which facilitates even more the use of these methods for foods with high lipid levels in food industries.
Other GWAS for depression are troubled by equal predica- ments. So far, marginally significant associations have been found for -among others- FKBP5, SP4, GRM7, C5ORF20 and NPY. However, many of these results cannot be replicated in another cohort ; ; ; . Here again, sample size may be crucial to acquire the statistical power necessary to find an associated variant. In addition, not all studies use the same method of ascertainment. Even though cases are mostly obtained for research through a DSM-IV diagnosis of MDD, more specific secondary interviews may deviate in determining depression subtypes, severity, age of onset, recurrence and comorbidity . Although we did not select our seven genes based on their function, several of them are linked to the central nervous system and brain physiology. First of all, the product of ANPEP, aminopeptidase N, metabolizes angiotensin III (AngIII), which is one of the main effector peptides of the brain renin-angiotensin system. This system controls vasopressin release in the brain. When aminopeptidase N is inhibited, both AngIII and vasopressin increase, which in turn causes an increase of ACTH . An increase in ACTH ultimately stimulates the release of cortisol, which is a major stress hormone. This connects aminopeptidase N
According to Becker (2002), animal welfare is influenced by physiological and behavioral parameters. Deep et al. (2012) evaluated the impact of light intensity on the behavior and daily rhythm of broilers submitted to light intensities of 1, 10, 20 and 40 lx, as well as estimated blood melatonin levels three times of day. The authors found that light intensity did not affect melatonin levels or behavioral diurnal rhythms, but birds exposed to a light intensity of 1 lux rested more and preened less, potentially indicating a
The Total THMs concentration was in agreement with drinking water quality standards in 100% of the results , being below the European parametric value (100 μg/L), as well as in accordance with the criteria set by WHO based on a fractionation approach. However, regarding other European countries such as Germany, Luxembourg and Sweden regulations, only 69.7% of water samples complied with the limit of 50µg/L. EPA enforceable regulation criterion has been fulfilled by 97% of water samples that complied with the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 80 µg/L. Nevertheless, when individual values are analyzed, all samples presented concentrations of BDCM and TBM above zero, which is the maximum contaminant level goal for these two compounds. High THMs values usually occur at points in the distribution system with the longest residence time or water age, such as reservoirs, oversized pipes and network dead ends .