There are many studies demonstrating grouping of ambiguous objects, and others showing that a 3D object that is discrepant in certain ways from its fellows rapidly pops out. For example, arrays of identically oriented equilateral triangles all appear to point in the same direction and switch among the three possible orientations in unison . The exception is when the triangles are oriented base down, in which case they stably appeared to point up, as if sitting on the ground. This latter case is similar to the strong viewed-from-above bias seen in the present experi- ments. As with Attneave’s triangles, Necker cubes joined into complexes along faces or edges may take on interpretations that maximize symmetry of the complex unless a ‘viewed from’ interpretation competes with symmetry . Arrays of bistable dynamic dot quartets appear to have a shared motion axis and switch interpretations synchronously [25,26]. The presence of a single axis of motion in the visual field would most commonly be caused by an eye or head movement, which may explain the visual system’s preference for perceiving a single axis of motion in dynamic dot quartet arrays. When one shaded 3D object in an array differs from the rest in lighting direction or 3Dorientation, the discrepant object rapidly pops out [27,28]. Surface reflectance can also be the basis of rapid visual search . In both sets of studies it was critical that the patterns of brightness in the images be interpreted as 3D objects — similar results were not obtained in planar triptychs — implying that rapid search flags the object that is incompatible with the scene model being generated. However, cast shadows based on an overhead light source can significantly slow search . A recent paper shows that the perceived orientationof a Necker cube depends on its context in an assemblage of a solid, unambiguous cube complex and interpreted the findings in a Bayesian context . The present study shows an asymmetry in a 3Dorientation prior that implies that the visual system has encoded the up/down asymmetry of our world: objects tend to sit on the ground or on the desktop below eye level and so are tilted down. This belief is most striking in the first instant of viewing when the perceptual apparatus constructs an interpreta- tion of the image.
The unidirectional nature of the cross adaptation aftereffects observed in the current study supports the integrative hierarchical model of cue combination. To put our findings in the con- text of other research in this area, we note, first, that they are consistent with predictions based on the seminal single cell studies of Perrett and colleagues . As adaptation offers a non- invasive and direct way to study the neural coding of visual information, it stands as a straight- forward test of the DAD model of cue integration. Secondly, although our study involves an overt direction discrimination task our results are consistent with findings from the spatial cue- ing research [3,4], which points to the primacy of eye-gaze over head orientation and of head over body orientation when these are placed in conflict. It could be argued, as suggested by a reviewer, that our findings measure cue integration at the level of perceptual processing rather than at the level of attentional cueing. In response we note our assumption, in linking our find- ings to those from the spatial cueing research, that the attentional system draws directly on underlying perceptual mechanisms. This issue has been addressed recently for the case of single cues to social attention . where it was shown that the effectiveness of eye gaze as a direc- tional cue may be diminished as a direct result of perceptual adaptation to eye gaze direction. This paradigm, which combines perceptual adaptation with spatial cueing offers a way to fur- ther explore the links between perceptual and attentional mechanisms and to addresses the important question as to the role of social perceptionin social cognition, e.g., deficits in the fol- lowing of eye gaze has been posited to underlie deficits in joint attention and social cognition in autism .
Our study was designed to investigate different aspects of how different types of building representations affect the user’s decision of classifying a building into a certain category. Analyses are expected to provide knowledge to create the best application-dependent building representation that can be interpreted intuitively and thus enabling the user to achieve a comprehensive understanding of building-related semantic information. Test persons had to classify buildings into six building categories: One-Family Building (OFB), Multi- Family Building (MFB), Residential Tower (RT), Building With Shops (optionally with partial residential usage) (BWS), Office Building (OFF), Industrial Facility (IF). The buildings which are to be classified are randomly taken from German cities (mostly Stuttgart), i.e., between 15 and 20 candidates of each building category were selected and LoD3 models manually modeled. For 60% of the buildings, additionally, textured meshes/LoD2 models from Google Earth and/or images from Google Street View were provided. Figure 1 gives The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume XLI-B2, 2016
Open refrigerated display cabinets (ORDCs) suffer alterations of their thermal behaviour and of its performance due to variations of ambient air conditions (air temperature, relative humidity and velocity magnitude and orientation). Some factors interfere and affect the re-circulated air curtain behaviour and thus the equipment’s overall thermal performance. Examples of these factors are the location of air conditioning system discharge grilles, air mass flows originated by pressure differences due to openings to surroundings, and ambient air flow instabilities due to consumers’ passage nearby the frontal opening of the display cabinet, among others. This work performs a three-dimensional (3D) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling of air flow and heat transfer in an ORDC. The influence of ambient air velocity orientationin performance of the re-circulated air curtain is evaluated. A CFD parametric study is developed considering the ambient air orientation parallel, oblique and perpendicular to the frontal opening plane of the equipment. The 3D effects of ambient air velocity orientation are determined through the analysis of air temperature and velocity inside the equipment as well as along and across the air curtain. The longitudinal air flow oscillations and length extremity effects are analyzed, having a considerable influence in the overall thermal performance of the equipment.
A similar evaluation was done for the amide I band response at different spatial orientations of the selected alpha helix structure. Interestingly, the amide I intensity at different polarization angles of the alpha helix structure rotated ‘‘in plane’’, which was 18 amino acid residues long, was found to have minimum intensity when the polarization angle of the incident light is perpendicular to the alpha helix, and maximum when parallel. This behaviour is opposite to the amide I band response of the collagen-like peptides. The reason for that is mainly due to the different orientations in the carbonyl group (C = O) of the peptide groups between collagen-like peptides and alpha helixes; in alpha helices these groups are located mainly parallel to the axis of the structure (organization required for the formation of hydrogen bonds responsible for the stability of helical structure), while in collagen- like peptides the carbonyl groups are located preferentially perpendicular to the axis . Latter aspect explains also the opposite response of the amide I band for the ‘‘out of plane’’ rotation (Fig. 3C). Even though both structures give rise to a more isotropic response, alpha-helix structure displays a decreased average intensity whereas for collagen an increase of average intensity was observed.
Micro-buckling of unidirectional fiber-reinforced composites is in- vestigated in this paper by means of an explicit representation of a geometrically imperfect fiber within the context of kinematical and material non-linear behavior. Two types of fiber imperfections are considered: a helicoidal shape, identified as 3D imperfection; and a sinusoidal plane shape (2D imperfection). Both imperfection models are characterized by a maximum misalignment angle of the fiber with respect to the ideal or perfect configuration, as is usually considered in this field. A total of 816 cases were computed in terms of imperfection type (either 2D or 3D), fiber volume fraction, fiber arrangement (square or hexagonal array), orientation for 2D models, matrix yield stress, and misalignment angle. Two load cases, with constrained and unconstrained transverse strain, were considered. Assuming periodic boundary conditions, homogeniza- tion was carried out to obtain macroscopic stresses. Numerical results are compared with an analytical model available in the literature. The results show a high imperfection-sensitivity for small misalignment angles; on the other hand, the type of imperfection and the fiber arrangement do not have a large influence on the results. In addition, it was found that this problem is governed by fiber volume fraction and matrix yield stress only for small imper- fections, whereas for large misalignment angles, a change in fiber volume fraction produces small changes in micro-buckling stress.
informative, at least in American English (Munson et al., 2006; Tracy et al., 2015) –, and is thus necessarily constrained by the linguistic parameters of any given language (e.g., type and number of vowels, degree of vowel reduction). If individuals use their stereotypes of how lesbian women sound to make their gaydar judgments, these language constraints may affect both SO expression and detection, in different languages. However, voice-related stereotypes may vary across languages implying that different acoustic cues are used in different languages to express (and to interpret) SO (see Zimman, 2013). Moreover, inter-linguistic variability may be grounded in cultural differences as the construal of gender and SO varies greatly across cultures (Podesva, Roberts, & Campbell- Kibler, 2001). Therefore, by conducting a multi-linguistic investigation we can make comparisons across languages and extend our findings to languages other than English. Analogous results would speak to the generalizability of the process underlying acoustic gaydar. In contrast, a cross-
To Porter, Lawler and Hackman (1975), there are six different but related phases, that describe individual performance: (1) Perception and evaluation of organisational requirements; (2) Reset task - after perceiving and understanding the organisational requirements, the individual may choose to reset them before accepting them as a task you want to accomplish, and this process is influenced by their needs, values and personal goals; (3) Development of a behavioral plan that includes performance and effort strategies to execute the task that the individual intends to accomplish; (4) Behaviour in itself, which is dependent on the skills, abilities to act (energy) and psychological arousal level of the individual; (5) Obtaining results, whether performance outcomes (such as quality and quantity of work) or personal outcomes (such as satisfaction), which are determined by the behavior of the individual, the task being performed and the organisational contingencies relevant to the situation of performance; (6) Feedback, since behaviour results reflect on both the organisation and the individual, and influence the future requirements of the organisation in relation to the individual.
The intangibility of services makes service innovation relatively difficult to protect itself from imitations through patents; besides, their performance is assessed on the basis of user perception (Trott, 2012; Miles, 2005). The heterogeneity of services means that innovative service activities must be adapted to different contexts, which requires a more dynamic approach when compared to product innovation (Randhawa & Scerri, 2015). Services are perishable and this means that they cannot be stored and resold as tangible products (Lovelock, 1983). Furthermore, services are produced, delivered, and consumed simultaneously, making it more difficult to distinguish between product-type service innovation, product service innovation, service delivery and process innovation, which refers to how the service / product is produced, delivered and consumed (Bessant & Tidd, 2007; Trott, 2012). Finally, the process of innovation in services involves a high degree of interactivity between the service provider and the client. The intangible nature of services, in relation to products, makes this “exchange” between clients and suppliers more open and collaborative, even more difficult to manage (Randhawa & Scerri, 2015).
Figure 3a clearly shows that the untreated samples is composed mainly of oriented domains of large rock blocks of about 1.5 μm in size, probably resulting from a preferable deposition of clay particles having a face-to-face interaction. The discontinuity in the film structure is evident by the presence of voids between the rock-blocks. On the acid-activated ben- tonite modified with various loading of HPW (Figures 3b–3d), a kind of preferable orientation is also preser- ved and the film presents a more textured and com- plex surface topography with a greater number of characteristics of lower size. However, a detailed ana- lysis, Table 3, clearly demonstrated that the HPW/ /AAB powders present significantly higher fractal di- mensions and lower roughness values than those of pure acid activated bentonite.
achieved by performing preliminary analyses (Cantagallo et al. 2012; Fontara et al. 2015). Applications involving the nonlinear time history analysis (NLTHA) of several structures showed that the inelastic structural demand may be substantially underestimated when the ground motion components are applied along the building's global structural axes (MacRae and Mattheis 2000; Zaghlool et al. 2001; Hosseini and Salemi 2008; Fernandez-Davila and Cruz 2008; Magliulo et al. 2014). Moreover, it was shown that directional combination rules are highly dependent on the selection of the ASI and may considerably underestimate the structural response. In order to take into account the variability of the ASI in NLTHA, Lagaros (2010) implemented multicomponent incremental dynamic analysis and showed that considering thirty ASIs and record pairs is adequate enough to account for the randomness of both the record and the ASI. More recently, Sebastiani et al. (2014) introduced a simplified approach to evaluate the ASI crit by performing parametric pushover analyses in single degree
This paper aims to present the process of construction and content validity of the Brazilian Brief Neuropsychological Assessment Battery Neupsilin, developed to briely examine the neuropsychological proile of both clinical and healthy populations. It evaluates time and spatial orientation, attention, perception, memory, arithmetic abilities, language, praxia and executive functions (problem solving and verbal luency). The process of construction was based on psychometric procedures: 1) construction of a preliminary version of the instrument, founded on clinical and research experience of the three specialists, as well as on research on the literature and on already available instruments; 2) blind judges’ analyses: a) an analysis of the importance of the inclusion of each subtest considering the assessed construct and the instrument’s goal, b) an analysis of the adequacy of each item regarding the construct; 3) reformulation of the instrument; 4) semantic analysis of the items and brainstorming; 5) inal analysis done by three specialist judges; 6) pilot study and inal version, and 7) content validity. Modiications were done in each stage of the development of the Neupsilin. It demonstrated adequate content validity, with advantages and limitations. Keywords: neuropsychological assessment, test development, content validity, cognition .
Despite advances in direct sensor orientation (DSO), ground control remains essential in remote sensing and photogrammetric processes with a large variety of applications that require ground control points (GCPs) in their procedures. Examples of the relevance of ground control in the field of remote sensing are briefly discussed here. Dandois and Ellis  extracted 3D point clouds from high-spatial-resolution kit photographs using bundle adjustment. The GCPs were extracted interactively from existing high-resolution ortho-photographs to transform the generated point cloud into a cartographic plane projection system (Universal Transverse Mercator—UTM). The authors argued that it was not feasible to identify each keypoint extracted from the aerial photographs in the ortho-photographs, and to circumvent this limitation, they used averages of sets of keypoints near each GCP. As shown later in this paper, the proposed approach eliminates this type of limitation. Wondie et al.  generated spatiotemporal information from satellite images on land-cover dynamics for biodiversity management. To achieve this goal, the authors used GCPs to georeference the satellite images and also acquired photographs to document the reference areas. Nakano and Chikatsu  created a 3D measurement system for various applications in close-range environments, which was calibrated using only distances and pseudo-GCPs. To assess the accuracy of the system in a real application, the authors used checkpoints measured in the field with a total station. Harwing and Lucieer  presented an assessment of the accuracy achieved in3D point clouds generated from images acquired by an optical camera on board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and processed with multi-view stereopsis (MVS) techniques. The authors compared the point clouds generated via a photogrammetric technique with the GCPs surveyed using a procedure that combines total station and differential GPS (DGPS) data. Tommaselli et al.  developed a technique to generate virtual aerial images from oblique frames in which the GCPs were located interactively. In all of these studies, GCPs were required as a component of the algorithm to assess the results or to correct systematic errors.
Hemispheric asymmetriesin speech and language processing have been linked to differential sensitivities in the left and right auditory cortices for low level acoustic features for more than 50 years . More specifically, the left auditory cortex has been claimed to be specialised for rapid temporal processing and the right for spectral processing [2,3] especially concerning pitch . It has been similarly suggested that the left auditory cortex samples information over shorter temporal windows than the right, making it more sensitive to rapid acoustic change [5,6]. While all of these studies were addressing relative rather than absolute differences between the left and right hemispheres, it is notable that the left temporal lobe responses were always either equivalent for the temporal and spectral changes  or greater for spectral detail . Likewise the left temporal lobe does not respond selectively to short temporal intervals . It is also notable that no functional imaging study in which basic low-level signal properties are manipulated has revealed a greater activation in the left temporal lobe for different types of acoustic structure, or the rate at which they change. Thus studies of harmonic structure , amplitude modulation [8,9], frequency modulation , pitch and melody
How does the ‘assimilation’ of reference frames occur? In the Scene Absent condition, the object orientation evaluation is based solely on the object image, which contains visual information such as perspective cues. The assimilation of object orientation to the scene in Experiment 2 (Figures 5D, E) is likely to occur because visual attention to the object does not completely filter out the visual information of the scene (e.g., perspective cue of the room). However, this account does not fit the assimilation of egocentric reference frame to the scene in Experiment 1 (Figures 4D, E). If the visual system simply confused the perspective cues of object and scene, the object orientation evaluation should be assimilated toward scene orientation, but the actual effect was in the opposite direction. Hence, the effect may be attributable to higher-order mechanisms: the egocentric reference frame was biased by the (misaligned) scene orientation, or the visual system confounded object orientation relative to the egocentric reference frame and object orientation relative to scene. Although the effects of the background scene were understandable, they were not prominent. For instance, in Experiment 1, the bias increment between the -9 u scene and the 0u scene (see Figure 4B, 4D) was 1.54u, which is small relative to the size of the bias (10,15u). Furthermore, the effects of scene were found only under limited conditions. The role of the scene context in3D object orientationperception may be supplemental rather than essential. Nevertheless, the presence of a scene effect found here is a hallmark of scene processing in object orientationperception. The scene effects may likely be more prominent in more uncertain conditions, for example, when evaluating the orientationof a bar-shaped object, which provides less pictorial depth information than the more familiar objects we used.
Cooking Loss Determination: The cooking loss was determined according to (AMSA, 1995). Meat samples were thawed at 5 o C for 24 hr. then cut into samples of equal dimensions and weighed Samples were cooked in plastic bags in a water bath at 80 o C for 90 min., cooled in running tap water for 20 min., then dried from fluids and reweighed. The cooking loss % was also determined by oven. Frozen samples randomly selected were used for determining cooking losses and thawed for 24 hours in 4 o C refrigerator. Two fingers from each treatment were weighed separately and rapped by aluminum foil, then cooked by oven at 160 o C for 25-30min. Samples allowed to cooling at room temperature, then _______________________
influence of political interests or economical certain, 3) The obligation to be and to work with honest, imparsial, and efficient, 4) The obligation to always work with manners, good against people it serves, and to a superior, colleagues and his subordinates, 5) An Obligation to prevent themselves from the difference between private interests with the position of public spaces, 6) Obligation not to take advantage of unnatural or his position for personal interest, 7) The obligation to always behave in such a way for the sake of maintaining and increasing trust and confidence on public integrity, impartiality and the effectiveness of public services by, 8) An obligation to carry out tasks and functions iktikad on the basis either, perseverance based on professional skills, knowledge, and sufficient experience, 9) Obligation to always maintain a balance between respect for rights and freedom of citizens with an obligation to precede the public interest, and did not impose restrictions that unnatural unreasonable restrictions, 10) An obligation to respect the rights of citizens for public information, 11) Sanctions law firm to offences
The survey technique for data collection through a questionnaire was applied, with components statements of all latent variables used in this study (Table 1). It also included the identification of the demographic characteristics of rural enterprises. All the items of latent variables of the structural model were measured by using the Likert scale of seven points, in which the value 1 is the weakest/ lowest concept of the assessed amount, importance or agreement, and the value 7 being the strongest/ highest. The survey was then applied directly to the owners and managers from February to April 2014. Data was collected from 208 questionnaires in Mato Grosso do Sul State; the items were related to their latent variables and their unidimensionalities were verified; i.e. if each of them could be represented by the exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation method was employed, using the SPSS v. 23 software. As a result, the adjusted theoretical model, with a reflective-formative type, was tested through the resolution of the by partial least squares
The mechanical behavior of honeycombs under combined loads with regard to out-of-plane direction has been studied by some researchers. Petras and Sutcliffe  examined the failure behavior of sandwich beams with Nomex honeycomb cores subjected to combined loads. Mohr and Doyoyo  modified the standard Arcan rig to study the microstructural response of but- terfly shaped aluminum honeycomb specimens under combined loading. For further studies, Mohr and Doyoyo  employed a new universal biaxial testing apparatus to investigate the response of aluminum honeycomb under various combinations of large shear and compressive strains. Based on the experimentally measured stress–strain curves, Mohr and Doyoyo  pro- posed an elliptical initial yield surface and a linear crushing envelope for aluminum honeycomb. Note that the honeycomb specimens employed by the above-mentioned researchers [2, 12, 13] have only single in-plane orientation angle and thus the shear loads were applied along sin- gle direction. Hong et al [6, 7] devised two systems (so-called the independently controlled test fixture  and the inclined test fixture ) to extensively investigated the quasi-static crush behavior of aluminum honeycomb under combined shear-compression. A phenomeno- logical yield criterion for aluminum honeycomb specimens with different in-plane orientation angles was proposed in terms of the experimental normal crush and shear strengths under different loading conditions. In addition, the influence of the in-plane orientation angle on energy absorption rate was also defined. In a follow-up investigation, Hong et al  introduced an impact test apparatus in terms of their quasi-static method to perform dynamical biaxial experiments on aluminum honeycomb. Recently, Hou et al [9, 10] designed a large-diameter Nylon Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar system (SHPB) with beveled ends of different loading angles to investigate the crush behavior of aluminum honeycomb specimens under combined shear-compression. A significant strength enhancement was found at dynamic loading for both normal and shear behaviors with respect to the quasi-static case.