Top PDF Authentication of Secure Data Transmission In Wireless Routing

Authentication of Secure Data Transmission In Wireless Routing

Authentication of Secure Data Transmission In Wireless Routing

Hop-by-hop and shortest-path routing are twin quintessences of Internet routing protocols. Hop-by- hop routing means that forwarding decisions are made independently at each node based only on the destination addresses of incoming packets, and on path computations performed locally at the node. In shortest-path routing, the path computations performed locally at each node are such as to make packets travel over paths that minimize an additive weight function, often with delay-related semantics. Hop-by-hop and shortest-path routing are also key components in minimum delay routing. Metrics other than delay-related are of fundamental importance in the Internet, both for conventional datagram operation routing best-effort traffic, and for virtual circuit operation routing flows with strict Quality-of-Service (QoS) requirements. For datagram operation, link utilization is proposed in [4] as an adequate metric to deal with congestion, and, in [5], link utilization is used with advantage to route traffic belonging to classes with different QoS requirements. The popular Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol also has provisions to route packets along different types of paths, including maximum throughput paths [6]. Although the semantics of link utilization and throughput would seem to call for a bottleneck weight function, where the weight of a path equals the weight of its bottleneck link, an additive weight function is used instead in the previous examples. As a matter of fact, our investigations show that routing loops may arise if the path computation algorithms used for additive
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A Study on Secure Data Collection Mechanism for Wireless Sensor Networks

A Study on Secure Data Collection Mechanism for Wireless Sensor Networks

Wireless sensor network is a collection of sensor node with limited resources and base station. Sensor node monitors the physical and environmental condition such as temperature, sound, pressure, vehicular motion, humidity etc.. The network consists of a large number of sensor network and smaller number of cluster head and base station. Compared to the energy of cluster head is higher than sensor node energy .As a result event occurs when the sensor nodes sense the information passes through the base station so increase secure data collection. There are many security issues in wireless sensor networks namely predetermined path and node compromise etc. When sensor nodes sent the data using predetermined path attacker can easily get the data. other issues of WSN to compromise the sensor node and modify the data to pass the information through the base station. These problems solved by improving the sufficient and secure data transmission.
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An Advanced Survey on Secure Energy-Efficient Hierarchical Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

An Advanced Survey on Secure Energy-Efficient Hierarchical Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

SRPSN [27] is a Secure Routing Protocol for Sensor Networks consists of a hierarchical network with CHs and cluster member nodes. CHs route the messages from sensor nodes. A preloaded symmetric key is shared between all CHs and the BS to protect data. SRPSN is also designed to safeguard the data packet transmission on the sensor networks under different types of attacks. A group key management scheme is proposed, which contains group communication policies, group membership requirements and an algorithm for generating a distributed group key for secure communication. Every sensor node contributes its partial key for computing the group key. One drawback associated with this protocol is that there is no authentication in the mechanism. Hence, SRPSN fail to protect against attacks like spoofing, altering, replaying. If the adversary uses the sybil attack, the problem will be more severe. The malicious node can also become a sinkhole. Another problem of this scheme is that children nodes will select a largest NBR node to relay data. However, energy consumption will be increased in this case.
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A Secure Routing Protocol to Eliminate Integrity, Authentication and Sleep Deprivation Based Threats in Mobile Ad hoc Network

A Secure Routing Protocol to Eliminate Integrity, Authentication and Sleep Deprivation Based Threats in Mobile Ad hoc Network

Abstract: Problem statement: Network security in Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is a major issue. Some of the attacks such as modification, impersonation, Time To Live (TTL) and sleep deprivation are due to misbehaviour of malicious nodes, which disrupts the transmission. Some of the existing security protocols such as ARAN, SAODV and SEAD are basically used to detect and eliminate one or two types of attacks. The major requirement of a secure protocol is to prevent and eliminate many attacks simultaneously which will make the MANETs more secured. Approach: We propose the algorithm that can prevent and also eliminate multiple attacks simultaneously, called MIST algorithm (Modification, Impersonation, Sleep deprivation and TTL attacks). This algorithm is written on Node Transition Probability (NTP) based protocol which provides maximum utilization of bandwidth during heavy traffic with less overhead. Thus this has been named MIST NTP. Results: The proposed MIST NTP has been compared with NTP without the MIST algorithm, Authenticated Routing for Ad hoc Networks (ARAN) and Ad hoc on Demand Distance Vector (AODV). Extensive packet level simulations show that MIST NTP produces around 10% less end to end delay than ARAN, it even drops 30% fewer packets compared to malicious NTP on an average and around 50-60% fewer packets compared to AODV during multiple attacks. Conclusion: The results ensure that MIST NTP can break the greatest security challenge prevailing in MANETs by securing the MANET against several attacks at once.
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Security of cluster based wireless sensor routing

Security of cluster based wireless sensor routing

Like most routing protocols for WSNs, LEACH is vulnerable to a number of security attacks [7], including jamming, spoofing, replay, etc. However, because it is a cluster- based protocol, relying fundamentally on the CHs for data aggregation and routing, attacks involving CHs are the most damaging. If an intruder manages to become a CH, it can stage attacks such as sinkhole and selective forwarding, thus disrupting the workings of the network. Of course, the intruder may leave the routing alone, and try to inject bogus sensor data into the network, one way or another. A third type of attack is (passive) eavesdropping. Note that LEACH is more robust against attacks than most other routing protocols [5]. In contrast to more conventional multihop schemes where nodes around the BS are especially attractive for compromise(because they concentrate all network-to-BS communication flows), CHs in LEACH communicate directly with the BS, can be any- where in the network, and change from round to round. All these characteristics make it harder for an adversary to identify and compromise strategically more important nodes. One of the first steps to be taken to secure a WSN is to prevent illegitimate nodes from participating in the network. This access control can preserve much of a network’s operations, unless legitimate nodes have been compromised. (Note that access control does not solve all security problems in WSNs. E.g., it is ineffective against DoS attacks based on jamming wireless channels, or manipulating a node’s surrounding environment to induce the reporting of fabricated conditions.) Access control in networks has typically been implemented using cryptographic mechanisms, which rely critically on KD.
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ENERGY EFFICENT ROUTING PROTOCOL IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

ENERGY EFFICENT ROUTING PROTOCOL IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

nodes. So that energy consumption of the sensors is balanced. In this paper Sensors are grouped into several clusters. In every cluster, a routing tree is constructed for data transmission. One sensor node is selected as a cluster head in every cluster. This cluster head selection based on the residual energy and this node remains as a cluster head for an optimal number of rounds. Among all cluster heads, a routing tree is also constructed. After an optimal number of rounds, new group of cluster heads are selected. Due to the hierarchical tree structure and all tasks done by a high energy base station our protocol requires less energy as compared to other protocols .All nodes in a cluster send the sensed data to their neighbor node instead of the cluster-head. Each node aggregates the data to reduce the amount of data transferred. The cluster-head fuses the data received from the member nodes within the cluster and then transmit them to the BS. Here, the cluster formation occurs after certain round.
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Paper Survey of Different Energy Efficient Schemes in Wireless Ad hoc Network

Paper Survey of Different Energy Efficient Schemes in Wireless Ad hoc Network

Abstract— Energy efficient routing may be the most important design criteria for Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET), since mobile nodes will be powered by batteries with limited capacity. Power failure of a mobile node not only affects the node itself but also its ability to forward packets on behalf of others and thus the overall network lifetime. This paper addresses the problem of energy-efficient and aware data routing strategies within the Wireless Ad hoc Networks using directional antennas and considers the battery power of each node as an important criteria while determining the route for data packet transmission. Energy depletion of nodes in Wireless Ad hoc Networks is one of the prime concerns for their sustained operation. Conventional routing strategies usually focus on minimizing the number of hops or minimizing route errors from the source node to the destination node. But they do not usually focus on the energy depletion of the nodes. Thus, the same node may be selected repeatedly, thereby causing its early depletion in energy. In this survey the research has done on the basis of efficient energy consumption and if a node in the network has heavily depleted its battery power, then an alternative node would be selected for routing so that not only the power of each node is used optimally.
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Identity-based Trusted Authentication in Wireless Sensor Networks

Identity-based Trusted Authentication in Wireless Sensor Networks

Secure communication mechanisms in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have been widely deployed to ensure confidentiality, authenticity and integrity of the nodes and data. Recently many WSNs applications rely on trusted communication to ensure large user acceptance. Indeed, the trusted relationship thus far can only be achieved through Trust Management System (TMS) or by adding external security chip on the WSN platform. In this study an alternative mechanism is proposed to accomplish trusted communication between sensors based on the principles defined by Trusted Computing Group (TCG). The results of other related study have also been analyzed to validate and support our findings. Finally the proposed trusted mechanism is evaluated for the potential application on resource constraint devices by quantifying their power consumption on selected major processes. The result proved the proposed scheme can establish trust in WSN with less computation and communication and most importantly eliminating the need for neighboring evaluation for TMS or relying on external security chip.
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Secure Mobile Agent based Information Gathering in Wireless Network

Secure Mobile Agent based Information Gathering in Wireless Network

Generally, a multi-hop mobile agent will visit more than one remote host in the single departure from the owner. The order of visiting the remote host may be static (travel path is given by the originator) or dynamic (travel path decided by the remote hosts). In both these cases, information protection is the major challenge against the attackers. During the journey of the agent, a single host (server) or a set of malicious hosts (servers) can collude together and modify, delete or insert malicious data (information or offers) in data set collected from the preceding hosts. For this, Yee [2] proposed the PRAC (Partial Result Authentication Codes) to protect the mobile agent information. Yee classifies his algorithm into three types:
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Secure Geographic Routing Protocols: Issues and Approaches

Secure Geographic Routing Protocols: Issues and Approaches

According to great capabilities of WSNs, application of them is increasing in recent decade. But, they face to some challenges such as limitation of power, memory, CPU and etc. these issues of WSNs have a direct effects on algorithms that are designed to them because complex algorithms need much memory and CPU and they consume a great deal of energy. These extreme limitations of resource, separate WSNs from traditional networks [1]. Based on the natural features of WSNs that distinguish them from other wireless networks such as ad hoc networks, routing in WSNs has very challenges. First, establishing comprehensive structure of address for deploying of the certain number of sensor nodes is impossible. So, traditional methods based on IP address (IP-based protocols) cannot be used to wireless sensor networks. Second, almost all applications of sensor networks need to sense the flow of data from multiple sources and transfer them to a special sink that it is as opposed to communication networks. Third if multiple sensors that are deployed in the adjacency of an event create same data, the data traffic is generated that it has an important redundancy in it. Such redundancy requires to be developed by the routing protocols to make energy and bandwidth utilization better. Finally, sensor node needs an accurate resource management because the resources of
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A Query Driven Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Nodes in Subsurface

A Query Driven Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Nodes in Subsurface

Traditionally in WSN network application, communications within nodes have seen a lot of development and changes. Generally WSNs communication depends on two major factors viz data to be collected and energy available. We have seen many different routing protocols for conventional applications of WSNs, which have been developed or wished-for to solve the challenges posed by these networks. The existing protocols are based on diverse assumptions as regards the application background of the concerned network as well as operational manners. Routing mechanisms have been defined for traditional applications as well as for underwater operations too. But none have been developed or proposed for subsurface exploration at the time of listing this paper. Routing in WSNs, even for traditional applications is intrinsically challenging owing to its distinctiveness, which separates it from other wireless networks like ad-hoc mobile networks (MANET), cellular network or simple Wi- Fi systems. It has been discussed and debated that for a large number of nodes to be deployed, it is not feasible to build an IP based global addressing scheme, since it would lead to a mammoth ID overhead maintenance. This being the reason that traditional IP based routing cannot be used for any of the WSNs applications. In addition to this, unlike our traditional communication networks, application of sensors within subsurface requires to flow accumulated data based on various parameters to the base station. This could be done in single hop (as in Direct Reporting) or via multiple hops (as in Directed Diffusion). The other apparent factor to be considered is the resource constraints within wireless sensor nodes. These nodes have limited energy, processing and storage capabilities. Keeping in mind the resource constraints, we have proposed Query Driven data reporting model, since it requires transmission only on “as and when required” basis.
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Priority Based Congestion Control Routing in Wireless Mesh Network

Priority Based Congestion Control Routing in Wireless Mesh Network

Now communication starts using the highest priority route and distributes the traffic among second highest priority route after some specified interval of time. But if path change then session will change or if path discard then session will break. Hence to precede further communication will occur by developing the session again. The packets are transmitting in to frames. Each frame contains number of bits so that each frame is distinguishable from other. In this paper variable frames size are used. In variable size framing, it needs a way to define the end of the frame and the beginning of the next. It has header and trailer that contain the sender and receiver address and other relevant information. But if an error occur in the frame or frame is not sent to the receiver than it allows the receiver to inform the sender of any frames lost or damage in transmission and coordinates the retransmission of those frames by the sender. This process is called “automatic repeat request” (ARQ). Lost frames are more difficult to handle than corrupted ones. Beside the header and trailers it contains redundancy bits to detect and correct corrupted frames. Mostly the corrupted frames are silently discarded. When the receiver receives a data frame that is out of order, this means that frames were either lost or duplicated.
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Intrusion Tolerant Routing with Data Consensus in Wireless Sensor Networks

Intrusion Tolerant Routing with Data Consensus in Wireless Sensor Networks

As an important part of the proposed solution, the MINSENS++ algorithm operates correctly in the presence of (undetected) intruders in the base WSN, promoting a pre- ventive intrusion tolerance strategy that minimises computation and communication re- quirements at the level of IEEE 802.15.4 WSNs. To address these resource constraints, computation on the sensor nodes is offloaded to the more resource-rich Base Stations, even implemented with no expensive and limited hardware/software (such as the case of the used Raspberry PI devices). Following this strategy, Base Stations compute and es- tablish routing tables to set up multiple disjoint routes, while only low-complexity secu- rity methods are required at the WSN node level, forming a first baseline of secure com- munication in the WSN level (for example, symmetric key cryptography for message- confidentiality, one-way hash functions and hashed message authentication codes for integrity checks). By using multiple routes established as disjoint routes over multiple Base Stations, the scope of the possible damage inflicted by (undetected) intruders is fur- ther limited, by restricting flooding to the Base Station and by having its packets ordered using one-way sequence numbers. Later, possible intrusion attacks will be discarded by the consensus protocol performed by the group of Base Stations.
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Secure Routing and Data Transmission in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Secure Routing and Data Transmission in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

In this paper, we propose an ID based Secure AODV that securely discovers and maintains the route. In our work we have assumed two levels of security: high and low. By high level of security we mean that, when a path is set up, both the source and the destination node verifies the authenticity of all the other nodes in the route. In addition to this, the authenticity of a node is also verified by its immediate downstream node. In case of low level of security, when a path is set up the source and destination node verifies the authenticity of each other (end-to-end) and each intermediate node on the route verifies the authenticity of the downstream node. In addition, we propose an ID based secure TCP that securely transmits data using the Diffie-Hellman [9] session key for the MANET nodes. In the proposed scheme, each node has an ID which is evaluated from its public key for authentication purpose. Following the proposed scheme a node cannot change its ID throughout the lifetime of the MANET. Therefore, the scheme is secure against the above attacks that are associated with AODV and TCP in MANET.
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Secure and Efficient Vertical Handover in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

Secure and Efficient Vertical Handover in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

of same layer, whereas inter-layer relationship exists between pseudonyms of different layers. Hence relationship exists between all layers depicts transitive relationship as well. The problem occurs if eavesdropper find the value of new pseudonym during distribution, and relate it with previous pseudonym, then he can get access to the graph of relationships as well. So, privacy enhanced BP and privacy enhanced FP is introduced to avoid from such problems. EAP-EXT method is introduced which support privacy related operations during BP phase. Local Administrative Domain (LAD)[8] with localized optimization is another mechanism to gain a balance between security and performance because it is easy to enhance the performance and handover security at the same time by implementing optimization within administrative domain. With the help of EAP-AKA and ERP re-authentication mechanism, less security signaling is required, which decrease latency overhead as well. EAP-AKA and ERP done the process of re-authentication without involving home server, it require only one RTT between mobile node and local server to complete re- authentication process, hence it results a good performance as well. Overall handoff completion time reduces with the help of local AAA operation. Energy consumed during security and mobility signaling reduces with the help of Proxy Mobile IP. Bandwidth of wireless link will increases rapidly with the help of EAP-AKA and EAP re-authentication mechanisms.
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Soluções cientes de agregação de dados da correlação espaço-temporal e consumo de energia para realizar coleta de dados em redes de sensores sem fio

Soluções cientes de agregação de dados da correlação espaço-temporal e consumo de energia para realizar coleta de dados em redes de sensores sem fio

Denition 1 (Steiner Tree) given a network represented by a graph G = (V, E) , where V = {v 1 , v 2 , . . . , v n } is the set of sensor nodes, E is the set of edges representing the onne tions among the nodes, i.e., hi, ji ∈ E i v i rea hes v j , and w(e) is the ost of edge e , a minimal ost tree is to be built that spans all sour e nodes S = {s 1 , s 2 , . . . , s m } ,

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QR Code based secure OTP distribution scheme for Authentication in Net-Banking

QR Code based secure OTP distribution scheme for Authentication in Net-Banking

Abstract— Authentication is the process of verifying the identity of a user. One time passwords (OTP) play a vital role for authentication in net-banking to make it more secure. OTP are used to provide higher layer of security over static passwords that are prone to replay attacks. Distribution of OTPs to concerned user is a major issue. Short message service that is available for mobile phones is the most common methodology for OTP distribution. Quick Response code (QR code) is actually two dimensional bar codes and can store information in both length and breath. QR codes are widely being used to convey short information such as website address, mobile numbers etc. In this paper we are presenting a new authentication scheme for secure OTP distribution in net banking through QR codes and email.
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Secure Deletion of Data from SSD

Secure Deletion of Data from SSD

The engineers of [8] had verified the second level which is digital clearing by using the lowest level of digital interface: the pins of individual flash chips. To verify this operation, they wrote an identifiable data model called fingerprints and then they applied the clearing techniques under test. The fingerprint makes possible the identification of digital garbage on the chips. It also includes a sequence number that is unique at entire fingerprints. The figure 6 shows the fingerprint structure. According to the fig. 6 every fingerprint is 88 byte long repeats five times in a 512 byte ATA sector. Another method described in the article is overwriting every logic block address on the drive. This is the main method for many disc deletions. The different bits aim to change a lot of physical bits as possible on the drive, make it harder to recover the data with analog ways.
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 Secure Erasure Code-Based Cloud Storage with Secured Data Forwarding Using Conditional Proxy Re-Encryption (C-PRE)

Secure Erasure Code-Based Cloud Storage with Secured Data Forwarding Using Conditional Proxy Re-Encryption (C-PRE)

In 2012 S. Sree Vivek, S. Sharmila Deva Selvi, V. Radhakishan, C. Pandu Rangan introduced efficient C- PRE[4] that has a condition key for proxy. In cloud computing it can be implemented to give security for public access. Two separate keys are used[5]. One is partial re-encryption key and another is condition key. The messages will be processed by the proxy only if both the keys are known. The delegation power of the proxy can be controlled. One of the two keys can be given to the proxy for partial re-encryption and the other key can be given to a third party for full re-encryption. A C-PRE scheme involves a delegator (say user Ui), a delegatee (say user Uj) and a proxy. A message sent to Ui with condition w is encrypted by the sender using both Ui’s public key and w. To re-encrypt the message to Uj, the proxy is given the re- encryption key (rki ® j) and the condition key (cki,w) corresponding to w. Both the keys can be generated only by Ui. These two keys form the secret trapdoor to be used by the proxy to perform translation. Proxy will not be able to re-encrypt cipher texts for which the right condition key is not available. Thus Ui can flexibly assign Uj the decryption rights by setting condition keys properly. The
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Rafael Timóteo de Sousa Jr., Robson de Oliveira Albuquerque, Maíra Hanashiro, Yamar Aires da Silva and Paulo Roberto de Lira Gondim

Rafael Timóteo de Sousa Jr., Robson de Oliveira Albuquerque, Maíra Hanashiro, Yamar Aires da Silva and Paulo Roberto de Lira Gondim

shorter messages for a link state algorithm. The key concept of the OLSR is the use of multipoint relays (MPRs). MPRs are MNs selected to forward and broadcast OLSR messages, thus constituting a flooding mechanism. MPRs are spread throughout MANET to provide every MN with the partial information about the necessary topologies for computing the best route to every MN in the network. MPRs, combined with local duplicity avoidance, are used to minimize the number of control packets that should be sent in the network. OLSR is projected to work with highly scalable networks where traffic is sporadic and randomly distributed among the MNs. As a pro-active protocol, it is also appropriate for scenarios in which MN pairs change often, because no additional control packet is generated in the network since the routes are maintained and known by all possible destinations.
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