OpenCV enables us to teach the machine using its machine learning algorithms to distinguish between various user use cases and unauthorized perpetrators’ unusual unwanted activity in order to take appropriate action as per the environmental conditions (normal functions or retaliation). Using the image processing tactics and mathematical deductions, we are able to successfully implement logic to enact the artificial intelligence concept at hand to identify and classify the events that occur. In addition to that, the system is capable of taking action in accordance with the event taking place. All this is designed using a simple interface of C / C++ to make the most of the optimized libraries in OpenCV, thus combining prejudice with efficiency.Previously mentioned in the “Servo Magazine” 2007 edition, spread over a few months , we can find reasonable solutions to aforementioned objectives.
Statistics show that the number of cars is increasing rapidly and so is the number of car theft attempts, locally and internationally . Although there are a lot of car security systems that had been produced lately, but the result is still disappointing as the number of car theft cases still increases. The thieves are inventing cleverer and stronger stealing techniques that need more powerful security systems . This paper “MMS Based Car SecuritySystem” is being proposed to solve the issue. It introduces the integration between monitoring and tracking system. Both elements are very crucial in order to have a powerful securitysystem. The system can send SMS and MMS to the owner to have fast response especially if the car is nearby. This thesis focuses on using MMS and SMS technology [3-6]. As soon as there is intrusion detected, first the SMS is sent to master user and the picture of the intruder will be sent via local GSM/GPRS service provider to user (and / or) police mail ID. The implementation and testing results show the success of prototype in sending MMS to owner within 40 seconds. The timing and results are suitable to owner and police to take suitable action against intruder. User can also control the module using command. User has to send different SMS to module while configuration of module for master. Master user can be change as per need, only master user can make changes in to the module.
Corporate environments cannot be fully protected with any software or hardware solution because of their variations around the world. This research designs and implements the AMPIT middleware system which provides strong safeguard for protecting personal and corporate data from susceptible persons. This middleware consists of two major sub-modules: monitoring all USB or portable storage devices, and authorization of devices. The AMPIT system is highly sensible for logging user activities; it has local activity logging ability, and it also provides SMS, snapshot and email alert facilities. Therefore, it carefully monitors and handles all types of suspicious activities performed in a machine. Furthermore, the AMPIT system imposes lower burden on CPU, and consumes less physical memory than other similar systems such as MyUSBOnly, USB- LockRP and USB Secure. In addition, using AMPIT system allows the corporates to address the insider threats with the same devotion as the outsider threats. This will result in significant security improvement as the companies must adopt proper security policies for their employees and fully communicate with their employees the danger of disregarding these policies.
Abstract: Most doors are controlled by persons with the use of keys, security cards, password or pattern to open the door. Theaim of this paper is to help users forimprovement of the door security of sensitive locations by using face detection and recognition. Face is a complex multidimensional structure and needs good computing techniques for detection and recognition. This paper is comprised mainly of three subsystems: namely face detection, face recognition and automatic door access control. Face detection is the process of detecting the region of face in an image. The face is detected by using the viola jones method and face recognition is implemented by using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Face Recognition based on PCA is generally referred to as the use of Eigenfaces.If a face is recognized, it is known, else it is unknown. The door will open automatically for the known person due to the command of the microcontroller. On the other hand, alarm will ring for the unknown person. Since PCA reduces the dimensions of face images without losing important features, facial images for many persons can be stored in the database. Although many training images are used, computational efficiency cannot be decreased significantly. Therefore, face recognition using PCA can be more useful for door securitysystem than other face recognition schemes.
This project work presents the study and design of PLC based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System. Multistoried car parking is an arrangement which is used to park a large number of vehicles in least possible place. For making this arrangement in a real plan very high technological instruments are required. In this project a prototype of such a model is made. This prototype model is made for accommodating twelve cars at a time. Availability of the space for parking is detected by optical proximity sensor which is placed on the pallet. A motor controlled elevator is used to lift the cars. Elevator status is indicated by LED which is placed on ground floor. Controlling of the platforms and checking the vacancies is done by PLC. For unparking of car, keyboard is interfaced with the model for selection of required platform. Automation is done to reduce requirement of space and also to reduce human errors, which in-turn results in highest security and greatest flexibility. Due to these advantages, this system can be used in hotels, railway stations, airports where crowding of car is more.
On completion of thorough review of available related literature, it is evident that a comprehensive automaticsystem, for the safety of house boat as well as security of tourists, is not yet even been designed. Only manual or semiautomatic systems are found, which are inefficient and ineffective in harsh and adverse conditions, generally prevalent in house boats. Fully automatic systems are available for ships, especially for their berthing, are not suitable for the application in house boats.
Abstract —In recent years, there have been major developments in, and deployment of, diverse mobile technology. Security issues in mobile computing are now presenting significant challenges. The ability to move from one network to another, and from one provider to another creating thus vertical and horizontal handoffs, has increased the complexity of mobile security. There are many research groups, such as Hokey and Y-Comm, working on the design of security architectures for 4G networks. Heterogeneous networks are the convergence of wired and wireless networks, other diverse end user devices and other communication technologies which provide very high speed connections. Major security challenges in 4G heterogeneous networks are inherent in current internet security threats and IP security vulnerabilities. These new challenges are: IP address spoofing, user ID theft, Theft of Service, Denial of Service, and intrusion attacks. Therefore, it is necessary to design security solutions which are independent from the network, provider, and end user devices. Existing technique in 4G heterogeneous security networks has not achieved major mobile security requirements such as protecting the mobile equipment; integrity of the hardware, and software. They do not prevent access to the mobile data and the mobile equipment can be used as an attack tool. In addition, current researches in security 4G heterogeneous network do not consider a security management system based on ITU-T M.3400 TMN management functions or any other related standards. In this paper, we propose a management system which is responsible for enforcing security policies and ensuring that security policies continued to be followed. The objective of this security management system is to prevent the mobile equipment from being abused or used as a malicious attack tool. The proposed security management system is consistent with the security specifications defined by ITU-T recommendation M.3400 TMN management functions. Finally, this paper will present a policy-based architecture for the security management system of 4G heterogeneous networks focusing on detection and prevention of malicious attacks. This architecture will consist of intelligent agent, security engine, security policies database, and security administrator.
refund period for EU countries is 30 days, so we use this number), when this deadline is over the fiscal authority should transfer the social security individual contribution to individual social account and make the calculations of the relation with seller, because the seller could have the right to be reimbursed 31 (for a description of how the VAT works see OECD and KIPF (2014)). The 30 days could be more, because it should be a fix date every month where the tax authority and the taxpayer settle their accounts. In this system the tax authority and social security managing entity should be the same in order to facilitate the relation with citizens, creating a more simple way to comply and to receive the reward (the social security contribution), and as Naritomi (2013) demonstrates for the Brazil case, taxpayers like to receive a reward for tax compliance, Commission (2013) also recommends a tax prize (deduction or reimbursement) in order to combat fraud. Because VAT has the advantage of refund if booth tax payers report the transaction this could create a chain effect that could eliminate or reduce evasion (as De Paula and Scheinkman (2010) observed), besides of returning a part of the tax to the tax payer in order to reinforce the incentive, it should be mandatory in every receipt or invoice to have the fiscal number if that is not the case, the one that paid the service or product if wants to prove that transaction, for some reason (refund, warranty, etc.), could only do it if the invoice or receipt mentions his fiscal number, that would happen in automatic way if the consumer used an electronic pay system, because the bank or any other entity that possesses the money from the consumer would provide the fiscal number automatically in the transaction and this must be the default option in order to simplify the payment process. The consumer must have the option to refuse to give is fiscal number, so the electronic payment system must provide this option.
An intrusion detection system (IDS) is an ad hoc security solution to protectflawed computer systems. It works like a burglar alarm that goes off if someone tampers with or manages to get past other security mechanisms such as authenticationmechanisms and firewalls.The major tasks of an IDS are to collect data from a computer system, analyse these data to find security relevant events, and present the results to the administrator.More or less automatic response mechanisms may also be built into the system. An Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is a device or asoftware application that monitors network or system activities for malicious activities or policy violations and produces reports to a management station. Intrusiondetection systems constantly monitor a given computer network for invasion or abnormal activity. Intrusion Detection System (IDS) has been used as a vital instrument in defending the network from this malicious or abnormal activity. It is still desirable to know what intrusions have happened or are happening, so that we can understand the security threats and risks and thus be better prepared for future attacks With the ability to analyze network traffic and recognize incoming and ongoing network attack, majority of network administrator has turn to IDS to help them in detecting anomalies in network traffic.
Substantial financial loss has occurred due to virus attacks which seem to continue be the source of such mishappening. The unauthorized access is the second greatest source of financial loss following losses related to mobile hardware and theft of propriety. These four cyber-attacks account for more than 74% of financial losses (Gordon et al., 2006). The stock price impact of cyber attacks shows that the identified security breached firms suffer losses of 1-percentage to 5 percentage in the days immediately following a cyber attack, magnitudes the shareholder losses of 50 million dollar to 200 million dollar in New York stock exchange Corporation (Cashell et al., 2004). European companies have ranked computer risks as the prime reason for the drop of stock prices while US companies have ranked them as number two (Hovav and Arch, 2004).
Utilizing technology such as automatic detection Technology, communication technology and microcomputer technology, to realize the operational parameter intelligent monitored management of entire mining area, this system occupies following characteristic: The real-time data warning. The warning displays with kinds of representation. Using industry camera, it carries on image gathering and the remote control. Establish the real-time monitor security information data platform, Using the MATLAB, making the system safety, convenient processing each kind data. This intelligent Coal Mine Monitor System satisfies the user‟s request in the field of mine pit production condition real-time monitoring and dangerous situation discovery and elimination promptly, provides a novel monitor method for the middle and small scale coal mine; Thus ultimately preserving the coal which is most beneficial element for generating electricity.
A proposal of an automated NCL optimisation method to replace manual methods was made by Nguyen and Claussen ; its main concern was about the extra system overhead from iterating over excessively long NCLs, causing calls to drop due to HO delays. It involved live measurements from UEs to self-configure an initial NCL, which would be continuously self-optimised during normal operation. Usage of this algorithm required some long-term investment, which would pay off either way: around over 6000 live measure- ments later, the handover target searching success rate with 10 or more neighbour cells would reach a success rate of about 99%. This work helped prove that the automation of NCL optimisation definitely has a place in network plan- ning and long-term network maintenance, and compared to a manual solution it can potentially reduce operational costs (OPEX), however, it only utilises measurements from UEs; furthermore, it’s dependant on values that are mostly useful in 2G and 3G technologies, which could make its potential adaptation to 4G or 5G costly.
The strategic European research agenda for robotics  states that robots can improve agriculture efficiency and competitiveness. However, few commercial robots for agricultural applications are available . In Europe space few Euro- pean funded projects are developing monitoring robots for flat vineyards: the VineRobot  and Vinbot . However, vineyards built on steep slope hills presents an higher complex environment for the machinery and automation development. These called steep slope vineyards exist in Portugal in the Douro region - an UNESCO heritage place - Fig. 1, and in other regions of five European countries. The context of a vineyard built in a steep hill presents several robot- ics challenges for the localization, path-planning, safety, perception systems, and automatic energy management .
eral diplomacy and genuine consultation with partners in the hemisphere. However, there was no radical shift with respect to hemispheric security policies. Given other for- eign policy priorities inherited from its predecessor and the budgetary pressures it faces aft er the global fi nancial crisis, the Obama administration is unlikely to give more aid money or even attention to Latin America. Moreover, there have not been any major personnel or organizational changes in the US Southern Command, the military unit responsible for security cooperation with Central and South America, which means that there is continuity in many aspects of its mission, such as the “counter drug/ counter narcoterrorism” programs for Colombia, Mexico and Central America. For reasons of pragmatism as well as principle, Obama would be wise to elevate the impor- tance of the OAS. A broad range of hemispheric concerns – including security and defense cooperation, the promo- tion of democracy and human rights, trade, immigration, drugs, and the environment – can be usefully addressed in the organization. Indeed, the OAS is precisely the right forum to air important policy diff erences on such conten- tious issues involving the US, Canada, and the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. It also has developed methodological expertise in each of these issue areas. The Effectiveness of the Inter-American SecuritySystem: Current Problems and Prospects for the Future
Abstract: Problem statement: In this study, we address the security needs in online communications, specifically in the e-health domain. We focus on how to provide different security strengths to different types of communications in e-health, where each communication transmits different types of information with different levels of sensitivity. Approach: The Multi-Agent System (MAS) approach is used to develop an agent-based system that can cater for distributed processes. We use the agents’ characteristics such as autonomous, interactive, extendible and mobile to handle the security processes for users in different environments and devices. We integrate different types of encryption algorithms with different security strengths in order to provide different security needs. Results: We present our security model called MAgSeM that consists of eight agents, which are skilled to complete its goal as well as the overall system goals autonomously. Conclusion: We conclude that MAgSeM security model is suitable not only for the e-health domain, but also other domains that practices online communications.
configuration checking (e.g., XCCDF, FDCC) and other types of analyses are not included. For tools, not compliant with any such standards, this field is left blank. Entries in this field are based on supplier claims of standards compliance (some supplier claims are in the process of being validated by the responsible standards bodies and the tools do not yet appear on validated products lists). OS Support, identifies the operating system(s) (OS) on which a software tool runs. This field will also identify any other software that is required for the product to run (e.g., database, .NET framework, browser). Supplier, identifies the full name of the organization or individual that developed and distributes the tool. For suppliers that are non-U.S.-based, the country in which their headquarter are (or, for individuals, in which they reside) is noted in parentheses. Decision Support, identifies if the tool supports features of vulnerability detection and identification of remediation measures on a scale of prioritization. The table will be filled with the word “Yes” or “No”. Export Results, identifies the format to which the results can be exported (information about the ICT infrastructure assets), for example XML, CSV, etc. Information, identifies the URL to the supplier’s information about the tool. The set of tools studied are enumerated and described next:
C. A Dynamic Birthmark for Java, this paper deals with the issues related with the creation of birthmark for java codes. As we know that java has been a widely accepted language used for coding by most prominent companies. same has been the reason for the concern for them as they believe code as the important resource of their organisation and consider code as a core asset. A birthmark can help them to detect code theft by identifying intrinsic properties of a program. Two programs with the same birthmark are likely to share a common origin. Birth marking works in particular for code that was not protected by tamper-resistant copyright notices that otherwise could prove ownership. We propose a dynamic birthmark for Java that observes how a program Uses objects provided by the Java Standard API. Such a birthmark is difficult to foil because it captures the observable semantics of a program. In an evaluation, our API Birthmark reliably identified XML parsers and PNG readers before and after obfuscating them with state-of-the-art obfuscation tools. These rendered existing birthmarks ineffective, such as the Whole-Program-Path Birthmark by Myles and Collberg. D. Dynamic Software Birthmarks to Detect the Theft of Windows Applications , This paper introduces dynamic software birthmarks which can be obtained while execution of Windows applications. Birthmarks are unique and native characteristics of software. For a pair of software p and q, if q has the same birthmarks as p’s, q is suspected as a copy of p. security analyse of this paper shows that the proposed birthmark possess good result against different types of program transformation attacks.
These previous steps interfere in the segmentation process. Autonomous segmentation is one of the most difficult tasks in digital image processing, and the algorithms generally are based on one or two properties of intensity values, such as discontinuity (for point, lines or edges detection) and similarity, which are made employing spectral rules operating on image band ratios, also called multiband thresholding (VARMA; OSURI, 2013), or on pixel intensities as well as other thresholding methods (GONZALEZ; WOODS, 2008). USPLeaf software operates in an entirely automated process during the image analysis, but the accuracy in the image preprocessing and segmentation steps will widely depends on the image acquisition procedures. Since the software operates using a pixel to pixel scanning algorithm to detect the ROI and the calibration scale is applied on the known area of the reference square, the height or distance between the device used for image capture and the object of interest may affect the pixel counting and the leaf area estimates. Aboukarima et al. (2017), and Rico-García et al. (2009), developed a system for image acquisition, and adopted a standard height of 45 and 40 cm, respectively, but high-resolution images would be required to ensure accuracy in the measurements. For the present software application, a height of 23 cm was defined as standard, which allows to minimize possible noises in the case of using lower resolution images (minimum image resolution recommended is 96 dpi).
This system could have been implemented in other way i.e. continuously decreasing the tolerance levels over the number of clicks starting from 20 to 10 with 10 clicks. But we observed that psychologically users are keeping in mind that they should choose only small and specific objects, so, it leads to a slow clicking process by forcing the user to select small objects. Based on Fitts’ Law , if the input involves mouse movement and a small tolerance, we expect slower input times in graphical password systems. We found good results with long-term, regular use of the graphical password s .
The need to tap from the power of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to enhance national security operations is paramount. For some time, the issue of security of life and property in Nigeria has taken a frightening dimension and an issue of great concern to citizens and the government. The problem of security spans from kidnapping in the eastern region and traverses the religious disturbances in the north, political gansterism in the west and bomb-blast becoming issues of the moment . Terrorism and atrocious crimes are increasing on a world-wide scale. Moreover, natural disasters, such as earthquakes and tsunamis, have also occurred frequently in many parts of the world. Figure 1 shows the death toll reported from 2003 to 2008 in various types of natural disasters. During this five-year period, the death toll reached over 482,000 as a result of such disasters. Death toll reported in various disaster types from 2003 to 2010 is shown in the Figure 2. Several earthquakes around the world proved to be the most deadly disasters which caused 406,866 deaths in the last five years . The number of people reported to be affected by these disasters (142 million) dropped by 10 per cent, while the number of people reported killed is 23833 . The 2008 death toll of 235,816 was more than three times the annual average of the previous eight years . In 2009 there were only 25 geophysical disasters reported compared to the 2000-2008 annual average of 37. Of these, 18 were earthquakes, four tsunamis, two volcanic eruptions and one a landslide . The year 2010 was characterized by a large number of natural disasters that have claimed four times more victims than in the