Top PDF Biochemical and physiological effects of phenols on human health

Biochemical and physiological effects of phenols on human health

Biochemical and physiological effects of phenols on human health

Introduction of phenol compounds into environment results from human activities.. Moreover plants produce polyphenols as by products of metabolism Their influen- ce on human health is very important. It is observed, that polyphenols found in groceries are the most abundant dietary antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, anti allergic, an- tiarteriosclerotic and antitumour factors. Alkylphenols, chlorophenols, nitrophenols or biphenyls can be toxic for body systems and because of their similarity to ligands of steroid receptors they can influence the activity of endo- crine system. Their appearance in organisms enhances the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cancer, problems with fertility. Moreover strong genotoxic activities of these compounds is obse- rved. Because they influence human health in many diffe- rent ways continuous monitoring of phenols content in environment seems to be very important.
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Effects of cardiomyopathic mutations on the biochemical and biophysical properties of the human alpha-tropomyosin

Effects of cardiomyopathic mutations on the biochemical and biophysical properties of the human alpha-tropomyosin

Recombinant Tms were assayed by structural (head-to-tail polymerization and binding to actin) and regulatory (regu- lation of myosin S1 Mg 2+ ATPase activity) properties. Chicken muscle proteins [native actin and myosin (S1), and recombinant troponins] were used in our experiments as they have previously been well characterized in these assays. Polymerization ability of Tms was analyzed by viscosity as a function of the salt concentration. All Tms exhibited maximal viscosity in the absence of salt and lowering viscosity as the salt concentration increased (Fig. 2). No difference in polymerization was observed among the mutant Tms and between mutants and wild type Tm. In the thin filament Tm polymerizes head-to-tail, and poly- merization depends on the formation of a complex between amino acid residues (at least nine) at the N-terminal end of one Tm and residues at the C-terminal end of a second molecule. Mutations along the polypeptide chain, far from the complex region involved in the polymerization were not expected to have any influence on the protein polymerization.
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Archaea in and on the Human Body: Health Implications and Future Directions.

Archaea in and on the Human Body: Health Implications and Future Directions.

The availability of reference genomes from previously unrepresented groups, such as the Methanomassiliicoccales for metagenomic analysis, as well as better 16S rRNA gene primers, should improve the detection of archaea in human microbiome studies. This improvement is highly timely, since archaea are still an under-detected and little-studied part of the human microbiome, and their contributions to human health or disease remain mostly unknown. This knowledge gap should be addressed in the near future to inform clinicians, many of whom are totally unaware of these organisms. While no human clinical study studying the in vivo effects of statins on archaea in our microbiomes has been published, in vitro results [60] strongly sug- gest that these drugs could inhibit the growth of archaea in the human body. While the inhibi- tory concentrations reported for archaea in vitro (4 mg/L, about 10 μmol/L for lovastatin [60]) are much higher than their level in circulation (9.4 nmol/L [61]), their levels in the gut may be very much higher. Moreover, in highly competitive niches, such as the colon, even partial growth inhibition may cause extinction. In developed countries, such as the United States, stat- in use is on the rise, and over a third of people over 65 use these drugs for their cholesterol- lowering effects, unaware that at the same time they are taking a broad-spectrum anti-archaeal agent. At the moment, there is little evidence of whether eradication of human-associated ar- chaea (and potentially their bacterial syntrophs) will be beneficial or harmful for human health, with the possible exception of periodontal disease. Thus, before archaea become part of the "disappearing human microbiota" [62] we should at least know if we are going to miss them when they are gone.
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Ecotoxicological effects of Barcelona harbor sediments in Capitella teleta

Ecotoxicological effects of Barcelona harbor sediments in Capitella teleta

In this study, both physiological and biochemical responses were assessed in the polychaetes C. teleta, and both revealed to be adequate and potential powerful tools for future ecotoxicological studies with this organism and contamination scenarios, since, in general, responses were significantly different than a reference treatment. Growth and feeding were both inhibited when all the three contaminated sediments were used. This insufficient feeding and growth may eventually lead to reproduction and consequently populations’ growth impairment. On the other hand, biomarkers showed a significant decrease of neurological and antioxidant responses, although an inhibition pattern was not visible with the increase of sediment toxicity, yet some of the sediments contain xenobiotics capable of altering C. teleta metabolic system. The C. teleta antioxidant system showed to be insufficient due to its significant inhibition, probably due to ROS accumulation that can indicate a clear imbalance in the cellular redox status concomitant with the inactivation of the SOD and CAT enzymes involved in the defenses against the oxidative stress art n- az et al., Faria et al., Novais et al., 2011). Integrating both responses, it could be suggested that a depression in C. teleta feeding and growth might be in some way related to anticholinesterase effects and cellular oxidative damage resulting from impairment in organisms’ antioxidant defense, with possible reflexes in feeding behavior and growth – as seen – and possibly in and reproduction, among other responses, as stated by other authors (Gravato et al., 2010).
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Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

products (Kim & Chung, 2011:40), so it’s important to recognize consumer purchasing behavior. Many companies use marketing strategies by analyzing consumer behavior in order to study the effect on purchase decision (Jalalkamali & Nikbin, 2010:235). The purchase decision is also influenced by the perceived quality which is also an aspect of brand value that makes consumers pay for certain products or services (Yaseen et al., 2011:833). It confirms that the consumer purchase decision on products or services is strongly influenced by customer perception of quality of value brand. Decision making is a way of choosing between two or more possible options when a person has a choice between purchasing or not (Schiffman & Kanuk, 2007). In the assessment stages of different choices, the consumers classify different brands and the purchase intention is created in his mind. Shareef et al. (2008) revealed purchase decision is a continuous process, which refers to thoughtful, consistent action undertaken to bring about need satisfaction. Choubtarash et al. (2013) confirmed that purchase decision is a person in the mind who is carefully analyzing the features of products, trademarks or services and tries, by using logical methods, to choose a choice that can satisfy the recognized need with the least expenses. Consumers perceived organic as a healthier alternative to conventional foods in that they contain more nutrients which enhance personal well-being organic produce is also considered safer and better in taste and more enjoyable than conventional products (Shaharudin et al., 2010:72). Last organic purchasing is defined as purchasing goods and services which have less harmful for environmental and human health (Othman & Rahman, 2014:93). Purchasing decisions can be measured through several dimensions, including recommend, purchase frequency, overall satisfaction and purchase intention (Shareef et al., 2008:101). The measure is not different from the study by Liu et al. (2009:72) which provide specifications for purchasing decisions by some measures, including product selection, brand selection, object selection, purchase opportunity, and purchase quantity. Consumer purchasing decisions on products had relationship with consumer perceptions of quality and risk products (Yee et al., 2011:47). Consumer interest in the products can be improved by an increase in the quality of products (Kwak & Kang, 2009:85). And previous research has argued that a consumer perception of quality has a positive impact on consumer buying behavior (Wang & Tsai, 2014:27). Based on these studies, next hypothesis as follows:
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Evaluation of the effects of Islamic fasting on the biochemical markers of health.

Evaluation of the effects of Islamic fasting on the biochemical markers of health.

Introduction: Ramadan is the ninth month of the lunar Islamic calendar, during which Muslims are obliged to perform specific rites and rituals. Fasting is considered the most important ritual during the holy month of Ramadan. Fasting variably influences the health of individuals, which could be attributed to the changes in the concentrations of certain biochemical markers. This study aimed to elucidate the health effects of fasting through evaluating the impact of this Islamic duty on blood biochemistry. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 40 male volunteers employed at North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Iran.Data collection and phlebotomy were performed before fast breaking(Iftar) on the first and last day of Ramadan. Fasting duration was 11 hours per day. Serum biochemical factors, including blood glucose, uric acid, albumin, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high- density lipoprotein (HDL), total cholesterol and triglyceride(TG), were measured in all the participants at the beginning and end of Ramadan. Data analysis was performed in SPSS using paired-samples T-test to compare the mean variables.
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Ciênc. saúde coletiva  vol.21 número3

Ciênc. saúde coletiva vol.21 número3

Abstract Water is essential for the socio-eco- nomic development of a region and also for the survival of human beings. Water scarcity has direct and indirect impacts on the environment, the economy and human health. It can change the profile of morbidity and mortality of diseases, as well as having an impact on the supply of ser- vices that are essential public to the quality of life. This study aims to contextualize the occurrence of drought in Brazil, its effects on human health, as well as actions to be developed by the health sector to reduce the risk to those living in affect- ed areas, with an emphasis on the monitoring of the quality of drinking water. This is a descriptive, qualitative study with a documental basis. The documents that were researched were related to initiatives by the Health Surveillance Secretariat of the Ministry of Health up until 2014. It is nec- essary to strengthen the performance capacity of the Unified Health System (SUS) in order to de- velop timely responses to reduce the risk to public health.
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Atmospheric pollutants in São Paulo state, Brazil and effects on human health – a review

Atmospheric pollutants in São Paulo state, Brazil and effects on human health – a review

in admissions of children for asthma and with an increase of 4.3% and 1.5% in admissions of elderly for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and for ischemic heart disease, respectively. Another study by Santos at al. (2005) consisted of twenty- four hour continuously recording of blood pressure and electro- cardiogram readings of 48 vehicular traffic controllers in São Paulo city. The individuals were selected by following several inclusion criteria like the absence of signs and symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, heart failure or cardiac arrhythmia and no regular use of corticosteroids, anti-arrhythmic medication, beta-blockers, anti-inflammatory drugs, or aspirin. The results showed for adult and healthy workers who were directly exposed to automotive traffic-gen- erated air pollution, the increase in primary gaseous pollutants concentrations was associated with changes in blood pressure and heart rate variability. Despite the high correlation among primary pollutants, significant effects of PM10 and NO2 were not observed.
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 Effect of selenium on the development of selected indicators of fertility in dairy cows

Effect of selenium on the development of selected indicators of fertility in dairy cows

inflammation as lists and the level of Se in dairy herds. 24 dairy cows, with daily average milk produc- tion of 18.1 kg, were fed diets containing different Se sources. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the effects of such diets on milk production and quality on the occurrence of mastitis, and on physiological vari- ables. However, both Se sources reduced the incidence of mastitis (subclinical positive mastitis and strongly positive mastitis) between the pre-experimental and experimental phases [13-15]. Administration of three subcutaneous injections of trace minerals had a posi- tive impact on udder health, decreasing linear somatic cell count (SCC) scores, the incidence of subclinical mastitis, and (in multiparous cows) the incidence of clinical mastitis. In addition, trace mineral supplemen- tation decreased the incidence of stillbirth parturition and endometritis. However, treatment did not have an effect on reproduction performance, milk production, and other health traits [16].
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Sublethal effects of some botanical and chemical insecticides on the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hem: Aleyrodidae)

Sublethal effects of some botanical and chemical insecticides on the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hem: Aleyrodidae)

During the two recent decades, B. tabaci has spread rapidly around the world to become a major pest of fruits, vegetables, fiber, and ornamental crops in tropical and subtropical regions (Brown et al., 1995; Oliveira et al., 2001). The control of B. tabaci has largely depended on wide application of chemical insecticides, which has caused many environmental and health problems (Ren et al., 2001; Lu et al., 2012). In addition to these problems, the satisfactory control of B. tabaci has proven to be difficult because of its wide range of hosts, rapid rate of development and reproduction and, more importantly, its high resistance to many commercially available insecticides (De Barro and Driver, 1997). Resistance to different classes of insecticides including organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, neonicotinoids, and insect growth regulators has been frequently reported for populations collected from different geographic areas of the world (Nauen and Rauch, 2003). Therefore, it is necessary to search for alternative methods for effective control of this pest besides reducing the detrimental effects of chemical insecticides on human, environment and non-target organisms. Recently, the use of plant-derived insecticides (known also as botanicals) as potential safe weapons alternative to synthetic pesticides has been received increasing attention (Pascual-Villalobos and Robledo, 1998; Dimetry, 2012).
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Invited Review Components of sustainable animal production and the use of silvopastoral systems

Invited Review Components of sustainable animal production and the use of silvopastoral systems

ABSTRACT - There is an urgent need for sustainable animal production systems. A system or procedure is sustainable if it is acceptable now and if its expected future effects are acceptable, in particular in relation to resource availability, consequences of functioning, and morality of action. What might make any animal usage system unsustainable? The system might involve depletion of resources such that a resource becomes unavailable or a product of the system might accumulate to a degree that prevents the functioning of the system. However, any effect which the general public find unacceptable makes a system unsustainable. A production system might be unsustainable because of inefficient usage of world food resources; adverse effects on human health; poor animal welfare; harmful environmental effects, such as low biodiversity or insufficient conservation; unacceptable genetic modification; not being “fair trade”, in that producers in poor countries are not properly rewarded; or damage to rural communities. Consumers might judge, because of any of these inadequacies, that the quality of the product is poor. Animal welfare is a component of sustainability and good quality of product. Three-level plant production, including pasture, shrubs with edible leaves, and trees that may also have edible leaves, are an example of a silvopastoral system. The production of leaves and other material that can be eaten by the animals is much greater than can be achieved by pasture-only systems. Results presented from tropical and sub-tropical studies show that production of cattle and other animals can be better, biodiversity much increased, animal disease reduced, and animal welfare improved in three-level silvopastoral systems.
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On The Impact Of Pressure Drop On Human Body With Mathematical Models

On The Impact Of Pressure Drop On Human Body With Mathematical Models

In the present studies physiological aspect of the blood flow has been modeled with a view to estimate the physiological flow parameters such as pressure, against adverse conditions. The study is basically aims at as an advisory and precautionary mode. Efforts have been made to compare the results with practical situations available in the literature with respect to myocardial infarction [heart attack]. Blood flow modeling has paved the way for understanding the intricacy of the fluid flow pattern in the human body[1,2].The importance of blood flow in Cardiovascular system has been highlighted by Young[3]. Later the models have been refined by accounting it for pulsatile aspect [4] and the effects of blood cells [5-6] by using micro-continuum theories [7-9].Effects of body acceleration and magnetism have also been studied on the blood flows [10-12]. In the present model, blood is assumed to be represented by a couple stress fluids [7] and the model has been developed for the straight tube [Figure1].
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CD28.R32: Proposed plan of action to establish dependable sources of financing for CEPANZO and PANAFTOSA outside the regular PAHO budget

CD28.R32: Proposed plan of action to establish dependable sources of financing for CEPANZO and PANAFTOSA outside the regular PAHO budget

Aware of the effects of zoonoses and foot-and-mouth disease on the general health of human. beings and, in particular, on food production,[r]

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Evaluation of kefir consumption on metabolic, immune, hormonal and histological parameters in spontaneously hipertensive rats with induced metabolic syndrome

Evaluation of kefir consumption on metabolic, immune, hormonal and histological parameters in spontaneously hipertensive rats with induced metabolic syndrome

The anticarcinogenic action of fermented milk can be attributed to the prevention and suppression of the early stages of tumor formation. A study performed by Larsson and collaborators (71) suggests that high consumption of fermented milk, milk curd, and yogurt may reduce the risk of developing bladder cancer. The reduction of breast cancer risk can be attributed to the presence of bioactive components such as specific proteins and peptides in kefir (43) . The intestinal microbiota and immune system activation play an important role in the modulation of carcinogenesis. To understand the mechanisms of action and antimutagenic properties of kefir, researchers evaluated the profile of kefir microorganisms that originated from Mongolia, and isolated the strains of Streptococcus lactis, Streptococcus cremoris, S. faecalis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, and Leuconostoc dextranicum. Using a binding assay in which the bacteria were incubated with mutagenic amino acid pyrolysates, it was observed that all bacteria isolated from kefir had a remarkable ability of binding to mutagens (>98.5%). The authors concluded that similarly to the bacteria isolated from yogurt, the consumption of fermented dairy products had a negative correlation with the risk for colon cancer development (72) .
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Absorção ativa do silício e a mancha parda do arroz: componentes de resistência e aspectos fisiológicos e bioquímicos da interação planta-patógeno

Absorção ativa do silício e a mancha parda do arroz: componentes de resistência e aspectos fisiológicos e bioquímicos da interação planta-patógeno

DALLAGNOL, Leandro José, M.Sc,. Universidade Federal de Viçosa, February de 2008. Active silicon uptake and rice brown spot: resistance components and physiological and biochemical aspects of the plant-pathogen interaction. Adviser: Fabrício Ávila Rodrigues. Co-Advisers: Fábio Murilo DaMatta and Francisco Xavier Ribeiro do Vale.

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Human Capital and the Recent Fall of Earnings Inequality in Brazil

Human Capital and the Recent Fall of Earnings Inequality in Brazil

Brazil has the world’s eighth largest economy (IMF, 2008). Nevertheless, 21.4 % of the country’s people live in poverty, and 7.3% in misery (IPEADATA, 2009). This contradiction is the result of the country’s glaring income inequality (UNDP, 2010) 1 . But, after decades remaining at a very high and stable level, inequality has recently started to decline in Brazil and in several other Latin- American countries (Lopez-Calva and Lustig, 2010). The aim of this paper is to understand the reasons behind the fall of the Brazilian inequality, using a flexible econometric approach and focusing on the role played by education and age.
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Rev. bras. farmacogn.  vol.22 número2

Rev. bras. farmacogn. vol.22 número2

However, even if a scientii c consensus has not been attained, the main mechanism proposed for As- induced toxicity is the induction of an oxidative stress, likely mediated by the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), leading in turn to cell death, apoptosis or DNA damage and cancer (Liu et al., 2001; Lantz & Hays, 2006; Kitchin & Conolly, 2010). For this reason, an increasing number of studies both in vivo and in vitro, have been designed to investigate the potential protective effect of antioxidant compounds, including several phytochemicals, against As-induced toxicity (Sinha et al., 2007; Soria et al., 2010; Bera et al., 2010).
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WP 105 Family Planning and Development: Aggregate Effects of Contraceptive Use

WP 105 Family Planning and Development: Aggregate Effects of Contraceptive Use

The role of family planning policies in endogenously affecting fertility, savings, human capital investment, and income per capita levels has not been explored in the macro/growth literature. Conventional macroeconomics wisdom ascribes family size to demand or the quantity-quality trade-off, which implies that family planning interventions should not have major impact on the economy (cf., Pritchett, 1994). This view has a major shortcom- ing: micro development literature shows that improving access to modern contraceptives, legalizing abortion, and/or improving knowledge about the efficacy of each method can have important effects on individual outcomes (cf., May, 2012; Schultz, 2008). Our paper contributes to the existing literature by embedding endogenously unwanted fertility in an otherwise standard quantity-quality overlapping generations model of population and growth with heterogenous households. Our theoretical model has several novel character- istics: Fertility control is costly and families can (partially) insure against a fertility risk by using costly contraception. In the event of unexpected pregnancies, households can also opt to abort some pregnancies, at a cost. Given the number of children born, parents de- cide how much education to provide and how much to save out of their young adulthood income. We calibrated and estimated the model to Kenya data, such that key empirical statistics are matched. Kenya is used as an illustration, but clearly the model is general enough and could be estimated using data for different developing countries.
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Effect of Multipoint Sequential Water Mist Cooling of Casting Die on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AlSi11 Alloy

Effect of Multipoint Sequential Water Mist Cooling of Casting Die on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AlSi11 Alloy

The control program starts the cooling process in the 1. zone as soon as possible after filling the mold with the liquid metal, and at the latest at the beginning of crystallization of silumin, i.e. 330 C. Then, after the silumin crystallization is finished, the program begins with the cooling of the other zones, which will no longer supply the zone 1 with the liquid metal,, but instead accelerate the process of cooling of the entire cast. The program ends cooling of the chill after reaching the temperature of 60 C for casting. The program also contains a condition of water pulsation after temperature reduction by mold below 150 C and then 100 C. This condition reduces the amount of water in a mist along with the decreasing ability of the evaporation on the cooled wall of the pre-chill and thereby reduces the possibility of water gathering at the casting station.. Moreover, research shows that reducing the amount of water at this stage did not affect the cooling rate and the total time of casting. The cooling process ends when they reach the permanent molds temperature below 60 ° C.
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UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE SÃO CARLOS CENTRO DE CIÊNCIAS BIOLÓGICAS E DA SAÚDE PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ECOLOGIA E RECURSOS NATURAIS

UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE SÃO CARLOS CENTRO DE CIÊNCIAS BIOLÓGICAS E DA SAÚDE PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ECOLOGIA E RECURSOS NATURAIS

difenoconazol), isolated and in mixtures were evaluated on zoplanktonic organisms. Daphnia magna was used as test-organism to evaluate pesticide effects using the biochemical biomarkers cholinesterase (ChE), catalase (CAT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO), besides energy- related parameters (total proteins and lipids) together and energy consumption (EC). Possible effects of agrochemicals on tropical aquatic ecosystems were simulated and evaluated by acute and chronic toxicity tests with surface runoff from soil experimentally contaminated with both agrochemicals. The native cladoceran Macrothrix flabelligera was used as test-organism. Potential risks related to exposure to isolated compounds and their combinations were evaluated through microcosm experiments. A review of literature was performed to analyze the use of rotifers species as test-organisms for pesticide toxicity evaluation in aquatic ecosystems with emphasis on tropical configurations. It was found that there is great potential for using rotifers as test-organisms for toxicity evaluations and risk assessment. An evidence of this potential was a higher sensitivity of native species exposed to fungicides if compared to D. magna. The isolated compounds did not have effects on cholinesterase (ChE) and catalase (CAT), but their mixture induced an increase on these biochemical. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) was induced for D. magna was exposed to the fungicide. Reproductive output was small but protein was not quantitatively affected, but the highest combination of both pesticides resulted increased lipid reserves. Consumed energy was highly affected and stimulated in all treatments for both, isolated compounds and mixtures. For M. flabelligera, tests with mixtures revealed a concentration dependent deviation (DL) by IA model, with antagonism in low and synergism in high mixture concentrations. The microcosms receiving runoff from experimental soil contaminated with individual pesticides did not cause toxicity to the test-organism, however their mixture caused immobility. The microcosm treated by spray drift with both pesticides showed the highest toxicity effects. Our results suggest potential risk of the selected pesticides in environmentally relevant concentrations, especially if occurring together.
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