Top PDF Biogas Production from Batch Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Night Soil with Food Waste

Biogas Production from Batch Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Night Soil with Food Waste

Biogas Production from Batch Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Night Soil with Food Waste

The COD concentration the 4 sampling ports (outlets) were 3,039, 2,453, 2,453 and 3,039 mg/l respectively, or 92%, 94%, 94% and 92 % of COD removal after 3 days of experiment (Fig. 3). The high efficiency of COD removal after 3 days of experiment was caused mainly by sedimentation process due to the major content of night soil was in solid particle 20-1500 (EU),100-200 (US) and 130-520 (Developing country) g/person-d (Makamo et al.,2013) or average 350 g/person-d. The 1,200 l of biogas production indicated that the biological anaerobic treatment was also active as well. The experiment was operated until 31 days of the experiment in which according to 30-60 days retention time of conventional anaerobic process (Sirivitayaphakorn, 2008). At the end of digestion process, the COD removal efficiency measured at 4 sampling ports (Sep1, 2 and AF 3, 4) were 96.9%, 96.8%, 96.9% and 97% respectively. The sampling port AF4 (Anaerobic filter section) which indicated as an outlet of reactor shows the highest COD removal efficiency due to the sedimentation for large particle and biological anaerobic treatment where the biogas production. The installation of Bio-ball was (25% of reactor volume) with 95% of void result in high wastewater treatment efficiency. However, the COD concentration at the end of the experiment is still high 1,273, 1,327, 1,273 and 1,110 mg/l respectively. Therefore, the effluent needed for further treatment before discharge.
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Co-digestão anaeróbia de resíduos de incubatório e águas residuárias para produção de energia e biofertilizante - Fase batelada

Co-digestão anaeróbia de resíduos de incubatório e águas residuárias para produção de energia e biofertilizante - Fase batelada

Aiming to evaluate different wastewaters in the anaerobic co-digestion (ACoD) of hatchery wastes, a batch test was conducted in bench horizontal digesters. At the end of the process, the potential production of biogas and methane was calculated as well as the chemical composition (macro- and micronutrients) of the effluent and the concentrations of methane and carbon dioxide gas at 60 days. The monitoring of the process included observations of the reduction of the organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand, and total (TS) and volatile solids (VS), as well as the variation of pH and electrical conductivity (EC). The results showed that the mixing between the hatchery fresh waste and swine wastewater (T 4 ) and among fresh hatchery waste, water from the first anaerobic pond of the hatchery and swine wastewater (T 5 ) represent significant sources of renewable energy and thereby greater potential for biogas production (192.50 and 205.0 L biogas per kg of VS added to T 4 and T 5 , respectively). The average concentration of methane in the biogas varied from 72 to 77% among the treatments. For all treatments, reductions were observed in TS and VS and increases in pH and EC. It was concluded that the energy recovery from hatchery wastes is favoured by the addition of swine wastewater in the ACoD process.
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Crude glycerin in anaerobic co-digestion of dairy cattle manure increases methane

Crude glycerin in anaerobic co-digestion of dairy cattle manure increases methane

Dairy-cattle farming is one of the most traditional activities in rural areas in Brazil. In 2012, 23.2 million cows were milked for a total of 34.2 billion liters (IBGE, 2013). Waste produced by dairy cattle has high organic and pathogen loads, but it can be treated by anaerobic biodigestion. However, biogas and methane yields are below those of waste processing from other species due to fibrous constituents that are both hard to break down and limit degradation (Zhang et al., 2013). Joint diges- tion, or co-digestion, of such waste with high-energy residues has been successfully employed to break down fibrous constituents and increase biogas and methane production.
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POTENTIAL OF BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM SWINE MANURE SUPPLEMENTED WITH GLYCERINE WASTE ODORICO KONRAD

POTENTIAL OF BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM SWINE MANURE SUPPLEMENTED WITH GLYCERINE WASTE ODORICO KONRAD

ABSTRACT: In this study, was studied the biogas generation from swine manure, using residual glycerine supplementation. The biogas production by digestion occurred in the anaerobic batch system under mesophilic conditions (35°C), with a hydraulic retention time of 48 days. The experiment was performed with 48 samples divided into four groups, from these, one was kept as a control (without glycerin) and the other three groups were respectively supplemented with residual glycerine in the percentage of 3%, 6% and 9% of the total volume of the samples. The volume of biogas was controlled by an automated system for reading in laboratory scale and the quality of the biogas (CH 4 ) measured from a specific sensor. The results showed that the residual glycerine has
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BioCH4 from the Anaerobic co-Digestion of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste and Maize Cob Wastes

BioCH4 from the Anaerobic co-Digestion of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste and Maize Cob Wastes

The available literature agrees that MWI affects the maize cob morphology, producing an increase of its crystallinity index (Diaz et al., 2015; Odhner et al., 2012). Most of the pre-treatments performed on maize cob using MWI are targeted to the bioethanol production (Aguilar-Reynosa et al., 2017), or to the generation of fermentable sugars (Tong and Yao, 2009) rather than for biogas production. All these works agree in the fact that MWI promotes efficiently the hydrolysis of maize cob. Boonsombuti and Luengnaruemitchai (2013) obtained more than 60% of lignin removal and approximately 38% increase of available surface area by using MWI catalysed by 2% w/v NaOH at 100 ºC, for 30 minutes, after enzymatic hydrolysis. Chen et al. (2013) obtained 65% lignin solubilisation by applying MWI to maize stover catalysed by NaOH (NaOH/corn stover ratio = 0.077 w/w), at 95 ºC, for 30 minutes. In contrast, Surra et al. (2018a) observed that MWI of maize cob, for 10 minutes, at 160 ºC and catalysed by NaOH in con- centrations between 2-20% NaOH/MCW (w/w), did not produce any delignifi- cation, nor cellulose solubilisation. Only moderate hemicellulose removal was obtained. The difference between these studies may be related with the residence time; Surra et al. (2018a) have used a residence time of 10 min, three times lower than the residence time applied by Chen et al. (2013), and Boonsombuti and Luengnaruemitchai (2013) (30 min for both studies), suggesting that MWI time plays a key role in biomass depolymerisation. Similar results were obtained by Zhu et al. (2005) that combined MWI and alkali method to pre-treat a different lignocellulosic biomass (rice straw); the content of cellulose (glucan) increased, while the content of hemicellulose (xylan) and lignin decreased, when MWI time increased from 15 to 70 min, at 300 W.
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Impact of Biogas Technology in the Development of Rural Population

Impact of Biogas Technology in the Development of Rural Population

The biogas production from solid substrates can be enhanced by using different methods including: use of additives, recycling of slurry and slurry filtrate, variation in operational parameters like temperature, hydraulic retention time and particle size of the substrate, use of fixed film/ biofilters, chemical treatment also affects the biogas production [66]. Bacteria must have suitable food and environment in order to grow and develop. The factors that influence the quantity and quality of biogas production include: manure quality, temperature, retention time, composition, loading, and toxicity. The addition of sodium hydroxide solution improved gas yield from 1 to 3% wt/wt, however a decrease was observed upto 5% wt/wt sodium hydroxide treatment [67]. The temperature is important parameter which can enhance the gas production rate from solid substrates under mesophilic condition with temperature ranging from 28°C to 36°C [68]. It is required to sustain proper composition of the feedstock for efficient plant operation so that the C:N ratio in feed remains within desired range. It is generally found that during anaerobic digestion microorganisms utilize carbon 25–30 times faster than nitrogen. Thus to meet this requirement, microbes need 20–30:1 ratio of C to N with the largest percentage of carbon being readily degradable [69, 70] Digestibility of biogas plant waste was improved by treatment with ammonia, calcium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide [71]. Urea alongwith water may also enhance the digestibility of Biogas plant waste [72].
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Production and use of biogas in Europe: a survey of current status and perspectives

Production and use of biogas in Europe: a survey of current status and perspectives

(EU Parliament, 1991; 2008a), waste landfills (EU Parliament, 1999) and other regulations concerning agricultural and zootechnical waste (Commission of the EU, 2006; EU Parliament, 2008b), which have promoted the policy of waste recovery and recycling, restricting landfill disposal only to final residues. The first-mentioned directives have strongly encouraged the separate collection of MSW (in many EU cities it has exceeded 60% by weight) and have subsequently increased interest in the construction of digestion plants fed by the selected organic fraction of MSW (or co-digestion of the same in combination with residues from agriculture, sewage sludge as well as food industry and livestock waste). According to National Renewable European Action Plans (NREAP), biogas production in the EU is expected to reach approximately 28,000 ktoe y -1 by 2022 (Beurskens et al., 2011; Van Foreest, 2012). The EU will drive global biogas production growth to about 33,000 ktoe y -1 by 2022. Significant growth is also estimated for the Asia-Pacific area, whereas smaller increases are foreseen for Latin America and especially for Africa, where the biogas will continue to be limited to the satisfaction of the primary energy needs (light and cooking) of rural areas.
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Orientador: Nuno Carlos Lapa dos Santos Nunes, Professor Auxiliar da FCTUNL Co-orientadora: Maria da Graça Madeira Martinho, Professora Auxiliar da FCTUNL

Orientador: Nuno Carlos Lapa dos Santos Nunes, Professor Auxiliar da FCTUNL Co-orientadora: Maria da Graça Madeira Martinho, Professora Auxiliar da FCTUNL

Biomass is the non-fossil and biodegradable organic material originating from plants, animals and micro-organisms, for which a set of activities and programs in Europe is supported to stimulate its use for energy production, for example in the Biomass Action Plan and in an EU Strategy for Biofuels (Ferreira et al., 2009). Biogas has an important role in these programs, increasingly in the centre of attention as a subsequent product of anaerobic treatment for biodegradable waste from municipal sewage, agriculture, food industry or households. Biogas is a renewable and sustainable secondary energy source generated via biochemical conversion of biomass by a well-known process designated by anaerobic digestion (AD) (Budzianowski, 2011; Ferreira et al., 2009). The organic waste treatment applied to AD is beneficial from an energetic and environmental point of view, when comparing to these organic matters placed in landfills. Therefore, landfills and biogas plants present two contrasting points of sustainable biowaste management.
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Anaerobic digestion of organic matter. Biogas production from energy crop residues (Maize stalks)

Anaerobic digestion of organic matter. Biogas production from energy crop residues (Maize stalks)

At the end of 2006, Germany had about 3 500 biogas plants with total electric capaci- ty of 1.1 GW in operation. Most of the new biogas plants have an electrical capacity between 400 – 800 kW. The first industrial biogas energy park, Klarsee, with 40 biogas plants (total capacity 20 MW, has come into operation. Energy crops are the main substrate, and manure constitutes less than 50%. Industrial companies mainly built plants for fermentation of energy crops. Germany is already growing energy crops on more than 1.3 million ha, or 11.4% of its arable land. Currently, there are quite a few large biogas digesters at wastewater treatment plants, landfill gas installations, and industrial bio-waste processing facilities, and more are under construction. But it has been predicted that by 2020, the largest volume of produced biogas will come from farms and large co-digestion biogas plants, integrated into the farming and food-processing structures [7] .
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Desenvolvimento de biodigestores anaeróbios com sistema de controle e automação para a produção de biogás utilizando resíduo alimentar e esgoto / Development of anaerobic biodigestors with control and automation system for production of biogas using food

Desenvolvimento de biodigestores anaeróbios com sistema de controle e automação para a produção de biogás utilizando resíduo alimentar e esgoto / Development of anaerobic biodigestors with control and automation system for production of biogas using food waste and sewage

The objective of this work was to build and develop anaerobic biodigesters to optimize the production of biogas, in particular biomethane, from the co-management of food waste (AR) and sewage (S) from a sewage treatment plant. The biodigesters operated with different mixtures and in the mesophilic phase (37 ºC) in order to verify the efficiency and viability of the constructed biodigesters, as well as the gas sensors, pH sensor, agitators and developed software. During the 60 days of experiments, all the parameters of control and monitoring of the biodigestors, necessary for the production of biogas, were tested and evaluated. The biodigester containing mixtures of RA, S and anaerobic sludge obtained the greatest reductions in organic matter, expressed by removing 88% of SV and 85% of COD, greater production of biogas (63.0 L) and higher percentage, in volume , methane (90%) and a specific methane production of 0.3 L CH4 / g VS removed. Finally, it was possible to verify that the embedded control and automation system was simple, effective and robust and the supervisory software very efficient in all the questions defined for its conception.
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Renewable electricity generation from biogas of anaerobic co-digestion of sludge, cattle manure and water / Geração de eletricidade renovável a partir do biogás da co-digestão anaeróbica de lodo, esterco de gado e água

Renewable electricity generation from biogas of anaerobic co-digestion of sludge, cattle manure and water / Geração de eletricidade renovável a partir do biogás da co-digestão anaeróbica de lodo, esterco de gado e água

Fresh CM was collected in the morning by scraping with mason shovel, avoiding the removal of foreign materials (soil, pasture, and stone). Dairy cattle under conventional production system, in which the animals were fed Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum) with corn, soybean meal, and wheat meal. The average pH, MC, TS and VS of the CM was 5.15, 83.87%, 16.13%, and 13.48%, respectively. Analyses of pH, TS and VS were determined according to Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (APHA, 2005). All substrates were transferred in sterilized plastic containers to the Laboratory of Rural Electrification and Alternative Energies located in UFRRJ, Seropédica - RJ campus, which geographic coordinates are 22º 45' 48.74" S and 43º 41' 19.01" W. According to Köppen's classification, the climate in this area is classified as Aw and has an average annual temperature of 24.5ºC.
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The Addition of Hatchery Liquid Waste to Dairy Manure Improves Anaerobic Digestion

The Addition of Hatchery Liquid Waste to Dairy Manure Improves Anaerobic Digestion

The objective of this study was to determine the optimal inclusion level of liquid egg hatchery waste for the anaerobic co-digestion of dairy cattle manure. A completely randomized experimental was applied, with seven treatments (liquid hatchery waste to cattle manure ratios of0: 100, 5:95, 10:90, 15:85, 20:80, 25:75 and 30:70), with five replicates (batch digester model) each. The evaluated variables were disappearance of total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and specific production of biogas and of methane. Maximum TS and VS disappearance of 41.3% and 49.6%, were obtained at 15.5% and 16.0% liquid hatchery waste inclusion levels. The addition of 22.3% liquid hatchery considerably reduced NDF substrate content (53.2%). Maximum specific biogas production was obtained with 17% liquid hatchery waste, with the addition of 181.7 and 229.5 L kg -1 TS and VS,
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Anaerobic digestion of sludge from marine recirculation aquaculture systems

Anaerobic digestion of sludge from marine recirculation aquaculture systems

Oh et al. (2008), using batch tests, studied the effect of compatibles solutes (glycine betaine, choline, carnitine and trehalose) on the anaerobic digestion of salt-containing food wastes (17.5 g sodium chloride (NaCl)/l). The anaerobic seed sludge used was taken from an anaerobic digester in a municipal wastewater treatment plant. First, to test the inhibition of anaerobic digestion by NaCl, the sludge was washed with distilled water and the NaCl concentration was adjusted to 10, 35, 60, 75 and 100 g/L. The methane production decreased 50% with 10 g/l NaCl, 80% with 35 g/L NaCl and for higher concentrations no methane was produced. To overcome NaCl inhibition, 1 g/l of compatible solutes was added separately to the washed sludge with 10 and 35 g/L NaCl and to the non-washed sludge with 11.6 g/L NaCl (original salt-containing food waste diluted 80:20 (distilled water:food waste)). For the sludge with 10 g/l NaCl, glycine betaine and choline increased the methane about twofold compared to the control. The same result was achieved for the sludge with 35 g/l NaCl but only with the addition of glycine betaine. For the non-washed sludge, betaine and choline increased methanogenic activity about five to sixfold. For glycine betaine, it was found that the optimal concentration was 1.5 g/l. It was also observed that the addition of betaine in the beginning of the batch tests and only after 7 days increased the methane production in the same proportion. The addition of betaine after only 14 days of incubation did not improve the methane production, which could not be explained. Finally, the accumulation of intracellular glycine betaine in the anaerobic biomass was reported, and it started to occur after 5 days of incubation.
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Anaerobic digestion of laminaria hyperborea for biogas production

Anaerobic digestion of laminaria hyperborea for biogas production

Considering the exponential growth in human demand for energy and the current and expected high greenhouse gas emissions, it is crucial to find alternative sources of energy for a sustainable but technologically advanced future. This would also lessen the economic dependency on fossil fuels for energy generation. Bioenergy production from biomass and waste is expected to be of great importance in the future of renewable energy. Non-food macroalgae do not compete with agricultural food production nor require fresh water for irrigation, in contrast with other biomass energy sources. The present study is on the seaweed Laminaria hyperborea and its potential to be a bioenergetic producer of methane by anaerobic digestion (AD). Using a known efficient AD inoculum the fermentation process was optimised regarding variables such as diluent composition, feed rate, temperature and continuous or occasional stirred fermentation. Processes for the pre-treatment and pre-storage of seaweed were also studied. In the end it was possible to conclude that using distilled water as diluent was a viable, less expensive alternative to the use of PBS; storage methods should be more investigated, taking the herein results into consideration; higher temperatures of incubation (35 and 37 ºC) produce higher quantities of methane/g volatile solids (VS)/day than at 25 ºC; higher feed concentrations (15 and 20 % [ww/v]) results in longer digestion times and will not increase productivity significantly as compared to moderate concentrations, such as 5 or 10% (ww/v); no pre-treatment applied to the seaweed seemed to significantly improve the %VS used by the inoculum, but it is encouraged to pre-treat the seaweeds by autoclaving them; and lastly, as continuous stirring in small volume fermenters (200 mL) did not improve productivity, occasional mixing is recommended.
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Effect of increasing total solids contents on anaerobic digestion of food waste under mesophilic conditions: performance and microbial characteristics analysis.

Effect of increasing total solids contents on anaerobic digestion of food waste under mesophilic conditions: performance and microbial characteristics analysis.

To analyze the bacterial and archaeal communities in mesophilic anaerobic digesters with different feeding TS levels, 0.5 g of sample in reactor operated for 100 d was used for DNA extraction using a Fast DNA Spin Kit (QBIOgene, Carlsbad, CA, USA) following the manufacturer’s instructions. For each sample, two independent PCR reactions were conducted using the primer pairs of 27F (5 9-AGAGTTTGATCCTGGCTCAG-39) and 533R (5 9-TTACCGCGGCTGCTGGCAC-39) for bacteria and 344F (59-ACGGGGYGCAGCAGGCGCGA-39) and 915R (59- GTGCTCCCCCGCCAATTCCT-39) for archaea [4]. To achieve the sample multiplexing during pyrosequencing, barcodes were incorporated in the 59end of reverse primers 553R and 915R. All PCR reactions were carried out in a 25 uL mixture containing 0.5 uL of each primer at 30 mmolL 21 , 1.5 uL of template DNA (10 ng), and 22.5 uL of Platinum PCR SuperMix (Invitrogen, Shanghai, China). The PCR amplification program contained an initial denature at 95 uC for 5 min, followed by 25 cycles of denaturing at 95 uC for 30 s, annealing at 55uC for 30 s, and extension at 72uC for 30 s, followed by a final extension at 72 uC for 5 min. The thermal cycling for archaea was similar to that for bacteria except that the annealing temperature was 57 uC. After amplification, the PCR products were purified and quantified, and an equal amount of the PCR product was combined in a single tube to be run on a Roche GS FLX 454 Pyrosequencing machine at Majorbio Bio-Pharm Technology Co., Ltd., Shanghai, China.
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ENERGY GENERATION FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE AND THE CURRENT SCENARIO OF BIOGAS RECOVERY IN BRAZIL

ENERGY GENERATION FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE AND THE CURRENT SCENARIO OF BIOGAS RECOVERY IN BRAZIL

Studies on the generation potential of biogas produced in landfills from waste in different stages and degradation specific conditions are justified for several reasons. First, it is evident the importance in studying the particularities of biogas generation, once the comparison with studies carried out in other countries may not be appropriate, due to the great variation in biogas composition generated in different landfills, besides the particularities of the MSW gravimetric composition and the technologies employed in the operation of the landfills. It is known, for instance, that the MSW composition is directly related to economic conditions of the general population (Sharholy et al., 2007). Other factors mentioned by Alcântara (2007) include the climate, the seasons of the year, the population habits and the current environmental regulations. Second, the energy recovery of biogas in landfill becomes a viable option that meets the growing demand for renewable fuel and the international concern with sustainability. However, biogas has to be treated in order to remove impurities at trace level before use, which are related to toxicity, corrosion and bad smell. In addition, many gases produced in landfills contribute to the ozone layer depletion (e.g. chlorofluorocarbons) and the tropospheric ozone formation (e.g. volatile organic compounds – VOC) (Saral, Demir and Yildiz, 2009).
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Production of Functional Killer Protein in Batch Cultures Upon a Shift from Aerobic to Anaerobic Conditions

Production of Functional Killer Protein in Batch Cultures Upon a Shift from Aerobic to Anaerobic Conditions

It is well established that at high specific growth rates Sacch. cerevisiae exhibits a mixed metabolism, even under aerobic glucose-limited conditions. A limitation in respiratory capacity results to a phenomenon known as overflow metabolism or Crabtree effect and leads to the formation of byproducts (Vemuri et al., 2007). It has also been demonstrated that the ethanol overflow in Sacch. cerevisiae is related to a redox imbalance in the mitochondria (Hou et al., 2009; Hou et al., 2010). Deken (1966a) observed that under critical values, an exponentially growing yeast could proceed the degradation of carbohydrate through fermentation and respiration simultaneously. The regulation of the glycolytic enzymes cannot be extrapolated from one Sacch. cerevisiae strain to the other (Deken, 1966a; Hoek et al., 2000). With the exception of phosphofructokinase and pyruvate decarboxylase of an industrial strain, no clear correlation between the fermentative capacity and the glycolytic enzymes activities was observed (Hoek et al., 2000). Comparison between Crabtree-positive and Crabtree-negative strains revealed that the fermentative pathway was constitutive for the strain with strong Crabtree effect (Deken, 1966a). These observations showed that when the respiring cells of Sacch. cerevisiae switched to alcoholic fermentation pathway they could alter several other regulatory mechanisms not directly correlated with ethanol production. Brink et al. (2008) showed that shifts towards fermentative pathway provoke, as a matter of fact, great trasncriptional reprogramming with one third of all genes within the genome differentially transcribed. Similar behaviour has been observed with Escherichia coli. The transfer of these bacteria from aerobic to micro-anaerobic conditions
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BIOGAS PRODUCTION IN DAIRY CATTLE SYSTEMS, USING BATCH DIGESTERS WITH AND WITHOUT SOLIDS SEPARATION IN THE SUBSTRATES

BIOGAS PRODUCTION IN DAIRY CATTLE SYSTEMS, USING BATCH DIGESTERS WITH AND WITHOUT SOLIDS SEPARATION IN THE SUBSTRATES

In practice, biogas recovery is possible with the use of biodigesters and, according to BARBOSA & LANGER (2011); the biodigester represents an excellent alternative for the treatment of generated manure, since it is the producer responsibility, who must provide an appropriate destination to them.Batch type biodigesters are loaded at one time, fermenting for a suitable period, and the material is discharged after the end of the actual biogas production period (BONTURI & VAN DIJK, 2012).

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BATCH ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF FRESH LEACHATE FROM TRANSFER STATION

BATCH ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF FRESH LEACHATE FROM TRANSFER STATION

Raw leachate was collected from the (TBTS) owned by Kuala Lumpur City Hall (DBKL) located at Jinjang Utara, Kuala Lumpur (KL). The transfer station occupies an area of more than 16 ha. This transfer station receives approximately 1800 tons of domestic solid wastes per day from KL. The domestic solid wastes contain about 50 to 60% of organic matter. The leachate were collected in 20-L plastic bottles, transported to the laboratory and sieved using a 1.5 mm mesh to remove solid particles such as shell, fiber, and small stones and then stored at 4°C before it was used for anaerobic treatment process.
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Screening of process conditions for the production of biogas from diluted organic waste streams using microreactors

Screening of process conditions for the production of biogas from diluted organic waste streams using microreactors

shown in M.hungatei and M.maripaludis cultures (Table 4.2 and Table 4.3, respectively). Despite of that, HPLC results suggests that other compounds were consumed by methanogens and also new products were visible as new peaks in the chromatograms (chromatograms are shown in appendix 7.2.5-Example of chromatograms from serum bottle cultures). As an example, in Table 4.1 for M. mazei showed that the peak area of acetate (compound-1) slightly decreased (0.52 units), compound-3 also decreased in value while compounds-4 and 5 were produced. Similar results were obtained for M. hungatei and M. maripaludis (Table 4.2 and Table 4.3, respectively). Under same conditions, M. hungatei cultures showed that acetate (Compound-2) was not consumed (0.58 units) and additionally compound-1, 4 and 5 dropped to zero after fifty-seven days. At the end of the cultivation, two other new compounds were detected in the chromatogram (Compound-6 and 7). For M. maripaludis it can be seen that compounds-1 and 3 were consumed and yielded compounds-4, 5 and 6 and were only detected after fifty-seven days of cultivation suggesting that they were produced. However, as stated before, the area of the peak corresponding to acetate (compound-2) increased (0.45 units)
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