Top PDF Biological diversity of the Minnesota caddisflies (Insecta, Trichoptera)

Biological diversity of the Minnesota caddisflies (Insecta, Trichoptera)

Biological diversity of the Minnesota caddisflies (Insecta, Trichoptera)

he caddisly fauna of Minnesota contains at least 277 species within 21 families and 75 genera. hese species are based on examination of 312,884 specimens from 2,166 collections of 937 Minnesota aquatic habitats from 1890 to 2007. Included in these totals is my own quantitative sampling of 4 representative habitat types: small streams, medium rivers, large rivers, and lakes, from each of the 58 major Minnesota watersheds from June through September during 1999–2001. All species are illustrated herein, and their known Minnesota abundances, distributions, adult light periodicities, and habitat ainities presented. Four species: Lepidostoma griseum (Lepidostomatidae), Psilotreta indecisa (Odontoceridae), and Phryganea sayi and Ptilostomis angustipennis (Phryganeidae) are added to the known fauna. An additional 31 dubi- ous species records are removed for various reasons. Of the 5 determined caddisly regions of the state, species richness per watershed was highest in the Lake Superior and Northern Regions, intermediate in the Southeastern, and lowest in the Northwestern and Southern. Of the 48 individual collections that yielded >40 species, all but 1 were from the Northern Region. Many species, especially within the families Limnephilidae and Phryganeidae, have appeared to decrease in distribution and abundance during the past 75 years, particularly those once common within the Northwestern and Southern Regions. Many species now appear regionally extirpated, and a few have disappeared from the entire state. he loss of species in the Northwestern and Southern Regions, and probably elsewhere, is almost certainly related to the conversion of many habitats to large-scale agriculture during the mid-20th century.
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Diversity of CAlliphoriDAe (DipterA) in BrAzil’s tinguá BiologiCAl reserve

Diversity of CAlliphoriDAe (DipterA) in BrAzil’s tinguá BiologiCAl reserve

The flies of the Calliphoridae family are ecologically important by aiding in the decompo- sition of organic matter in nature. However, from the standpoint of public health, they are considered the most dangerous vehicular flies of pathogenic agents, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and helminths and by the action of larvae of some species that feed on living and dead organisms, causing myiasis (Zumpt, 1965; Furlanetto et al., 1984; Leclerq, 1990; Paraluppi et al., 1996; Guimarães & Papavero, 1999). The rapid colonization of exotic species of the Chrysomya family is due to their high capacity of dispersion, a significant diversification of feeding habits, and high competitiveness (Guimarães et al., 1983; Aguiar-Coelho & Milward-de-Azevedo, 1998; Marinho, 2000).
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An overview of the applicability of functional diversity in Biological Conservation

An overview of the applicability of functional diversity in Biological Conservation

BALMFORD, A., GREEN, R. and PHALAN, B., 2012. What conservationists need to know about farming. Proceedings Biological Sciences The Royal Society, vol. 279, no. 1739, pp. 2714-2724. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2012.0515. BELLO, F. and MUDRÁK, O., 2013. Plant traits as indicators: loss or gain of information? Applied Vegetation Science, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 353-354. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/avsc.12035. BENNETT, J.R., ELLIOTT, G., MELLISH, B., JOSEPH, L.N., TULLOCH, A.I.T., PROBERT, W.J.M., DI FONZO, M.M.I., MONKS, J.M., POSSINGHAM, H.P. and MALONEY, R., 2014. Balancing phylogenetic diversity and species numbers in conservation prioritization, using a case study of threatened species in New Zealand. Biological Conservation, vol. 174, pp. 47-54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2014.03.013. BISHOP, J.A. and MYERS, W.L., 2005. Associations between avian functional guild response and regional landscape properties for conservation planning. Ecological Indicators, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 33-48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2004.10.001. BLÜTHGEN, N., 2011. Interações plantas-animais e a importância funcional da biodiversidade. In: K. DEL CLARO and H.M. TOREZAN-SILINGARDI, eds. Ecologia das interações plantas- animais: uma abordagem ecológico-evolutiva. Rio de Janeiro: Technical Books Editora, pp. 261-272.
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Side-Effects of Pesticides Used in the Organic System of Production on Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758

Side-Effects of Pesticides Used in the Organic System of Production on Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758

The emergence of new production systems, such as organic, which aim for the sustainability, while preserving or increasing the biological diversity, and minimization of all the forms of contamination, makes it critical to search for alternative techniques of control, selective and not harmful, especially on the populations of beneficial insects, such as natural enemies and pollinators. Among the possible alternatives for the pests and diseases controlling in the organic agriculture, there are products such as oils, plant extracts and syrups. However, for most of these substances, there is no scientific evidence regarding the efficiency on the pests and sustainability to the system, especially if they are selective to beneficial insects. Knowledge of the effects that pesticides have on beneficial insects,
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Bras. Political Sci. Rev.  vol.9 número2

Bras. Political Sci. Rev. vol.9 número2

The term "biopiracy" loosely refers to "the use of intellectual property systems to legitimize the exclusive ownership and control over biological resources and biological products that have been used over centuries in non- industrialized cultures" (SHIVA, 2001. p. 49). Since the 1990s, a number of high profile cases of biopiracy have been the subject of intense controversies (BARDI et al., 2011; HAMILTON, 2006; LIANG, 2011; MGBEOJI, 2006; ROBINSON, 2010). In parallel, conflicts regarding the role of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in global governance quickly extended to the linkage between biopiracy and international patent law. Since the late 1990s, biopiracy has been under discussion in various international settings, from the WTO and its Agreement on Trade- Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the World Health Organization (WHO) (ANDERSEN, 2008; VIVAS-EUGUI, 2012; WILKE, 2013). In 2004, the CBD's Conference of the Parties (COP) mandated negotiations on an international regime for implementing the Convention's objective of the "fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources" (CBD Article 01). This led to the conclusion, in October 2010, of the Nagoya Protocol on Access to
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Diversidade e atividade da biota do solo na avaliação dos efeitos da aplicação de dejetos de suínos em áreas de pastagem Danni Maisa da SilvaI Rodrigo Josemar Seminoti Jacques

Diversidade e atividade da biota do solo na avaliação dos efeitos da aplicação de dejetos de suínos em áreas de pastagem Danni Maisa da SilvaI Rodrigo Josemar Seminoti Jacques

To determine the diversity of hemiedaphic and euedaphic organisms, the TSBF method (Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility; ANDERSON & INGRAN, 1993) was used. Monoliths of 25 × 25 × 25cm were collected on the same days as the PROVID installations in the field. After collection, the organisms were classified using a stereomicroscope in the laboratory. To evaluate the activity of the epiedaphic fauna, three litter bags (WIEDER & LANG, 1982) were used per repetition. These were made of nylon, with dimensions of 30 × 20cm and a mesh of 10 × 8mm to allow the entry of soil micro, meso, and macrofauna (PODGAISKI & RODRIGUES, 2010). A green mass of ryegrass leaves equal to 10g of dry mass was packaged in each litter bag. The litter bags remained on the soil for 21 days. They were then collected and dried in an oven at 60°C until reaching a constant weight in order to determine the remaining mass by the difference between the initial and final plant mass. To determine biological activity, a bait lamina test (KRATZ, 1998) was used. It remained in the soil for 40 days (ANDRÉ et al., 2009).
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Molecular typing and biological characteristics of

Molecular typing and biological characteristics of

The present study had as objective to evaluate the genotypic diversity and biological characteris- tics, such as hemolysin, protease, elastase of 56 clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from 13 cystic fi brosis (CF) patients attending at the School Hospital of Campinas State University (UNICAMP), Brazil. Genotypic diversity has been determined by Ribotyping (RT) and the pattern of the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR) of each strain. The produc- tion of elastase was signifi cantly different only among mucoid and nonmucoid isolates. Joint results obtained by (RT) and ERIC-PCR methods were able to discriminate all strains isolated from both the same and different patients. Additionally, we observed four strain clusters with low diversity. The most infective strains were located in just two clusters. These results suggest that either there is a strong selection towards a specifi c genotype or that specifi c isolates could be responsible for the ini- tial and subsequent colonization processes. More studies are necessary to know if these conclusions can be generalized for the general CF population.
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Spatial Variability of Soil Fauna Under Different Land Use and Managements

Spatial Variability of Soil Fauna Under Different Land Use and Managements

ABSTRACT: Geostatistics allows the evaluation of the distribution pattern of data with high spatial variability in agricultural systems. This study aimed to evaluate the spatial variability of biological diversity indices of soil fauna under different land (agriculture and forest). Samples were collected in seven areas (millet, soybean, corn, eucalyptus, pasture crops, and preserved and disturbed Cerrado), in Maranhão state, Brazil. The soil fauna was caught trapped in pitfall traps, installed 3 m away from each other. In each area, 130 traps were maintained for seven days. After this period, they were removed and their content transferred to bottles and taken to the laboratory, where the insects were screened and identified at the level of orders and families. Eight indices were calculated, namely: individuals trap -1 day -1 , Jackknife richness estimator, the Simpson,
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Barcoding life to conserve biological diversity: beyond the taxonomic imperative.

Barcoding life to conserve biological diversity: beyond the taxonomic imperative.

Perhaps because iBOL and barcoding are more driven by natural scientists, most barcoders have thus far taken a rather naive stance on issues of access and benefit sharing (ABS) that belong more to the spheres of policy and law. Where difficulties have been encoun- tered in obtaining specimens from cer- tain countries with strict biodiversity export rules (e.g., Brazil and India), barcode projects have been delayed or limited to small-scale efforts. However, iBOL recognizes that such a strategy is not sustainable as the endeavor continues to grow. For this reason, iBOL together with CBOL asked experts at a recent conference (http://www.dnabarcodes2009. org/) to draft position papers about access and benefit sharing as they relate to the iBOL project. Summaries of three key perspectives, relating barcoding to the Convention on Biological Diversity, eco- nomics, and the sociological implications in one region are provided in Boxes 1–3, respectively. They serve to illustrate the complexity and contention surrounding some of the major issues involved. The three presentations from the Third Interna- tional Barcode of Life Conference in Mexico City, November 2009, are freely available as video through the iBOL site at http:// vimeo.com/user2807308.
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Mountain biodiversity in Brazil

Mountain biodiversity in Brazil

In order to include mountain ecosystems in the Brazilian agenda of conservation of biological diversity and to promote the necessary actions for preserving mountain regions, I have suggested ten actions in a report to the Secretary to Forestry and Biodiversity of the Brazilian Ministry for Environment – SBF/MMA (Martinelli 2003): (1) to establish a National Programme for Mountain Research and Conservation, in a partnership between the Brazilian Ministry for Environment and Ministry for Science and Technology (see table 3 for a list of ongoing international programmes); (2) to promote the articulation of multidisciplinary work groups to integrate scientific knowledge available on Brazilian mountains, organizing a database with open access; (3) to promote biological inventories in unknown or under- explored areas (see table 2); (4) to explicitly include mountain ecosystems in the national policy for biodiversity; (5) to create a research and conservation fund for mountain biodiversity, with emphasis in biological inventories; (6) to prepare an action plan for mountain conservation and sustainable development; (7) to set as a priority the restoration of degraded buffer areas, with particular emphasis in the Atlantic forest biome; (8) to foster an integrated management plant to reconcile integrity of hydrographic basins, urban
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Selection of bee species for environmental risk assessment of GM cotton in the Brazilian Cerrado

Selection of bee species for environmental risk assessment of GM cotton in the Brazilian Cerrado

Abstract – The objective of this work was to list potential candidate bee species for environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) cotton and to identify the most suited bee species for this task, according to their abundance and geographical distribution. Field inventories of bee on cotton flowers were performed in the states of Bahia and Mato Grosso, and in Distrito Federal, Brazil. During a 344 hour sampling, 3,470 bees from 74 species were recovered, at eight sites. Apis mellifera dominated the bee assemblages at all sites. Sampling at two sites that received no insecticide application was sufficient to identify the three most common and geographically widespread wild species: Paratrigona lineata , Melissoptila cnecomola, and Trigona spinipes, which could be useful indicators of pollination services in the ERA. Indirect ordination of common wild species revealed that insecticides reduced the number of native bee species and that interannual variation in bee assemblages may be low. Accumulation curves of rare bee species did not saturate, as expected in tropical and megadiverse regions. Species‑based approaches are limited to analyze negative impacts of GM cotton on pollinator biological diversity. The accumulation rate of rare bee species, however, may be useful for evaluating possible negative effects of GM cotton on bee diversity.
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生物遺傳資源之取得與利益分享之國際法發展趨勢 The International Legal Developments on the Access and Benefit-Sharing of Biological Genetic Resources

生物遺傳資源之取得與利益分享之國際法發展趨勢 The International Legal Developments on the Access and Benefit-Sharing of Biological Genetic Resources

CBD art. 1. [Objectives] states: “The objectives of this Convention, to be pursued in accordance with its relevant provisions, are the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources, including by appropriate access to genetic resources and by appropriate transfer of relevant technologies, taking into account all rights over those resources and to technologies, and by appropriate funding”.
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Population fluctuations of calliphorid species (Diptera, Calliphoridae) in the Biological Reserve of Tinguá, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Population fluctuations of calliphorid species (Diptera, Calliphoridae) in the Biological Reserve of Tinguá, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

ABSTRACT. The purpose of this work was to determine the diversity and population fluctuations of calliphorid flies in the Biological Reserve of Tinguá (ReBio-Tinguá), Nova Iguaçu, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and to correlate their occurrence with the environmental variables of temperature, rainfall and relative air humidity. Specimens of Diptera were collected monthly between June 2002 and January 2005 using four traps placed at four points along a trail and exposed for 48 hours. The traps were baited with sardines and the trapped insects were stored in 70% alcohol. It was collected 8,528 calliphorids, thirteen species were identified among the blowflies including Laneela nigripes Guimarães 1977, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794), C. albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819), C. putoria (Wiedemann, 1830), Chloroprocta idioidea (Robineau-Devoidy, 1830), Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775), Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani, 1850), H. segmentaria (Fabricius, 1805), Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann,1819), L. cuprina (Wiedemann, 1830), Paralucilia pseudolyrcea (Mello, 1969), Mesembrinella sp. and Eumesembrinella pauciseta (Aldrich, 1922). No significant correlation was found between the abundance of blowflies and the temperature and relative air humidity. Only C. megacephala and C. albiceps showed a positive and significant correlation with rainfall. An analysis of grouping by month (UPGMA) revealed no seasonal difference in the composition of the community, indicating that the community of calliphorid flies is probably more influenced by the ecological niches occupied by each species than by the seasons of the year.
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The modification process of AlSi21CuNi silumin and its effect on change of mechanical properties of the alloy

The modification process of AlSi21CuNi silumin and its effect on change of mechanical properties of the alloy

Considering mechanism of modification of these precipitations one should take into account that effect of modification of hypereutectic silumins depends on earlier transition to liquid phase of sparingly soluble crystals of primary silicon [1-3]. Tests performed by authors of the studies [4-10] enable utilization of modification treatments together with making use of a various micro additives in order to improve properties of hypereutectoid alloys.

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Leaf endophytic fungi of chili (Capsicum annuum) and their role in the protection against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae)

Leaf endophytic fungi of chili (Capsicum annuum) and their role in the protection against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae)

Based on the sample number used in the research (40 plants from the field of Bogor), the species diversity of fungal endophyte was low. Only five species found i.e. Aspergillus flavus, Nigrospora sp., Coniothyrium sp. and sterile hypha 1 (SH1), and sterile hypha 2 (SH2) (Table 1). SH1 and SH2 did not produce conidia to allow further species identification morphologically. Further molecular identification based on 18 S rDNA resulted that SH1 similar (99%) to Accession FJ524323 of GeneBank refer to Unculture endophytic fungus clone R3-63, obtained from wild rice root in China (Yuan et al. 2010) (Table 2). SH2 was similar to Accession No FJ612897 of GeneBank, Fungal sp ARIZ B031, endophytic fungus of tree Cecropia insignis (U’Ren et al. 2009). The rank of species from the most abundant to the least was Nigrospora, SH2, SH1, Coniothyrium sp. and A. flavus respectively. Low species diversity of chili plants may be related to high rate of fungicide frequency application in this area (once per week). Gaitan et al. (2005) noted that fungicide application reduced the diversity of endophytic leaf fungi of a tropical tree Guarea guidonia L.
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	Field Cancerisation of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract: Screening for Second Primary Cancers of the Oesophagus in Cancer Survivors

Field Cancerisation of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract: Screening for Second Primary Cancers of the Oesophagus in Cancer Survivors

Risk of developing a second malignancy should be anticipated after curative treatment of OSCC. Common risk factors including lifestyle and genetic alterations may explain both the pattern and the increased incidence of second primary cancers in OSCC survivors. Because of the high mortality of OEC itself, not much attention was previously paid to the development of SPM. Due to promising results of a recent prospective study of the National Lung Screening Trial research team, today LC screening has become the focus of increasing interest in high- risk groups. 26
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Contribution To The Study Of Reproduction Parameters Of The European Conger Eel Conger Conger Linnaeus 1758 From The Western Algerian Coasts Oran Bay Algeria

Contribution To The Study Of Reproduction Parameters Of The European Conger Eel Conger Conger Linnaeus 1758 From The Western Algerian Coasts Oran Bay Algeria

Abstract: The demographic structure of the population of the European conger eel (Conger conger; Linnaeus, 1758) from the Western coast of Algeria is made up of young individuals who enlarge more quickly than they grow. The estimated parameters of growth using the equation of Von Bertalanffy are: For females: L∞ = 134 mm ; K= 0,13 ; to = -0,69. For males: L∞ = 108 mm ; K= 0,23 ; to = -0,67 The specimens with most advanced stage of maturation appeared from February to April 2012 for both, female and male. The size at the first sexual maturity was 78 mm in males and 88 mm in females. The sex-ratio was in favor of the females lasting almost all the year excepting during September, December (2011), and January 2012 for males.
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Selection of the temperature of casting the bronzes to plaster moulds

Selection of the temperature of casting the bronzes to plaster moulds

dependence from the temperature of casting the bronze to the mould on Figure 6. From the introduced cross - section of casts from the probe TDAg, it results that it together with considerably grows up the depth of the contraction cavity with the growth of the temperature of casting, and what joins with this executed along its axis the volumetric contraction grows up, especially bronze B555 (Fig. 5a and 6). The bronze B10 is characterizes considerably smaller volumetric contraction (Fig. 5b and 6), however overheated 1180 °C above and cast to the hot plaster mould, in the conditions of the atmospheric pressure, it undergoes strong gassing with what considerable decrease of the depth of the contraction cavity joins (Fig. 5b 1200 ° C and Fig . 6). Zinc as high active metal in the relation of oxygen influences the lower- ing of the content of gases dissolved in the bronze B555. Consid- erably larger content Zn in the chemical composition of the bronze B555 (approx. 5%), in the comparison with the bronze B10 (to 0.5 %), it favours creation on the surface of the solidifica- tion bronze of the layer of oxides Zn and Cu, in the composition natural slags about the smaller mass density from the liquid bronze, making difficult chemical adsorption and dissolving the hydrogen and oxygen in the liquid bronze. Bronze B10 including first of all the admixture approx. 10% Sn, element of little active in the relation to oxygen, it absorbs from surroundings highly both the hydrogen as and the oxygen, what it brings in the conse- quence, together with the growth of the temperature of casting, to gassing the bronze.
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The influence of the arc plasma treatment on the structure and microhardness C120U carbon tool steel

The influence of the arc plasma treatment on the structure and microhardness C120U carbon tool steel

Carbon steel C120U grade is largely used on the tools for cutting, for dies and knives, for stamping and drawing tools, hobs, thread rolling tools and in many other applications due to her typical properties - high hardness, good toughness and compressive strength. The surface of the steel can be modified by using surface engineering's techniques. Remelting of the surface layer by the source of concentrated energy is promising technique to improve properties of the materials [1-6]. Laser or electron beam use to melting of the surface of tool steels aims to obtain a modified layer with increased microhardness and abrasion resistance [7,8]. The surface remelted layer has usually a finer and more homogenous structure than its original base material. The remelting with the arc plasma (TIG- tungsten inert gas or GTAW - gas tungsten arc welding) used as an economical and easily
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Global diversity of aloricate Oligotrichea (Protista, Ciliophora, Spirotricha) in marine and brackish sea water.

Global diversity of aloricate Oligotrichea (Protista, Ciliophora, Spirotricha) in marine and brackish sea water.

Abstract: Oligotrichids and choreotrichids are ciliate taxa contributing to the multi-step microbial food web and episodically dominating the marine microzooplankton. The global diversity and distribution of aloricate Oligo- trichea are unknown. Here, the geographic ranges of the 141 accepted species and their synonyms in marine and brackish sea water are analyzed, using hundreds of taxonomical and ecological studies; the quality of the records is simultaneously evaluated. The aloricate Oligo- trichea match the moderate endemicity model, i.e., the majority (94) of morphospecies has a wide, occasionally cosmopolitan distribution, while 47 morphospecies show biogeographic patterns: they are restricted to single geographic regions and probably include 12 endemic morphospecies. These endemics are found in the Antarctic, North Pacific, and Black Sea, whereas the ‘‘flagship’’ species Strombidinopsis cercionis is confined to the Caribbean Sea. Concerning genera, again several geographic patterns are recognizable. The species rich- ness is distinctly lower in the southern hemisphere than in the northern, ranging from nine morphospecies in the South Pacific to 95 in the North Atlantic; however, this pattern is probably caused by undersampling. Since the loss of species might affect higher trophical levels substantially, the aloricate Oligotrichea should not any longer be ignored in conservation issues. The ecophysi- ological diversity is considerably larger than the morpho- logical, and even tops the richness of SSrRNA and ITS haplotypes, indicating that probably more than 83–89% of the diversity in aloricate Oligotrichea are unknown. The huge challenge to discover all these species can only be managed by combining the expertises of morphological taxonomists, molecular biologists, ecologists, and physi- ologists.
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